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Keep up with the latest in Photography. This essay is the third of paper International School-Salzburg afour parts seriestitled as follows: 1- Finding Inspiration. 2 – Exercising your Creativity. 3 – Developing your Vision. 4 – Achieving your Personal Style. Together these four essays represent, first, an exploration of the too-rarely discussed subject of inspiration and creativity, and second a road map towards the development of a vision and the achievement of Mountains International Hotel a personal style unique to you. Each essay features a set of Skill Enhancement Exercises that allow you to practice and develop your skills on your own. Vision is the art of seeing what is invisible to others.

Inspiration lights the spark of research paper essay American creativity. Together, if well integrated, inspiration and contrast College creativity result in a personal vision for your work. Your vision, when expressed successfully, results in the achievement of your personal style. This is a four-part process. Research Essay? In the previous essays we looked at the first two parts. Write Essays For Scholarships Holland Center? It is now time to look at the third part: Vision . Vision is a subject that is rarely discussed in photography. Yet, as we are going to see, it is a very important subject because without vision an artist will create commonplace photographs.

They may be the most technically perfect photographs one can take, but they will still be commonplace photographs. Paper Essay School-Salzburg? With vision your photographs go beyond being just commonplace images. They become the conveyors of ideas. How this process takes place and what is involved when it happens is the subject of this essay. It is a terrible thing to see and have no vision. Vision is the art of research argument School seeing the invisible. In this respect, vision is not just seeing, it is not just “sight.” Instead, vision is insight . It is the ability to see something that only you can see, something that others do not see because this something does not have a physical reality. It is something you see in paper American School-Salzburg your mind’s eye, something that exists in write International Center your imagination, something that is American International within yourself.

A vision is something abstract: an idea or a concept. Vision is Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School made real through creative work. In photography it is made real through the creation of photographs that express your vision. Research Essay? The goal of these photographs is to share your ideas, your concepts, in short your vision, with your audience. A vision can come about in any field of human endeavor.

In regards to photography, vision is made real through the photographs that you create. How clear your vision is, and how closely your photographs follow this vision, defines how successful you will be in conveying your vision to others. Vision is inspiration made reality. Vision is using photography to express something otherwise invisible. Vision is making poetry with photographs.

It is going beyond the technical knowledge of the medium and reaching the artistic level. It is essay going beyond mastery of the medium and reaching improvisation and paper International School-Salzburg self-expression. Finding and expressing your vision can be a challenging process. Because your vision is something that is invisible to others, it is a process that you have to go through essentially by yourself. Vision demands an and contrast essay introduction Adelphi University unwavering commitment to research essay International, your art. It also demands that you can back up this commitment with work because only research School, through work will you be able to share your vision with others and thereby prove that you are truly committed to research essay International, this vision. Vision is message. It is write essays for scholarships Holland Center not just creating an image but creating a story through this image. This message can be about sharing an emotion, a feeling, a belief or a particular way of research paper essay American School-Salzburg looking at the world.

It is not just about sharing an online University image with your audience. It is essay American also about introduction Adelphi sharing the meaning of this image with your audience. This image means something to you. This image contains not just objects, people and features. It also contains ideas that represent your vision. Without vision an image is just an image. With vision an image becomes the research paper American International vehicle that carries your ideas to your audience. New images surround us everywhere.

They are invisible only because of sterile routine convention and fear. Creating a photograph faithful to your vision is similar to creating a product based on an idea, on an image in your mind. This product can be anything: software, mechanical devices, services, etc. This product will represent the how to write a compare introduction Adelphi University outcome of your vision as long as it started as an idea that you turned into research American School-Salzburg a physical reality. Ideas cannot be shared as ideas. They have to be translated into something else first. This “something” is the vehicle used to deliver your idea your vision– to how to Adelphi University, your audience. The simplest way of doing so is to put your idea into words in order to explain to others, either orally or in writing, what this idea consists of. This is what a description, an essay, a short story, a novel or any other piece of writing be it fiction or non-fictionis.

A photograph can also be used as the vehicle for an idea if the photograph is used to describe this idea. In the same way, anything created on the basis of an idea that was turned into a physical reality qualifies as being a vision made reality. Research International School-Salzburg? If this process does not take place your vision will remain an coursework Mountains International abstract concept, a dream that exists only in research paper International our head. So what do you need to do this? For one, you must have a vision, an a good compare essay idea. This is paper essay American something that only argument SDA Bocconi of Management, you can do. For some, this comes naturally.

For others, it is research paper International something that requires work and, sometimes, soul-searching if you will. I cannot give you this idea. No one can. It is something that you have to come up with. What I can do is help you find the way to how to a compare introduction University, this vision then help you turn your vision into essay reality. This is what we are going to explore in the next sections. White House Storm. I consider the University light quality in this photograph to essay American, be part of how to write a compare and contrast introduction Adelphi my personal vision. I also consider this light quality to research paper essay American School-Salzburg, have helped define my personal style.

I have seen this type of how to write a compare and contrast essay introduction University light, and have been able to International School-Salzburg, photograph it, on argument essay of Management, three separate occasions. The image above represents the third of research essay American International School-Salzburg these three occasions. This is a very uncommon type of lighting because it only occurs when a storm is clearing in the late afternoon. There has to be clouds in essays for scholarships Holland the sky, both in the Eastern and Western direction, as well as openings in the clouds in research paper essay American School-Salzburg the West so that the for scholarships Holland International Study Center sun can shine through. The only thing an paper International School-Salzburg artist has to remember is to never lose faith in his vision. Vision is the stage at which thinking about essay your work is just as important as creating your work. In other words, you need to spend time reflecting about your photographs. Just creating and research paper essay School-Salzburg printing new photographs will not allow you to argument essay SDA Bocconi of Management, express your vision. Research Paper Essay? Reflection has to take place. Thinking has to take place.

A large part of the process of developing your vision takes place without a camera in argument essay SDA Bocconi of Management hand. It doesn’t even have to happen where you take your photographs. It can happen wherever you have time to American International, think, in for scholarships Holland Center a place that is quiet and conducive to reflection and where you are not distracted by anything. In a way you have to engage in critical thinking about paper your work. You have to think about what you have done so far and about what you want to do next.

You also need to think about what inspired you to start creating photographs in the first place. Critical thinking is also about thinking differently. It is about thinking of solutions and possibilities that have not been thought of previously. Write Hotel? In many ways, being creative is research essay American School-Salzburg synonymous with thinking differently. To think differently you have to think differently from “something.” You can’t think in the abstract, without some point of reference, some point de departure, some school of thought to guide you, or without affiliating yourself, to a greater or lesser extent, with a specific art movement. Creating a vision cannot be done in a vacuum.

To develop your vision you must take into consideration both what you want to do and what has already been done by how to Northfield, other artists. Something is different only if it has not been done before, or if it has not been done the American way you are doing it. A work of art is original because it is different from the works of art that preceded it. This means that you have to know where you are coming from, what is your point of how to write essay Mount Hermon reference, what are your roots, who are your colleagues, and who is working in the same style as you. In short, you need to know where you fit in. This is why the next section – Going Back– is important in that regard. If you are not sure about how thinking differently and research paper American School-Salzburg who you are ties together, I recommend paying close attention to this section. I also recommend completing the skill enhancement exercises (provided at the end of this essay) that targets this crucial aspect of developing a vision for your work. I don’t photograph the world as it is. I photograph the world as I would like it to be. A number of things can help you go through this challenging endeavor.

The first one is to remember your original source, or sources, of critical thinking online inspiration. I cover this subject in paper American the first essay of this 4 part series: Finding Inspiration . If you haven’t read it already, I suggest that you take the time to read (or re-read) this essay now, and that you complete the Skill Enhancements Exercises listed at the end of argument of Management this first essay. Another way that can help you find your vision is to refer back to the reasons why you started photography in research essay American International School-Salzburg the first place. Write International Study Center? Most likely, you started photography because you wanted to represent the world around you better than others had done before you, or because you wanted to express a personal way of research International seeing. Maybe you became interested in photography because you wanted to Thompson Rivers, capture for posterity the fleeting events in your life. Or maybe you became involved in essay American School-Salzburg photography because you wanted to document the a compare street life in a big city, or because you wanted to research paper American International School-Salzburg, share with others the research argument SDA Bocconi School beauty of paper essay International School-Salzburg a sunset, or the stunning quality of a grand landscape. Maybe you started photography because you love animals and you wanted to share this passion with others through your images. Maybe you started photography because you love spending hours creating a still life and lighting it and then create the finest photographs of this still life. Maybe you started photography because you wanted to create the finest portraits possible. Maybe you started photography because you love the purity of color, or the endless tones of Blue Mountains Hotel Management School black and white prints. Maybe you became involved in photography because you constantly marvel at the endless possibilities offered by toning and other alternate approaches and because you want to share your talent for creating images that use these tones better than you have seen done by others.

If you are like most, at first your equipment was minimal, most likely inexpensive, and maybe given to essay, you by Mountains International, parents, friends or relatives. The purchase and ownership of expensive camera equipment came later (if it did). This ownership may have brought with it a passion for fine cameras, lenses, computers, printers and research paper essay School-Salzburg other equipment associated with photography. Over time this passion for the equipment may have overshadowed your initial reasons for choosing to Thompson Rivers, do photography in research essay American School-Salzburg the first place. The passion you had for representing the world around you may have slowly given way to a passion for the tools rather than for the outcome that these tools can produce. In turn, your inspiration may have shifted from being inspired by the subject to being inspired by the camera. Transferring passion from subject to equipment is how to compare contrast essay Epsom College not the only reason why we move away from essay International School-Salzburg our vision. Critical Thinking Thompson Rivers University? There are many other events that can cause this to research essay, happen. Life has a way of taking us away from what we originally intended to do and to make us do things because we have to rather than because we want to.

If this sounds familiar you are not alone. This is a common situation that many photographers face. The way out of it is to first accept it for a good Epsom College, what it is. Don’t refute the facts; just accept them. Then, this being out of the way, go back in time in your mind and remind yourself of the reason why you started photography in the first place, way back when. You may be able to do so simply by thinking about it and by remembering events that took place a long time ago. You may also have to research essay American International School-Salzburg, go back through your archives so to speak, or make a trip to the place where you first photographs are stored (if you kept them) to take a look at the photographs you created when you just started.

In those photographs, embedded in write a compare and contrast essay Adelphi the paper and the emulsion so to speak, are the sources of your original inspiration and the results of your original creative urge. Inside them is an inspiration coming solely from your subject and from your emotional response to this subject. Back then you probably did not think you would ever own expensive gear. Back then the equipment was simply a means to American International School-Salzburg, an end. This was as it should be. Cameras are tools and tools are means to an end. Write Holland International Study Center? They are not jewelry or collectables. They are just tools. Mind you, they can be jewelry and paper International collectable, but not in coursework Blue Hotel the context that concerns us here which is to achieve a personal style. In our context they are just tools.

They are a means to research essay School-Salzburg, an end, and this end is to place achieve a personal style. Back then you did not have the responsibilities that you have today. Your artistic goals were not overshadowed by the concerns that came later on and that may still be there today. If you were like most you had more time than money, a trend that tends to reverse itself as life goes on. Clearing Spring Storm, Canyon de Chelly. This is the first photograph I created using the light quality I described in how to and contrast introduction University my previous example. I created this image shortly after moving to Chinle, Canyon de Chelly, Navajoland, in paper essay American School-Salzburg 1997.

Tsegi overlook, where the photograph was taken, was only 10 minutes from write compare contrast essay College my house. I was on my way to pick up my wife, Natalie, after work when I noticed the dramatic clouds. I realized that if the paper School-Salzburg sun came out a truly incredible lighting effect would take place. I immediately decided to drive the short distance to the rim of Canyon de Chelly to wait and see if the sun was going to appear. I waited perhaps half an hour until the sun broke through the clouds. What I witnessed then remains one of the most incredible scenes I have ever seen. “Clearing Spring Storm over Canyon De Chelly” is the write a good Mount Hermon result and this image explains what I saw better than any text I can write. I took a number of photographs and research essay International the best one was the essays for scholarships Study second or third one. Before that there was not out enough sunlight. Afterwards there was too much sunlight. The best photograph was just in between, when light and shadow areas were evenly balanced, creating tension and beauty at the same time and making me deeply aware of the utterly temporary nature of natural light at research School-Salzburg transitional times when storms are moving away.

What is most interesting when I look at this photograph today and reflect upon it, is that this light quality came to define my vision and how to Adelphi played a key role in shaping my personal style. Paper Essay International School-Salzburg? However, I did not see things that way back then. When I created this image the write coursework Blue International most important aspect of it for me was the panoramic composition. Certainly, the light was important and I was aware that the light made the image. However, it was the panoramic format that I thought was going to define my style. So much so that I purchased a Fuji 617 camera following the creation of this image and research American proceeded to create a series of panoramic images with it. As things turned out, I tired of the panoramic format relatively quickly, perhaps within two or three years of using the Fuji 617, and eventually stopped using it. However, to this day I continue to a compare essay University, seek the light quality in research paper essay American the image above, regardless of which camera I use. What was happening then was a misconception on my part regarding what my personal style consists of. I thought my style was coming from the format of my images while it was essentially coming from the light quality in my images. The former format- is a superficial aspect of my vision while the later light- is a fundamental aspect, one that will not go away because it is how to write a good not based on temporary preferences.

Rather, it is paper American based in a deep-rooted appreciation of light that goes back to Rivers, the day I started photography. A photographer’s work is given shape and style by his personal vision. It is not simply technique, but the way he looks at life and the world around him. Developing a Vision for your work is showing to others, through your photographs, what you see in your mind’s eye. Research American? It is therefore about you. It is about how you see the world, about what you see that others do not see, and about your emotional response to the scenes that you photograph. Write Coursework Blue Mountains Management School? In many ways it is about your personality. In the process of developing this vision you must therefore be yourself and demonstrate your personality. Art, eventually, when everything else has been said and research paper essay International School-Salzburg done, is write Mountains International Hotel Management School about you. Research Paper Essay American? As an artist, you need to demonstrate your personality to your audience through your work.

The audience that is seeking original art wants something that escapes the commonplace. They want something that they do not find in write for scholarships Holland Center the pre-packaged, mass-produced and impersonal artwork found in volume retail stores and other mass-appeal locations. This audience is looking for art that is original, hand-made and that demonstrates the personality of the artist who created it. This audience expects artists to be original and to express themselves through their artwork. In other words, this audience expects the research paper American International School-Salzburg artwork to be the expression of the artist’s personality. If this is not the case, if the artwork is impersonal, the artist is perceived as being a lesser artist. Argument SDA Bocconi? An artist “ sans ” personality in a way. An artist who is far less interesting than an artist “ avec ” personality. In other words, something is research International School-Salzburg missing and research argument essay School this missing something is fundamental to research essay American School-Salzburg, art.

Worse, if this is missing i.e. the critical Thompson Rivers personality of the essay American School-Salzburg artist demonstrated through his art- it will not be missing just from the artwork. It will also be missing from the way this artist talks about how to write a good history essay Mount Hermon his art. It will be missing from the way this artist relates to others and to the world at large. In short, it will be missing from everything that this artists does, regardless of paper American School-Salzburg how much contact this artist actually has with the public. Some readers may find the above somewhat of an exaggeration. After all, some readers may believe that doing beautiful or interesting work is enough and a good history Northfield that this work does not have to be about them and that it does not have to demonstrate their personality. Research Essay American School-Salzburg? This is a true statement, provided that your goal is not to express your vision, and how to compare contrast Epsom eventually your personal style, in your work.

How can you express your vision and demonstrate your personal style unless you bring your personality into your work? As we saw, vision is by nature personal and personal style is, not to be redundant, personal There is no way around it, unless you decide that expressing your vision and achieving a personal style is not something you want to research essay International, do. If it is something you want to do then expressing your personality in your work is how to a good essay Epsom College going to be necessary. Paper Essay School-Salzburg? You don’t have to express all the aspects of your personality, in fact few artists do so, but you are going to have to express some aspects of your personality. The good thing is how to history essay Northfield that you get to pick which aspects you want to show in your work, to some extent. To create one’s world in any of the arts takes courage. In a way, and to research essay International School-Salzburg, continue the discussion started in Section 6, your audience seeks to admire and acquire objects that have a soul. Rationally speaking, objects, including works of art, do not have a soul.

They are not alive; they do not breathe and write coursework Blue Mountains International Hotel School are not made of living cells. They do not think, and thus, from research a Cartesian perspective, they are not able to a good history Northfield Mount, invent themselves. Research International? Irrationally speaking, however, works of art can be perceived as having a soul. This soul, if present, is imbued into the work of art by the transfer of the artists’ personality and essays Holland International passion into research his artwork. This soul is brought about by the care and the craftsmanship used to create the work.

This soul is present in a good history essay Northfield Mount the artwork because a part of the artist’s soul was transferred into research paper essay International the work during its creation. This soul is the personality of the a compare and contrast University artist. It is the demonstration of personal choices and the decision to implement a personal idea rather than other people’s ideas. In a way, what surprises us and even shocks us when we encounter a work of art for the first time, is the implementation of the research School-Salzburg artist’s vision through the demonstration of this artist’s style, ideas and personality. What shocks us is that the choices made by a specific artist are radically different from the choices we saw other people make in regards to the same subject. What shocks us is the unabashed display of research essay SDA Bocconi of Management this artist’s personality through his or her work. What shocks us is to see something depicted in a way that we have never seen before, a way that we know we will only see in this artist’s work, unless of paper American International School-Salzburg course someone copies it, but then it would be nothing more than a copy and not an original work of art. The outcome of vision implemented in a work of art is a new and different way of looking at the world. It is the creation of a new reality, of a good compare contrast essay College a new world. It is in this world that the artist invites his audience.

It is in the reality created by the artist that the audience is essay International School-Salzburg asked to step in. Once inside, the audience is shown the specifics of write Holland International Center this world, the details if you will. The experience, if successful, is complete and will leave the audience speechless and asking for more while seeking to retract in a more familiar environment only to find that, once there, something is lacking. Only to find that, once the door offered by the artist has been pushed wide open, one wants to essay International School-Salzburg, experience more and coursework Blue International Management more of the research School-Salzburg world revealed behind this door. Only to find that this world, while not “reality,” is compare contrast College a world one wants to research paper essay American International, live in.

If this indeed occurs, if this door is pushed then left open by the audience for future or not so future visits, then the artist has succeeded not only in creating a world, but also in creating a world that his audience is enthralled with. Passion has flowed from the artist towards his audience. Excitement has been shared, and now the desire to experience this world is critical online Rivers University shared by both the artist and his audience. In a way, one could say that the trademark of paper essay International cutting-edge art is to write compare contrast essay, defy convention. This is somewhat implied when one’s stated goal is the creation of essay International a new reality, of a new way of representing, creating or thinking about specific things. By definition, such an approach demands that one is familiar with the conventional ways of representing, creating, or thinking about these things and that one decides to depart from these conventions. By doing so, the artist becomes unconventional. Essays For Scholarships Center? The artist breaks conventions to achieve the embodiment of his vision. In doing so a number of people are going to be unhappy with the result. American? Those are the people who like convention, who find it pleasing, satisfying and to coursework Mountains International Hotel School, their taste.

Those are the research essay International School-Salzburg people that see nothing wrong with convention and who find alternate realities more problematic than advantageous. On the other hand, a number of people are going to find the unconventional approach a welcome respite from the essay of Management conventional. Those are the people who find the conventional unsatisfying, boring to some extent, commonplace maybe, and definitely not satisfying to them and research paper essay American International School-Salzburg not fulfilling of their needs. These people seek something else. They seek a different view of the world, a different approach, a different definition of the products, artwork and ways of thinking that they are interested in. In other words, they are not only ready for an unconventional approach: they are looking for it. How To Write A Compare Adelphi? These people are your audience.

Storm along the Green River. This is the third of three instances where I captured this light quality in a photograph. I was going to American International, say in how to contrast a successful photograph when I realized that I had not seen this light quality in any other instance. As it turned out, I created a successful image in research paper essay International all three instances. Of the three this may be my least favorite. This image has always been a challene to process and print, and this because of the enormous range of contrast between shadows and highlights. Just like Clearing Spring Storm it was created with a 35mm camera but this time on transparency material rather than print film, a decision that further increased the contrast present in the scene. As things went, the storm moved in and out quickly and I did not think about bracketing the photograph.

In fact, I did not take many photographs of this scene at research essay School all maybe a total of 2 or 3 at most- because this was towards the end of our river trip and I was running out of film. Paper Essay School-Salzburg? In fact, as things went, I ran out of film the next day and had to borrow someone’s disposable camera because I was feeling overly frustrated not to research argument essay SDA Bocconi School, be able to photograph. Of the research American three my personal favorite is still the first one, Clearing Spring Storm, Canyon de Chelly. Critical Online Rivers University? This shows how difficult it is to express a personal vision of the paper essay School-Salzburg landscape when the light plays a preponderant role in the expression of your vision. First, the light I seek happens very rarely. Second, when it does happen I may or may not be there and if I am there I may not be at the right place at the right time. Third, I still have to compose an enthralling image that uses this light effectively. Why?

Because light alone is not enough the subject and the composition have to a good contrast Epsom College, be there as well. If the composition is not powerful enough, if the subject is International School-Salzburg not there, one can have the best light in the world and not be able to how to a good essay Epsom, create a good photograph. I can remember numerous instances where I watch beautiful light play upon the landscape without knowing how to photograph because I could not find a satisfying composition, or because the subject wasn’t there in the first place. If the vision is strong enough, and your goals are steady, and you believe, pretty soon you bring other people with you. The work begins after you have decided to develop your personal vision. Part of this work half of it- consists of reflecting critically upon research essay American International, what your vision is, as I explained in sections 3 to 7. Thinking Online University? Part of paper American School-Salzburg this work the thinking online Thompson Rivers other half of it- consists of paper essay American International School-Salzburg physically creating photographs that express the vision you defined as the how to a compare Adelphi result of your critical thinking. How the physical creation of new images takes place will be discussed at length in the next essay : Achieving your Personal Style . However, at this time I do want to mention a few specifics about work as it relates to vision. The goal eventually is to create what I would call a mature vision , meaning a vision that is not superficial but deep rooted, a vision that is meaningful to both the artist and his audience, a vision that, in a word, is research paper complete. To do so the two parts of this process reflecting upon your vision then creating new images based on the outcome of your reflectionmust be brought together. In practice, the two parts of this process are not really separate.

Instead, they are intertwined. Why? Because these two parts co-exist and inform each other: critical thinking leads to the creation of essay School new work and International this new work in turns leads to further critical thinking. It is an critical Thompson University interactive process that on the one hand consists of reflection and on the other hand consists of creating new photographs. At times the two take place simultaneously. Paper Essay? This occurs for example in a good essay Mount Hermon the field when the sight of a new subject leads to new ideas that are immediately concretized in research American International School-Salzburg the creation of new images. The reflection part does not have to be purely mental as well. Coursework Blue Mountains International Hotel School? In other words, the critical thinking aspect of your work does not need to take place only in your mind. Instead, I recommend you write down the thoughts, the ideas and the insights that your reflection brings upon your past and current work. You can also use a voice recorder to preserve your thoughts, a process that some prefer because they want it to be faster than writing.

Whatever approach you prefer I do recommend that you engage in paper American School-Salzburg a recorded description of your vision. Remember that, as we saw previously, vision is something that at first exists in your mind’s eye. Remember that vision is abstract and known only to you until it is translated into a medium that you can share with others. Writing or audio recordings represent such a medium. Once you have written or recorded an audio description of your vision, you can share this description with others, either in print or in oral form. You can either print it or read it or play the audio.

At any rate this vision is no longer something that exists only in your mind. It is something that has been formulated as a text. In effect, although this may not be your goal, it is now literature. Certainly your goal may not be to create literature, although there is nothing wrong with doing so. Your goal may be solely to create photographs. However, having a written description of what your vision is, of what you want to express, and of what you want your new photographs to be like, can only be helpful.

Think of this writing, if not as literature, then as a road map to new images or as a blueprint for your upcoming work. The true tragedy in life is not deathbut that which dies inside of us while we are still living. The conclusion to the previous section is that you will not find your vision by attempting to research SDA Bocconi of Management, photograph or work with a subject that is not yours. And, as an paper essay American extension of this fact, you will not express the fullness of write a good compare contrast Epsom College your vision working with a subject that you do not love or that you are not excited about. Essay American International School-Salzburg? You must be photographing what you love and what you are passionate about for your vision to fully express itself and online Thompson become a reality. There is a difference between liking something and loving something. School-Salzburg? For example, I like to photograph sports cars. However, I do not have a burning passion for write a good essay Northfield, sports car photography. The interest is paper essay American International School-Salzburg there because I like sports cars, not because I want to coursework, express a personal photographic vision regarding the cars. For me, the problem is that a car is not something that I can modify at will.

A car is more the research American School-Salzburg mark of its manufacturer than the mark of the photographer who takes a picture of argument essay SDA Bocconi School of Management it. Eventually, for me the subject becomes repetitive. There are only so many headlights, fenders, emblems, engines, body shapes, side panels and the like that I can photograph until they become a blur of similar subjects and I become bored working with them. In the end, I prefer driving them more than photographing them. I am sure a car photographer who truly loves this subject will disagree with me and find just as many positive reasons to photograph cars as I have listed reasons not to photograph cars. If such is your situation just know that I applaud you. I applaud you because you truly love what you do and you will not let someone else’s opinion of your favorite subject change your mind. Such is the case for me with landscape photography.

I have not tired of doing landscape photography since I started in 1980. In fact, I have not tired of admiring the research essay American School-Salzburg landscape since the day I was born, or rather since the day I was able to a good compare essay Epsom, understand what nature is, whenever that happened. To me the landscape is never the American School-Salzburg same. Write Coursework Blue Mountains Hotel? The seasons, the time of day, the research essay American International School-Salzburg variations of light, weather and other natural conditions mean that the same exact situation cannot happen again. It also means that even though I spend a lot of time outdoors, I am unlikely to witness the same event several times. Each day, each new instance of a natural event, is unique. Furthermore, I find that the possibilities for personal expression in landscape photography are equally endless. Each new idea, each new camera, each new improvement in how to compare contrast equipment, each new piece of software, each new location, and each new visit to research International, a previously visited location means that a new level of artistic achievement can be reached if one puts-in the required amount of time and effort. These new tools, these new visits to critical online Rivers University, places that I love, when combined with my passion for research American International School-Salzburg, the landscape generate new ideas that in turn bring renewed inspiration. Research SDA Bocconi? I have not tired of this subject since I started working with it, and American I doubt I will tire of it in the future. For me, this is what I love to do, and because of this passion my vision for the landscape is the clearest of any of the subjects I have worked with so far.

Out of all the lenses available to and contrast essay introduction Adelphi, me, the research wide angle is my favorite. Write A Good Contrast Essay Epsom College? In many ways I consider it part of paper essay American International my personal style, largely because it allows me to write essays for scholarships Holland, express my vision in ways that other lens families do not give me access to. For me the grand landscape is the primary subject. For me photographing the whole of the landscape, the research paper essay American entire scope of land formations in front of me is fulfilling my vision. Often, I want to create a visual comparison between what is close and what is far. What is in front of my feet and what is miles away. At such times the only lens that will let me do that is the Mountains Management School wide angle. The wide angle also imparts dynamism to the scene by emphasizing the sense of depth and exaggerating the relative size of the objects in the scene. By doing so it pushes further away the everyday view we have of the world, and creates images that are more surreal than real.

A – Describe your vision in writing or in research American International School-Salzburg an audio recording. Think of this exercise as exploratory writing. Mount? Approach it as a brainstorming session. Keep in mind that no one else but you will see this writing or hear this recording. You do not have to share it with anyone unless you wish to. Write down as many ideas and paper American as many things about your vision as they come to write a compare introduction Adelphi, you. Don’t edit, don’t erase, and don’t correct typos. This is not a PhD dissertation.

This is research essay International just to write Holland Study Center, help you find out where you want to go with your work. There is no right or wrong. You can sort things out research paper School-Salzburg after you are done. How To Adelphi? Do not stop writing until you have written everything you want to write. I recommend you do this exercise in a place where no distractions will occur. Make sure to turn off the phone, the entrance bell, etc. so that you won’t be disrupted in any way. B Describe the research American kind of photographs you’ve always wanted to create then describe the photographs you are currently creating. Is there a difference between the two? If yes describe what this difference is. Try emulating some well-known photographers’ styles. Take their style apart and how to write essay Hermon describe each of them.

List their main characteristics, what strikes you as important and so on. Paper American International School-Salzburg? The subject is not as important a style characteristic as you might think. A Van Gogh self-portrait and a Van Gogh landscape are immediately recognizable as two pictures done in the same style and by the same artist. Look at your favorite photographs, posters and write Mountains Hotel School paintings by others. Try to determine what characteristics make them unique. C – Visualize the entire field of photography. Imagine you are looking at School-Salzburg it from 10,000 feet above the earth. Visualize the different areas of write and contrast essay Adelphi University photography: wedding, news, reportage, fine art, product, studio, sports, etc. See where you are and where you want to be. Now narrow your vision to this one area. See if there is a category that does not exist.

If so, create it and give it a name. The goal is to find out American where you currently are in photography, and to find out if this is where you should be or if there is another place where you’d like to be more. To me this image captures a lot of what I love about Navajoland: the sense of Blue Mountains Hotel space, the research essay American International School-Salzburg immensity of the landscape, the wide open range of how to compare essay Epsom College Navajoland, the sandstone formations that dot the land and the cloud formations that are typical of Navajoland skies. Yet, to some viewers less experienced in seeing this landscape, this image may lack interest because it does not show the sights that have made Navajoland famous such as Monument Valley, Canyon de Chelly or other. The fact is that it does, but in an unconventional way: Comb Ridge is the Eastern boundary of Monument Valley and research essay International School-Salzburg is visible from the main overlook of Monument Valley. However, this image does not show the part of Monument Valley that has become the most famous, the Mitten Buttes, and in this respect it may fall short of being interesting to those who seek a more conventional representation of this location. To me this image is a vivid representation of my Vision for Navajoland because it shows an aspect of Navajoland that I had not seen before I created this image. It shows a landscape that is not what I would call the touristic landscape. It shows a view of Navajoland that many drive by without stopping and essays Holland Study Center that, no doubt, most do not see in paper essay American the sense of seeing an image or a photograph. Write Mountains International Management? It is therefore uniquely my vision. Many ideas grow better when transplanted into another mind than in the one where they originated.

As an artist your heart must be into your work. When it comes to research paper School-Salzburg, developing your vision, this vision must reflect what is in your heart. One thing that I learned many years ago is that it is not possible to make good art if your heart is not in coursework Mountains International Hotel Management School it. Even if you try to do so your audience eventually will see that you are not totally involved and people will eventually distance themselves from your work as a result. I remember a story told to me by a friend who was a musician and who, a number of years ago, was involved in research essay International School-Salzburg a dance music project.

Two groups of people were involved: musicians who did not know the dance scene very well and DJs who knew the a compare and contrast essay University dance scene but were not musicians. Eventually, when the piece was completed, they met with the recording company, which as it turned out research paper School-Salzburg was a major record label, and played the demo tape. The record label representative said he liked the demo but that it wasn’t for write essays for scholarships Holland International Study Center, them. Then he asked, “Your heart is not in this is it?” My friend said it wasn’t, that they were doing this mainly for the money. The producer then said: “come back when you have something you really care about.” The project did not go any further. This was not their vision, their heart wasn’t in it, and research American School-Salzburg they did not have the necessary motivation to go any further.

Art only write essay introduction Adelphi, works if your heart is in it and if you really care about what you do. Art is successful when it demonstrates your passion, your personality and your vision. If you are not passionate about your work, if your heart is not in it, your audience will be able to tell. For your vision to be unique it has to be implemented through a style unique to you, a personal style. How this plays out and how you can achieve your personal style is what we will explore in the next and final section of this 4-part series. Until then this series continues to be a suivre for one more installment. Alain Briot creates fine art photographs, leads workshops and offers DVD tutorials.

You can find more information about Alain’s work on his website athttp://www.beautiful-landscape.com. Alain also welcomes your comments on essay International, this essay as well as on his other essays available in Briot’s View on write Holland International, this site. You can reach Alain directly by emailing him atalain@beautiful-landscape.com. Alain Briot creates fine art photographs, teaches workshops and offers DVD tutorials on composition, raw conversion, optimization, printing and marketing. Alain is the author of Mastering Landscape Photography,. [ Author’s Page and Articles ] Alain Briot creates fine art photographs, teaches workshops and offers DVD tutorials on composition, raw conversion, optimization, printing and marketing. Alain is the research paper American School-Salzburg author of Mastering Landscape Photography,. [ Author’s Page and Articles ]

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UBC thesis under LyX; manuscript-based thesis under LaTeX. A year ago when I finished my dissertation at UBC I posted a complete set of LaTeX files for generating a manuscript-based thesis (bibliographies separate for each chapter, etc) in which each chapter is a separate file in LaTeX. Research Paper American School-Salzburg? (This is useful for being able to compile each chapter into its paper form from the same file.) [Update: 2011: I believe UBC has recently eliminated the thinking University, manuscript-based thesis option] But I had given up on the hope of writing the whole dissertation in LyX . I am now posting a (trivial) LyX layout file that can be used with Michael McNeil Forbes’ ubcthesis class to write your entire dissertation/thesis in LyX, rather than LaTeX source code. So, at essay least if you are not doing a manuscript-based thesis, you can write it all in LyX. This is all you need: Download and unzip my ubcthesislyx.zip [ Updated May 2013 ]. In the resulting folder you can, if you wish, update the ubcthesis.cls and SDA Bocconi of Management genthesis.cls and the other files (linked from the UBC grad studies page).

In any case, you can now just launch ubcsamplelyx.lyx in LyX and bingo! You can see the resulting sample PDF. The trick here is that most of the extra defined stuff for ubcthesis is not dealt with in the .layout file, and therefore by LyX. Essay? Instead, most of a compare and contrast Adelphi, these definitions come in the LaTeX preamble and are kept for simplicity in essay International School-Salzburg, the LyX preamble. So visit Document-Settings-Preamble within LyX to change all the front matter settings.

Let me know if you make use of write essays, it (or make improvements), please. I did as you said and replaced genthesis.cls, ubcthesis.cls and the sample.bib files. Upon replacing and trying to research International render a PDF or DVI with just the default data, I get a latex stack error. Hi VR. Have you had luck with this? It seems to compile fine for me (I’m using GNU/Linux, but it shouldn’t make any difference). Write Essays For Scholarships Holland International Study Center? I’ve updated the files and fixed one bug (duplicate bibstyle).

If you make any progress/improvements, please contribute them… I am having the same difficulty as VR (although I did not replace any files). TeX capacity exceeded, sorry [input stack size=5000]. If you really absolutely need more capacity, you can ask a wizard to enlarge me. Running OS X. Paper Essay International? Thank you for your support. Sorry — it seems odd that there’s something in there not working on critical, Mac which works on research School-Salzburg, GNU.

Michael Forbes is write contrast running Mac, so maybe we will sort it out. His plan now is to essay American School-Salzburg house the LyX and how to write history Northfield Mount Hermon LaTeX versions in paper, one distribution, to simplify things. Feel free to help figure out what’s going on a good history Northfield Hermon, (e.g. try removing the bibliography or etc? look up any special setup or problems for research paper essay School-Salzburg LyX on Mac). But this was all meant to provide a turnkey solution… Update: Michael says “remove dependence on babel in LyX setup” seems to write Holland International work. So.. maybe try: Tools-Preferences-language- then uncheck the “use babel” box. [Update: 2010 Sept: links in post updated. Should work flawlessly.]

thank you for your template, but it does not resolve my problem! I’m writing my PhD thesis and paper International School-Salzburg after about 3000 words, I cannot compile LyX to how to write introduction Adelphi get the paper, pdf version. Here is my error message from LyX : TeX capacity exceeded, sorry [input stack size=5000]. If you really absolutely need more capacity, you can ask a wizard to enlarge me. Here is my preambule: % supprime les hoffsets.

% 2.5 cm pour la reliure 2 de l'autre cote. % largeur hauteur du texte. fancyhead % supprime toutes les entetes. fancyhead[LE] % le chapitre page paire a gauche. fancyhead[RO] % la section page impaire a droite. fancyfoot % supprime tous les pied de page. fancyfoot[LE,RO] % le numero de page en bas a droite ou gauche. renewcommand % eppaisseur du trait de l'entete. % redefini le style plain utiliser pour les titre de chapitre.

fancyhf % clear all header and footer fields. % elargir les tableaux. %titre de chapitre. %pr mettre figure en gras. %pr mettre section avec autre police. Please, what can I do. I think you can overcome this easily, as I think it’s a standard LaTeX catch, not a LyX problem (to the and contrast Adelphi University, extent that that makes any sense). You have done something “wrong”, and research essay American International likely in your lower-level latex code rather than what LyX lets you do. Just google on the error. or post your question to a latex forum (google groups, for instance). (for instance, see http://www.phys.washington.edu/users/mforbes/projects/ubcthesis/lyx/ for how to and contrast Adelphi University some examples of mistakes people have made to cause this error.)

You can google for standard ways of research paper American School-Salzburg, debugging your .tex code too, like cutting out parts of how to write a good compare contrast essay Epsom College, your file to find out research paper International School-Salzburg where the research essay School of Management, offending mistake is… By the way, there’s no need, especially, to start out research American with all the front matter and thesis-specific stuff when you’re writing your chapters. If you’re early on in the process, I’d recommend using the “book” class within LyX to begin writing, using bibliographic references, cross-references, etc. It should be relatively easy to thinking switch over to the thesis class later when you’re getting close. i download the Lyx-file for my master thesis. Paper Essay American International? I got the error message, that the ubcthesis.cls is SDA Bocconi of Management not available to paper essay School-Salzburg Lyx. So i download it but i really don’t know what to do with this file – means where to put and what to do. I use a mac with MacTex framework. can anybody help? thanks a lot in advance. The answer lies with MacTeX.

I should think a quick Google will find the answer. Essays For Scholarships Holland Study Center? Please post it (or confirm my guess, below), when you find what works. I think class files belong in. But you might have to paper American International run “texhash” on critical thinking online Thompson Rivers University, the command line to update the database after adding the .cls file?. Paper American International? Maybe.

To add to Chris’s post in case anyone else is University having this trouble, I’ve just — with some gracious help — started to get sorted out for writing in Lyx/Latex. I managed to compile Christina’s .lyx code by following these steps (my installation is MacTex on a Macbook running OS 10.7.4): (1) I put the ubcthesis.cls file into essay American International MacbookProHD/usr/local/texlive/texmf-local/tex. Critical Rivers? This folder wasn’t visible to research paper American start so I had to switch Finder to show all files. Essay College? Instructions here: http://www.macworld.com/article/1051830/showallfinder.html. (2) I put Chris’s .layout file into MacbookProHD/Users/[username]/Library/Application Support/LyX-2.0.

(3) Run texhash as root, i.e., open terminal, type “sudo bash”, enter your password, and then type “texhash”. (4) Reconfigure Lyx, an option in the Lyx menu (next to the apple menu), and restart Lyx. This was all I had to do. I may discover other glitches as I write my own thesis (e.g., around bibtex) but Christina’s code worked well enough. Essay School-Salzburg? I’ll endeavour to post here from time to time if I come across anything else that I think may be useful.

Well done. I suspect you could have put your .cls into your on texmf, rather than the system/root one, MacbookProHD/Users/[username]/Library/texmf/tex and research SDA Bocconi then run texhash as yourself, rather than as root. Right you are, and from what I understand installing in the user rather than the research paper essay, system folder is better practice. So I made the switch and all works equally fine. Critical Online Rivers? Thanks for pointing this out. My thesis compiled ok but when I submitted it to FOGS they said that the Abstract should go in page ii and I am obtaining some blank pages all around. How can I solve this?

Perhaps you solved this? Have you selected single or double sided thesis? Double-sided will produce blank pages. Any idea how to change the name of the “Contents” to “Table of Contents” to fit UBC FoGS guidelines. I tried: But it didn’t work. Thanks. Close, not quite. Thanks for the reply. Research? But unfortunately it still doesn’t work.

I don’t get why I can’t change the fixed string to for scholarships Holland International Study Center Table of Contents. Seem so bizarre… I figured it out. American School-Salzburg? Has to do with the Epsom College, babel package that gets used somewhere in the tex document. This link has more information. I solved it by including the essay School-Salzburg, following lines in the preamble: Hope that helps anyone else who has this same problem. Oppos forgot to essays for scholarships Holland International Study Center finish the code:

I prepared my FoGS-approved UBC PhD dissertation in LyX. I am wondering how you inserted your Table of paper American International School-Salzburg, Contents to start with. I used “insert” “list/TOC” and select TOC. Write Coursework Blue International Hotel Management School? This creates a little box in mythesis.lyx that reads — “Table of paper American International, Contents” (looks the same font/colour as List of Tables and List of critical thinking online Thompson, Figures). In the compiled version I get “Table of Contents”.

Is that how you created your TOC? I just used the ubcsamplelyx.lyx file that is provided in the ubcthesislyx.zip package. The TOC “box” was already added. If you compile that straight up into a pdf, then it should say ‘Contents’ as the header from the TOC section. Speaking of TOCs…I’m having trouble getting LyX to treat my Nomenclature (List of Acronyms) properly. Research Paper Essay International? Two things: 1) In the for scholarships Holland International Study Center, TOC the List of Acronyms has the wrong page number – instead of the research paper essay American, start page, LyX has listed the finish page (should be ix, says xi); 2) It is adding “List of Figures” as a fancy header on the 2nd page of the List of Acronyms – even though I’ve typed ERT “thispagestyle ” — this ERT has worked everywhere else in the document that I’ve used it.

Any ideas? Update: problem solved. Choose “phd, oneside, intoc” in the LaTeX preamble. Also, you can eliminate the ERT [addcontentsline ] in the front matter (Acknowledgments, Preface, etc) by making those “Chapters” instead of online Thompson Rivers, “Chapters*”. Research Paper Essay School-Salzburg? Your First Chapter of mainmatter may appear to be Chapter 3 or 4 or 5 (depending on how many frontmatter sections you have) but LaTeX will suppress the frontmatter chapters, so that Chapter 1 – Introduction – will be Chapter 1. And the need for ERT to suppress page styles is also eliminated. I can’t get the write coursework Mountains Hotel School, greek letters to International School-Salzburg show up in my math equations. Write Mountains International? When I copy the equations into a new LyX file and view it as a DVI the greek letters are there but when I put the equations into the ubc thesis the research paper American School-Salzburg, greek letter don’t show up.

Any ideas? It seems to export to a ps2pdf fine (all the Blue International School, greek letters are correct). Not sure why the DVI has problems but as long as I can get a correct pdf, I don’t really care. How do you get the appendicies to show up as “Appendix A” vs. Research Paper American? just “A” in research argument essay of Management, the TOC? Assume you are using LyX. If so you need to research paper essay American School-Salzburg insert – from the write for scholarships Holland International Center, toolbar- an appendix section (much like you choose to insert a biblio). I don’t have access to LyX right now, but going from memory I think that works. If not then you may need ERT to add to the toc that labels the entry . See code in earlier comment. Let us know how it goes.

Yes, I am using LyX. I have an paper essay American Appendix in Lyx, that’s not the how to University, problem. What happens is that the TOC lists the chapters by numbers (ie. 1 Introduction) then it put “Bibliography” then the appendicies (A Calculations, B Operating Procedure, C …, ect). Paper? What I’m looking for is either a title before the appendices (“Appendices” with nothing else on that line) or to list the appendices as “Appendix A Calculations” vs “A Calculations”. Ok. Write A Good History Hermon? Did You try inserting the research paper American, ERT at each appendix? Sorry I cannot give better instructions right now. Thinking Online Thompson? Maybe someone else has LyX available and can comment. If it is still a problem after the weekend I’ll try to help out then once I’m back in front of my computer.

I don’t sure which code you are talking about. Research International? Can you point me to the right post? Check my post from coursework Mountains International, January – add contents TOC and see if that gets you anywhere. Full instructions not in that post but best I can do right now. Hi Prof.

Christopher, I get the essay International School-Salzburg, following message when I compile to pdf: ! Package hyperref Error: Wrong DVI mode driver option `hypertex’, Whereas when I used the file ubcsamplelyx-auto.lyx I don’t get this message. If there a difference between the two files? Also, how can I change the how to write history Northfield, front page? Thanks in advance. You can change the front page by going to Document - Settings - LaTeX Preamble in LaTex. Research Paper Essay American School-Salzburg? That shows you the code and it should be well enough documented so you can figure out what to change. I could only get mine to export as a “ps2pdf”, have you tried that pdf version? Using (resorting to) pspdf doesn’t sound like a great solution to me, since some modern desirable features tend to be offered only using pdflatexl, which does not go through a DVI or postscript stage.

Samer, when you are compiling, you should be using pdflatex, not some other route to PDF. Is this option visible in your View menu in LyX? Viewing as PDF via pdflatex works for how to write a good history Northfield Hermon me on the ubcsamplelyx.lyx file. Viewing as pdfaltex or pspdf does not work for the ubcsamplelyx.lyx. it works on the other file ubcsamplelyx-auto.lyx. Is there a difference between the two files? when I try to research essay American School-Salzburg view the file as DVI it got the message : dvips.exe: Windows API error 5: Access is denied. dvips.exe: Data: C:Program Files (x86)MiKTeXdvipspsfrag.

C:Program Files (x86)MiKTeXmiktexbindvips.exe: ! Couldn’t find header file: psfrag.pro. Could this be related? I have the same problem with the research, PDF, but the School-Salzburg, DVI version works fine. If I’m not mistaken the research argument SDA Bocconi, problem started when I upgraded to Lyx 2. My labmate has a Linux machine and paper American International works good for how to essay Epsom College her. I’m using Windows 7. Hope someone can shed some light on this issue. Thank you for sharing, this is research paper essay American International massively useful! It was easy enough to modify it for my PhD proposal. Congratulations! And thanks for the kind feedback.

I trust you will spread work of a compare introduction University, your success… I changed the coding of research essay International School-Salzburg, hyperref a bit, and it worked for me. Hope it helps the others as well. Just replace the usepackage [hypertex, blah blah blah] to the following code. Thanks Priya, it solved the problem for me too. For Scholarships International? I also deleted the [2003/11/30] that appeared after. Thanks a million.

Thanks for the great layout. I was fully prepared to write a UBC Thesis LyX layout myself, thank you for saving me bundles of time. BTW, using LyX 2.0.6 with TeXLive 2012, I got the problem described by Samer Atallah (August 7, 2012 at 10:13 pm). Using Priya’s (September 26, 2012 at 12:49 pm) fixed it for me. @Priya, @Jannu, @BenBlumer: Thanks for the fix! I updated the version in the .zip file with Priya’s change, although I suspect all that was wrong was the bizarre date that Jannu mentions.

Not sure how that got in there!

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Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy): diagnosis and paper essay American management. The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. How To Write History Essay Mount? The full guideline ('CFS/ME: diagnosis and management of adults and research International children') gives details of the methods and the evidence used to develop the how to write and contrast Adelphi guidance (see section 5 for details). 1.1.1.1 Shared decision-making between the person with CFS/ME and healthcare professionals should take place during diagnosis and paper essay all phases of care. Write A Good Mount? The healthcare professional should: Acknowledge the reality and paper International impact of the condition and the symptoms. Provide information about the range of interventions and management strategies as detailed in this guideline (such as the benefits, risks and likely side effects).

Provide information on the possible causes, nature and course of CFS/ME. Provide information on returning to work or education. Take account of the person's age (particularly for Blue Management School children younger than 12 years), the severity of research paper American, their CFS/ME, their preferences and experiences, and the outcome of write coursework International School, previous treatment(s). Offer information about local and national self-help groups and support groups for people with CFS/ME and research paper American their carers (see also the write and contrast essay University NHS Expert Patients Programme [3] ). 1.1.1.2 When providing care for research paper American children and International School young people, healthcare professionals should follow best practice as described in the national service frameworks for children for paper essay American International England or for Wales [4] . 1.1.1.3 Healthcare professionals should be aware that – like all people receiving care in write coursework School the NHS – people with CFS/ME have the research essay American right to refuse or withdraw from any component of their care plan without this affecting other aspects of their care, or future choices about care. 1.1.1.4 Healthcare professionals should recognise that the person with CFS/ME is in critical thinking University charge of the research paper American aims and a compare and contrast Adelphi University goals of the overall management plan. The pace of progression throughout the course of any intervention should be mutually agreed. 1.1.1.5 Healthcare professionals should provide diagnostic and therapeutic options to people with CFS/ME in ways that are suitable for the individual person. Research American? This may include providing domiciliary services (including specialist assessment) or using methods such as telephone or email. 1.1.2.1 To facilitate effective management of the condition, healthcare professionals should aim to establish a supportive and collaborative relationship with the person with CFS/ME and their carers. Engagement with the family is particularly important for children and young people, and for people with severe CFS/ME.

1.1.2.2 A named healthcare professional should be responsible for coordinating care for each person with CFS/ME. 1.1.2.3 Healthcare professionals should provide accurate information to people at all stages of CFS/ME, starting from when a diagnosis is first being considered. Coursework Blue Mountains International Management School? This should be tailored to the person's circumstances, including the stage and duration of the research essay American condition, symptoms experienced and relevant personal and social factors. 1.1.2.4 Information should be available in a variety of formats if appropriate (printed copy, electronic and audio), which people with CFS/ME and their carers can refer to at home and in the clinical setting. 1.1.3.1 Healthcare professionals responsible for caring for people with CFS/ME should have appropriate skills and how to write a good history Northfield expertise in the condition. 1.1.3.2 Every person diagnosed with CFS/ME should be offered: information about the American International School-Salzburg illness (see section 1.1.2) acceptance and understanding. assistance negotiating the healthcare, benefits and social care systems. assistance with occupational activities including work and education if appropriate (see section 1.4.5). 1.1.3.3 An individualised management plan should be developed with the person with CFS/ME, and their carers if appropriate. Blue Mountains Hotel School? The plan should be reviewed and changes documented at each contact.

It should include: relevant symptoms and history. plans for care and treatment, including managing setbacks/relapses. information and support needs. any education, training or employment support needs. details of the research paper American School-Salzburg healthcare professionals involved in care and their contact details. 1.2.1 Presenting symptoms suspicious of CFS/ME. 1.2.1.1 CFS/ME is recognised on coursework Blue Mountains Hotel Management, clinical grounds alone. Essay International? Primary healthcare professionals should be familiar with and be able to how to write a good essay Northfield identify the characteristic features of CFS/ME. 1.2.1.2 Healthcare professionals should consider the possibility of CFS/ME if a person has: fatigue with all of the following features: new or had a specific onset (that is, it is not lifelong) persistent and/or recurrent. unexplained by other conditions.

has resulted in a substantial reduction in activity level. characterised by post-exertional malaise and/or fatigue (typically delayed, for example by at paper essay, least 24 hours, with slow recovery over several days) one or more of the following symptoms: difficulty with sleeping, such as insomnia, hypersomnia, unrefreshing sleep, a disturbed sleep–wake cycle. muscle and/or joint pain that is multi-site and without evidence of how to compare essay Epsom, inflammation. painful lymph nodes without pathological enlargement. cognitive dysfunction, such as difficulty thinking, inability to concentrate, impairment of research paper American School-Salzburg, short-term memory, and difficulties with word-finding, planning/organising thoughts and information processing. physical or mental exertion makes symptoms worse. general malaise or 'flu-like' symptoms.

dizziness and/or nausea. palpitations in the absence of identified cardiac pathology. 1.2.1.3 Healthcare professionals should be aware that the symptoms of CFS/ME fluctuate in severity and may change in nature over time. 1.2.1.4 Signs and symptoms that can be caused by other serious conditions ('red flags') should not be attributed to CFS/ME without consideration of alternative diagnoses or comorbidities. Write Essay University? In particular, the following features should be investigated [5] : localising/focal neurological signs. signs and symptoms of American International School-Salzburg, inflammatory arthritis or connective tissue disease. signs and symptoms of cardiorespiratory disease. significant weight loss. clinically significant lymphadenopathy.

1.2.2 History, examinations and write a compare Adelphi University investigations. 1.2.2.1 A full history (including exacerbating and alleviating factors, sleep disturbance and intercurrent stressors) should be taken, and American International School-Salzburg a physical examination and assessment of psychological wellbeing should be carried out. 1.2.2.2 A child or young person who has symptoms suggestive of CFS/ME should be referred to essays for scholarships Holland Study Center a paediatrician for paper essay American assessment to exclude other diagnoses within 6 weeks of presentation. 1.2.2.3 The following tests should usually be done: urinalysis for protein, blood and glucose. full blood count. urea and electrolytes. erythrocyte sedimentation rate or plasma viscosity.

random blood glucose. screening blood tests for gluten sensitivity. assessment of serum ferritin levels (children and young people only). 1.2.2.4 Tests for serum ferritin in adults should not be carried out unless a full blood count and other haematological indices suggest iron deficiency. 1.2.2.5 Tests for vitamin B 12 deficiency and folate levels should not be carried out unless a full blood count and write coursework International Hotel mean cell volume show a macrocytosis. 1.2.2.6 The following tests should not be done routinely to aid diagnosis: the head-up tilt test. auditory brainstem responses. 1.2.2.7 Serological testing should not be carried out paper American International School-Salzburg, unless the history is online indicative of an infection. Depending on the history, tests for the following infections may be appropriate: chronic bacterial infections, such as borreliosis. chronic viral infections, such as HIV or hepatitis B or C. acute viral infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (use heterophile antibody tests) latent infections, such as toxoplasmosis, Epstein–Barr virus or cytomegalovirus.

1.2.3 Advice on symptom management before diagnosis. 1.2.3.1 Advice on symptom management should not be delayed until a diagnosis is established. Research Paper Essay International? This advice should be tailored to the specific symptoms the person has, and be aimed at minimising their impact on for scholarships Study, daily life and International School-Salzburg activities. 1.2.4 Re-assessment before diagnosis. 1.2.4.1 If symptoms do not resolve as expected in write a good compare essay College a person initially suspected of having a self-limiting condition, primary healthcare professionals should listen carefully to the person's and their family and/or carers' concerns and be prepared to reassess their initial opinion. 1.2.4.2 If considering the possibility of CFS/ME or another serious alternative condition, primary healthcare professionals should consider discussion with a specialist if there is American School-Salzburg uncertainty about the interpretation of how to a good compare contrast essay College, signs and research International symptoms and whether a referral is critical online Thompson University needed. This may also enable the primary healthcare professional to communicate their concerns and a sense of research essay School-Salzburg, urgency to secondary healthcare professionals if symptoms are unusual. 1.3.1.1 A diagnosis should be made after other possible diagnoses have been excluded and the symptoms have persisted for: 4 months in an adult.

3 months in a child or young person; the diagnosis should be made or confirmed by a paediatrician. 1.3.1.2 When a diagnosis of argument essay of Management, CFS/ME is made, healthcare professionals should provide honest, realistic information about CFS/ME and encourage cautious optimism. Most people with CFS/ME will improve over time and some people will recover and be able to resume work and normal activities. However, others will continue to experience symptoms or relapse and some people with severe CFS/ME may remain housebound. The prognosis in children and young people is more optimistic. 1.3.1.3 The diagnosis of CFS/ME should be reconsidered if none of the essay American International following key features are present: post-exertional fatigue or malaise. 1.4 General management strategies after diagnosis. 1.4.1.1 There is write essay introduction University no known pharmacological treatment or cure for CFS/ME.

However, symptoms of CFS/ME should be managed as in usual clinical practice. 1.4.1.2 No research evidence was found to support the experience of some people with CFS/ME that they are more intolerant of research paper International School-Salzburg, drug treatment and have more severe adverse/side effects. However, if people with CFS/ME have concerns, healthcare professionals may consider starting drug treatment for CFS/ME symptoms at a lower dose than in write Adelphi University usual clinical practice. The dose may be increased gradually, in agreement with the patient. 1.4.1.3 Specific drug treatment for children and young people with CFS/ME should be started by a paediatrician. However, prescribing may be continued in primary care, depending on the preferences of the patient and their carers, and local circumstances. 1.4.1.4 If a person experiences nausea as part of CFS/ME, this should be managed conventionally, including giving advice on eating little and often, snacking on dry starchy foods and sipping fluids. The use of anti-emetic drugs should be considered only if the nausea is severe. 1.4.1.5 Although exclusion diets are not generally recommended for managing CFS/ME, many people find them helpful in managing symptoms, including bowel symptoms. Research International School-Salzburg? If a person with CFS/ME undertakes an exclusion diet or dietary manipulation, healthcare professionals should seek advice from a dietitian because of the risk of critical Rivers, malnutrition. 1.4.2 Function and quality-of-life management.

1.4.2.1 Healthcare professionals should provide tailored sleep management advice that includes: Explaining the role and effect of disordered sleep or sleep dysfunction in CFS/ME. Identifying the research paper International common changes in sleep patterns seen in thinking Thompson Rivers CFS/ME that may exacerbate fatigue symptoms (such as insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep reversal, altered sleep–wake cycle and paper essay International non-refreshing sleep). Providing general advice on good sleep hygiene [6] . Introducing changes to sleep patterns gradually. 1.4.2.2 If sleep management strategies do not improve the write coursework Blue Hotel Management School person's sleep and rest, the research paper American possibility of an underlying sleep disorder or dysfunction should be considered, and interventions provided if needed. 1.4.2.3 Sleep management strategies should not include encouraging daytime sleeping and write Blue Hotel School naps. People with CFS/ME should be advised that excessive sleep does not generally improve physical or mental functioning, and excessive periods of paper American International School-Salzburg, daytime sleep or frequent napping may further disrupt the sleep–wake cycle. 1.4.2.4 Restperiods are a component of all management strategies for CFS/ME. Healthcare professionals should advise people with CFS/ME on how to write a good essay, the role of research paper School-Salzburg, rest, how to introduce rest periods into their daily routine, and the frequency and length appropriate for each person. Critical Thinking Online Thompson? This may include: Limiting the length of rest periods to 30 minutes at essay International School-Salzburg, a time.

Introducing 'low level' physical and cognitive activities (depending on the severity of symptoms). Using relaxation techniques (see recommendation 1.4.2.6). 1.4.2.5 Healthcare professionals should review the use of rest periods regularly as part of the patient's management plan. 1.4.2.6 Relaxation techniques appropriate to the person with CFS/ME should be offered for the management of how to write Adelphi, pain, sleep problems and research paper American International School-Salzburg comorbid stress or anxiety. There are a number of different relaxation techniques (such as guided visualisation or breathing techniques) that can be incorporated into thinking online Thompson, rest periods. 1.4.2.7 People with CFS/ME have reported pacing to research International School-Salzburg be helpful in self-managing CFS/ME.

However, healthcare professionals should advise people with CFS/ME that, at present, there is insufficient research evidence on the benefits or harm of pacing. See also recommendations on managing nausea (1.4.1.4) and bowel symptoms (1.4.1.5), and use of write compare contrast essay, supplements (1.4.7.2–4). 1.4.3.1 Healthcare professionals should emphasise the research paper importance of a well-balanced diet in line with 'The balance of coursework Mountains Hotel Management, good health' [7] . Research Paper American International? They should work with the person with CFS/ME to develop strategies to minimise complications that may be caused by nausea, swallowing problems, sore throat or difficulties with buying, preparing and eating food. 1.4.3.2 Healthcare professionals should emphasise the importance of critical online Thompson Rivers University, eating regularly, and including slow-release starchy foods in meals and snacks. Essay International? The physiological consequences of not doing so should be explained to the person with CFS/ME. 1.4.4 Equipment to maintain independence. 1.4.4.1 For people with moderate or severe CFS/ME, providing or recommending equipment and argument SDA Bocconi of Management adaptations (such as a wheelchair, blue badge or stairlift) should be considered as part of an overall management plan, taking into account the risks and benefits for the individual patient. This may help them to research paper essay American School-Salzburg maintain their independence and improve their quality of how to write a good history essay Mount Hermon, life. 1.4.5.1 Having to stop their work or education is generally detrimental to people's health and well-being. Therefore, the ability of a person with CFS/ME to continue in education or work should be addressed early and reviewed regularly. 1.4.5.2 Healthcare professionals should proactively advise about research paper fitness for work and education, and recommend flexible adjustments or adaptations to work or studies to write coursework International Management help people with CFS/ME to return to them when they are ready and fit enough.

This may include, with the informed consent of the person with CFS/ME, liaising with employers, education providers and support services, such as: occupational health services. disability services through Jobcentre Plus. schools, home education services and local education authorities. disability advisers in research essay universities and colleges. 1.4.5.3 For people with CFS/ME who are able to continue in how to essay University or return to education or employment, healthcare professionals should ensure, with the person's informed consent, that employers, occupational health or education institutions have information on the condition and the agreed management plan. 1.4.5.4 Healthcare professionals should follow the guidance from the Department for Children, Schools and Families [8] on education for children and young people with medical needs, or equivalent statutory guidance. 1.4.5.5 Healthcare professionals should work closely with social care and education services to ensure a common understanding of the goals of the person with CFS/ME.

The use of a flexible approach should be discussed, including home tuition and use of equipment that allows a gradual reintegration into education. 1.4.5.6 Time in education should not be used as a sole marker of essay, progress of CFS/ME, and education should not be the only activity a person undertakes. There should be a balance between time spent attending school or college and doing homework, and essay Adelphi time spent on home and social activities. 1.4.5.7 If possible, and with the paper essay American International informed consent of the person with CFS/ME, healthcare professionals should discuss employment issues with occupational health professionals, who will communicate with the person's manager or human resources representative. If there is no access to how to write a good essay Epsom College occupational health services, the responsible clinician should liaise with the employer directly [9] . 1.4.6 Strategies that should not be used for CFS/ME. 1.4.6.1 The following drugs should not be used for the treatment of CFS/ME: monoamine oxidase inhibitors. glucocorticoids (such as hydrocortisone) mineralocorticoids (such as fludrocortisone)

1.4.6.2 The following strategies should not be offered to people with CFS/ME: Advice to undertake unsupervised, or unstructured, vigorous exercise (such as simply 'go to the gym' or 'exercise more') because this may worsen symptoms. Specialist management programmes (see section 1.6) delivered by practitioners with no experience in essay American International School-Salzburg the condition. 1.4.6.3 Although there is considerable support from patients (particularly people with severe CFS/ME) for essays for scholarships Holland Study the following strategies, healthcare professionals should be aware that there is paper essay no controlled trial evidence of benefit: Encouraging maintenance of activity levels at history Mount, substantially less than full capacity to paper essay American reserve energy for the body to heal itself (sometimes known as the envelope theory). Encouraging complete rest (cognitive, physical and write Blue Hotel emotional) during a setback/relapse. 1.4.6.4 Strategies for managing CFS/ME should not include: Prolonged or complete rest or extended periods of daytime rest in response to a slight increase in symptoms. An imposed rigid schedule of activity and rest. 1.4.7 Complementary and supplementary therapies.

1.4.7.1 There is insufficient evidence that complementary therapies are effective treatments for CFS/ME and therefore their use is not recommended. However, some people with CFS/ME choose to use some of these therapies for symptom control, and find them helpful. 1.4.7.2 There is insufficient evidence for the use of paper essay American International School-Salzburg, supplements – such as vitamin B 12 , vitamin C, co?enzyme Q10, magnesium, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) or multivitamins and minerals – for people with CFS/ME, and therefore they should not be prescribed for write a good history essay treating the symptoms of the condition. American School-Salzburg? However, some people with CFS/ME have reported finding these helpful as a part of a self-management strategy for their symptoms. 1.4.7.3 People with CFS/ME who are using supplements should be advised not to exceed the safe levels recommended by the Food Standards Agency [10] . 1.4.7.4 Some people with CFS/ME need supplements because of Holland, a restricted dietary intake or nutritional deficiencies. Essay American International School-Salzburg? Healthcare professionals should seek advice from a dietitian about any concerns.

1.5 Referral to specialist CFS/ME care. 1.5.1.1 Any decision to refer a person to specialist CFS/ME care should be based on their needs, the type, duration, complexity and severity of their symptoms, and Blue International the presence of comorbidities. The decision should be made jointly by paper essay the person with CFS/ME and the healthcare professional. 1.5.1.2 Referral to specialist CFS/ME care should be offered: within 6 months of write essay Mount, presentation to research paper American International School-Salzburg people with mild CFS/ME. within 3–4 months of presentation to people with moderate CFS/ME symptoms. immediately to people with severe CFS/ME symptoms. 1.6.1.1 After a patient is essays Holland International Center referred to paper essay American School-Salzburg specialist care, an initial assessment should be done to confirm the diagnosis. 1.6.1.2 If general management strategies (see section 1.4) are helpful for a person with CFS/ME, these should be continued after referral to specialist CFS/ME care.

1.6.2 Cognitive behavioural therapy, graded exercise therapy and activity management programmes. Choosing and planning treatment. 1.6.2.1 An individualised, person-centred programme should be offered. to people with CFS/ME. Write A Good History Essay? The objectives of the programme should be to: sustain or gradually extend, if possible, the person's physical, emotional and cognitive capacity. manage the physical and research paper International School-Salzburg emotional impact of their symptoms.

1.6.2.2 The rationale and how to write essay Adelphi University content of the different programmes, including their potential benefits and paper International risks, should be fully explained to the person with CFS/ME. Write Essays Holland International Center? Healthcare professionals should explain that no single strategy will be successful for all patients, or during all stages of the condition. 1.6.2.3 Healthcare professionals should recognise that the person with CFS/ME is in charge of the aims of the programme. The choice of the paper essay International School-Salzburg programme, its components, and progression throughout the Northfield Mount programme should be mutually agreed and paper American based on: the person's age, preferences and needs. the person's skills and abilities in managing their condition, and their goals (such as improvement or treatment of deterioration of symptoms, prevention of relapse or maintenance) the severity and complexity of a good compare essay Epsom, symptoms. physical and cognitive functioning. 1.6.2.4 Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and/or graded exercise therapy (GET) should be offered to people with mild or moderate CFS/ME and provided to those who choose these approaches, because currently these are the interventions for research School-Salzburg which there is the clearest research evidence of benefit. 1.6.2.5 If a full CBT or GET programme is how to write introduction inappropriate or not available, components of CBT or GET should be offered, either individually or more effectively in combination with: activity management strategies (see 1.6.2.22) sleep management (see 1.4.2.1–3) relaxation techniques (see 1.4.2.6). 1.6.2.6 The choice of School-Salzburg, programme, its components and progression through it should be reviewed regularly, taking into account the goals and abilities of the person with CFS/ME, and other approaches agreed as necessary.

1.6.2.7 Healthcare professionals should advise people with CFS/ME to contact them if they experience an increase in symptoms that lasts for longer than a few days after starting the research argument SDA Bocconi of Management specialist programme, or if symptoms are severe or distressing. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) 1.6.2.8 A course of CBT should be delivered only by a healthcare professional with appropriate training in CBT and experience in CFS/ME, under clinical supervision. The therapist should adhere closely to empirically grounded therapy protocols. 1.6.2.9 CBT should be offered on research essay International School-Salzburg, a one-to-one basis if possible. 1.6.2.10 CBT for a person with CFS/ME should be planned according to the usual principles of write for scholarships Holland Center, CBT, and should include: Acknowledging and essay American School-Salzburg validating the person's symptoms and condition. Explaining the CBT approach in CFS/ME, such as the relationship between thoughts, feelings, behaviours and symptoms, and the distinction between causal and Northfield perpetuating factors. Discussing the person's attitudes and expectations.

Developing a supportive and collaborative therapeutic relationship. Developing a shared formulation and understanding of factors that affect CFS/ME symptoms. Agreeing therapeutic goals. Tailoring treatment to research American International the person's needs and level of functioning. Recording and analysing patterns of activity and thinking Thompson University rest, and thoughts, feelings and research essay American International School-Salzburg behaviours (self-monitoring). Establishing a stable and maintainable activity level (baseline) followed by essays Study a gradual and paper essay American International mutually agreed increase in activity. Challenging thoughts and expectations that may affect symptom improvement and outcomes. Addressing complex adjustment to diagnosis and acceptance of current functional limitations. Developing awareness of critical thinking Rivers University, thoughts, expectations or beliefs and defining fatigue-related cognitions and behaviour. Identifying perpetuating factors that may maintain or exacerbate CFS/ME symptoms to increase the person's self-efficacy (sense of control over symptoms).

Addressing any over-vigilance to symptoms and related checking or reassurance-seeking behaviours by providing physiological explanations of paper International, symptoms and using refocusing/distraction techniques. Problem solving using activity management and homework tasks to test out Thompson, alternative thoughts or beliefs, such as undertaking pleasure and mastery tasks (tasks that are enjoyable and give a sense of accomplishment). Building on existing assertion and communication skills to set appropriate limits on activity. Managing sleep problems, for example by addressing any unhelpful beliefs about research School-Salzburg sleep, behavioural approaches to sleep disturbance, stress management, and/or relaxation training (see recommendations 1.4.2.1–6). Treating any associated or comorbid anxiety, depression or mood disorder according to NICE clinical guidelines on these conditions (see section 6). Offering information on managing setbacks/relapses (see section 1.7). 1.6.2.11 GET should be delivered only by a suitably trained GET therapist with experience in CFS/ME, under appropriate clinical supervision. 1.6.2.12 GET should be offered on a one-to-one basis if possible.

1.6.2.13 People with mild or moderate CFS/ME should be offered GET that includes planned increases in the duration of write compare Epsom College, physical activity. Research Paper Essay School-Salzburg? The intensity should then be increased when appropriate, leading to how to write and contrast essay Adelphi aerobic exercise (that is, exercise that increases the paper American School-Salzburg pulse rate). 1.6.2.14 GET should be based on the person's current level of activities (such as physical activity, daily routines, sleep patterns and frequency of setbacks/relapses) and emotional factors, vocational or educational factors and how to a good compare contrast essay Epsom individual goals (details of these may be obtained from an activity diary). American School-Salzburg? The programme should also include sleep and Thompson University relaxation strategies (see recommendations 1.4.2.1–6). 1.6.2.15 When planning GET, the healthcare professional should: Undertake an activity analysis to ensure that the essay American School-Salzburg person with CFS/ME is thinking Thompson Rivers University not in a 'boom and bust' cycle before they increase the time spent in exercise. Discuss with the person the ultimate goals that are important and relevant to them. This might be, for example, a twice-daily short walk to the shops, a return to a previous active hobby such as cycling or gardening, or, for American people with severe CFS/ME, sitting up in bed to eat a meal. Recognise that it can take weeks, months or even years to achieve goals, and ensure that this is taken into account in thinking University the therapy structure (for example, by setting short- and research paper essay International School-Salzburg medium-term goals).

Explain symptoms and the benefits of exercise in a physiological context. 1.6.2.16 When starting GET, the how to write a good history essay Northfield Mount Hermon healthcare professional should: Assess the person's current daily activities to determine their baseline. Agree with them a level of additional low-intensity exercise that is paper essay International sustainable, independent of daily fluctuations in symptoms, and does not lead to 'boom and bust' cycles. This may be sitting up in bed or brushing hair, for example, for coursework Mountains International Management School people with severe CFS/ME, or gentle stretches or a slow walk. Encourage them to undertake this exercise for at paper American International School-Salzburg, least 5 days out of 7, or build up to this level if and when possible. Advise them that this level of exercise may mildly increase symptoms for a few days (for example, a mild to moderate increase in for scholarships Holland Study Center stiffness and fatigue), explain why this may occur and discuss strategies to mitigate it.

Offer information on essay International School-Salzburg, the management of essays for scholarships Holland Center, setbacks/relapses (see section 1.7). Progressing with GET. 1.6.2.17 When the low-intensity exercise can be sustained for 5 days out of 7 (usually accompanied by a reduction in perceived exertion), the research paper American School-Salzburg duration should be reviewed and increased, if appropriate, by up to 20%. For example, a 5-minute walk becomes 6 minutes, or a person with severe CFS/ME sits up in bed for a longer period, or walks to another room more often. The aim is to reach 30 minutes of low-intensity exercise. 1.6.2.18 When the thinking online Rivers duration of low-intensity exercise has reached 30 minutes, the intensity of the exercise may be increased gradually up to an aerobic heart rate zone, as assessed individually by a healthcare professional. A rate of 50–70% maximum heart rate is recommended. 1.6.2.19 Exercise intensity should be measured using a heart rate monitor, so that the research American School-Salzburg person knows they are within their target heart rate zone. 1.6.2.20 If agreed GET goals are met, exercise duration and intensity may be increased further if appropriate, if other daily activities can also be sustained, and in agreement with the person with CFS/ME. 1.6.2.21 After completing a GET programme, the write coursework Mountains Hotel School healthcare professional and the person with CFS/ME should continue working together to paper essay American develop and build on strategies to maintain exercise. Support should be available, if needed, to enable the research essay SDA Bocconi School of Management person to reinforce the learning and lifestyle changes made and continue GET beyond discharge.

1.6.2.22 Activity management is a goal-oriented and person-centred approach tailored to the needs of the person with CFS/ME. It should include: Understanding that activities have physical, emotional and research essay American International School-Salzburg cognitive components, and identifying these components. Keeping a diary that records cognitive and physical activity, daytime rest and write for scholarships Holland International Center sleep. This will help to set baseline levels of activity (a stable and sustainable range of functioning), identify patterns of over- and underactivity, and develop an activity/exercise strategy. Establishing a baseline; specific activities may need to be increased or decreased while this is happening. Gradually increasing activity above the baseline in agreement with the person. Planning daily activities to allow for a balance and variety of different types of activity, rest and research American School-Salzburg sleep. This may include making a weekly activity schedule. Spreading out difficult or demanding tasks over how to and contrast University the day or week.

Splitting activities into small achievable tasks according to the person's level of ability/functioning, followed by gradual increases in research the complexity of the tasks. Monitoring, regulating and planning activities to Thompson Rivers University avoid a 'boom and bust' cycle. Goal setting, planning and research International School-Salzburg prioritising activities. Explaining the role of rest in argument SDA Bocconi CFS/ME and research essay School-Salzburg helping the person work out how to build in rest periods and achieve a productive day (see recommendations 1.4.2.1–6). Regularly reviewing activity levels and essays Study goals.

Offering information on research American School-Salzburg, the management of setbacks/relapses (see section 1.7). 1.6.3 Pharmacological interventions for symptom control. 1.6.3.1 If chronic pain is a predominant feature, healthcare professionals should consider referral to a pain management clinic. 1.6.3.2 Prescribing of low-dose tricyclic antidepressants, specifically amitriptyline, should be considered for people with CFS/ME who have poor sleep or pain. Tricyclic antidepressants should not be offered to people who are already taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) because of the potential for serious adverse interactions. 1.6.3.3 Melatonin may be considered for children and young people with CFS/ME who have sleep difficulties, but only under specialist supervision because it is not licensed in the UK. 1.7 Management of setbacks/relapses. 1.7.1 Preparing for a setback/relapse.

1.7.1.1 People with CFS/ME should be advised that setbacks/relapses are to be expected as part of critical thinking Rivers, CFS/ME. 1.7.1.2 Healthcare professionals and essay American International people with CFS/ME should develop a plan for managing setbacks/relapses, so that skills, strategies, resources and support are readily available and accessible when needed. This plan may be shared with the how to write a compare and contrast introduction Adelphi University person's carers, if they agree. 1.7.2.1 Setbacks/relapses may be triggered by essay International School-Salzburg factors such as unexpected/unplanned activities, poor sleep, infection or stress. Healthcare professionals, in discussion with the online Thompson person with CFS/ME, should try to research paper essay International identify the cause(s) of a setback/relapse, but it should be recognised that this may not always be possible. 1.7.2.2 When managing a setback/relapse, the management plan should be reviewed. Healthcare professionals should discuss and agree an appropriate course of action with the critical Thompson Rivers person with CFS/ME, taking into account: the person's experience. possible causes of the research paper American School-Salzburg setback/relapse, if known. the nature of the symptoms.

the severity and duration of the setback/relapse. the current management plan. 1.7.2.3 When managing setbacks, healthcare professionals should put strategies in place that: Include relaxation and breathing techniques. Maintain activity and exercise levels if possible, by alternating activities with breaks and how to write a good essay Epsom pacing activities, as appropriate. Involve talking to families and carers, if appropriate. Recognise distressing thoughts about setbacks/relapses such as 'this means I'll never get better', but encourage optimism.

Involve reconsidering and revising the levels and types of research School-Salzburg, symptom control. 1.7.2.4 In some setbacks/relapses, it may be necessary to how to contrast Epsom reduce, or even stop some activities and increase the frequency and/or duration of rest periods to research essay American International stabilise symptoms and re-establish a baseline activity level. This should be discussed and agreed with the critical thinking online Thompson University person with CFS/ME. 1.7.2.5 People with CFS/ME should be advised to minimise daytime sleep periods. However, healthcare professionals should recognise that this is not always possible, depending on the severity of a person's symptoms and the setback. 1.7.3.1 After a setback/relapse, healthcare professionals should review the person's activity levels to re-establish a baseline and review the management plan. A gradual return, when possible, to previous exercise and functional routines should be encouraged. Activity should be increased gradually. 1.7.3.2 Healthcare professionals should advise on:

Slowly decreasing the frequency and duration of rest periods. Continuing the use of relaxation techniques, even when the person with CFS/ME is beginning to feel better. 1.7.3.3 After a setback, healthcare professionals and people with CFS/ME should review the experience to determine, if possible, whether triggers can be managed in the future, and put strategies in place to paper American School-Salzburg do this. 1.8.1.1 Regular, structured review should be undertaken for write compare Epsom College all people with CFS/ME. The review should include, if appropriate: Assessing improvement or deterioration in symptoms.

Assessing any adverse or unwanted effects of paper American International, therapy. Considering the research School need to repeat investigations (for children and International young people, repeating investigations should be considered if there is no improvement after 1 year). Reviewing the diagnosis, especially if signs and symptoms change (see recommendation 1.2.1.4). Considering referral to specialist CFS/ME care. Reviewing equipment needs. Assessing any additional support needs (see sections 1.1 and 1.4). 1.8.1.2 The timing of the reviews should depend on write compare contrast essay College, the severity and complexity of essay American School-Salzburg, symptoms, the effectiveness of write essays for scholarships Holland International, any interventions, and the needs of the person with CFS/ME. 1.9 Key principles of care for people with severe CFS/ME.

1.9.1.1 Management of severe CFS/ME is difficult and complex and healthcare professionals should recognise that specialist expertise is needed when planning and providing care for people with severe CFS/ME. 1.9.1.2 Diagnosis, investigations, management and follow-up care for research paper American International School-Salzburg people with severe CFS/ME should be supervised or supported by a specialist in CFS/ME. 1.9.1.3 People with severe CFS/ME may need to use community services at times. These services may include nursing, occupational therapy, dietetics, respite care, psychology and physiotherapy (see the 'National service framework for how to write compare long-term conditions' [11] ). Research Essay International School-Salzburg? The input of different professionals should be coordinated by how to write a good compare essay a named professional. 1.9.1.4 People with severe CFS/ME should be offered a summary record of every consultation because of their cognitive difficulties. 1.9.1.5 Most people with CFS/ME will not need hospital admission. However, there may be circumstances when a planned admission should be considered.

The decision to admit should be made with the person with CFS/ME and their family, and be based on an informed consideration of the benefits and paper essay School-Salzburg disadvantages. For example, a planned admission may be useful if assessment of a management plan and investigations would require frequent visits to the hospital. 1.9.2.1 When making decisions about prolonged bed rest, healthcare professionals should seek advice from a specialist experienced in the care of people with severe CFS/ME. The significant physical and psychological risks associated with prolonged bed rest should be taken into account. 1.9.2.2 Healthcare professionals working with people with severe CFS/ME who are in bed most (or all) of the time, should explain the associated risks (such as postural hypotension, deep venous thrombosis, osteoporosis, pressure sores and deconditioning) and monitor these. 1.9.3.1 People with severe CFS/ME should be offered an individually tailored activity management programme (see recommendation 1.6.2.22) as the core therapeutic strategy, which may: be delivered at home, or using telephone or email if appropriate. incorporate the elements of recommendation 1.6.2.22 and draw on the principles of CBT and Holland International Study Center GET (see recommendations 1.6.2.1–21). 1.9.3.2 An activity management programme should be reviewed regularly and frequently. [4] Available from the Department of Health (England; this framework includes an exemplar pathway for CFS/ME) and NHS Wales. [5] Follow 'Referral guidelines for suspected cancer' (NICE clinical guideline 27) or other NICE guidelines as the American International School-Salzburg symptoms indicate.

[6] For general advice on sleep hygiene, see the NHS Direct website. [7] Food Standards Agency (2006) 'The balance of good health'. London: Foods Standards Agency. [9] NHS Plus has produced guidance on the occupational aspects of the management of CFS/ME (search for 'chronic fatigue syndrome'). NICE [year]. All rights reserved.

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