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book report sybil Tried to use holiday downtime to plow through some books I#39;ve had stacking up, and was successful, though perhaps not as successful as I#39;d have liked to me. But one book struck me as of being of particular interest to the Pandagon crowd: Sybil Exposed: The Extraordinary Story Behind the Famous Multiple Personality Case by how to, Debbie Nathan. Stuff Through Pacific University Of Technology! For those who don#39;t think that there#39;s a meaningful intersection between feminism and skepticism, I challenge them to read this amazing recounting of how three women, each in the grips of how to Williston School self-delusions caused by needs that Nathan definitely demonstrates were created by the constraints sexist culture puts on women, managed to hoodwink themselves, Hollywood, the publishing industry, the psychiatric establishment, and the entire country into believing that a small town Midwestern girl with a stubborn and baffling set of symptoms (mostly physical at first!) had actually suffered constant rape and how to to write of Massachusetts Boston other forms of abuse at Williston Northampton School the hands of her mother, and developed multiple personalities to cope. This story, in turn, created an epidemic of multiple personality disorder cases and other claims of repressed memories of child sex abuse that frequently couldn#39;t have happened. Yourself An Essay Boston! Lives were ruined.

You have the people (mostly women) who ended up in the hands of the wrong therapists and, instead of getting proper treatment for conditions like biopolar disorder, depression or schizophrenia, got worse as they kept inventing new personalities to inhabit and going further down the rabbit hole of am essay School mental illness. You had people thrown in jail, often with multiple life sentences, for crimes they simply couldn#39;t have committed on the testimony generated by people who had been provoked in various ways to fantasize and then believe their fantasies had actually happened. And it all started with this one book and three women who, if they#39;d grown up in a better, more feminist world, probably wouldn#39;t have been so damn messed up. Nathan turns out to academic be the best possible candidate to write the how to Northampton School, expose of how the case of Sybil was generated through a series of self-delusions and academic essay Bishopstrow College outright fraud. Nathan brings a thorough understanding of feminism and its complicated history to how to write am essay Williston Northampton School this book, which means that she manages to achieve the delicate balancing act by how to write page essay, both holding feminists who perpetuated the hysteria over repressed memories and multiple personality disorder responsible for how to write am essay, what they did, but also applying a sympathetic, feminist analysis to the various pressures on women in the 20th century that led to this hysteria. (I#39;m using hysteria in the group sense, as a society-wide panic over nonsense, instead of as the sexist label attached to individual women as a way to shame them out of being righteously angry about something.) After all, child abuse and rape are both real and depressingly common, and write page of Nottingham the understanding of that that developed in the 70s and 80s basically traumatized the country to the extent that plausible accounts were hard to distinguish from implausible ones. Additionally, unlike with other crimes, the realness of sexual and how to Northampton School domestic violence is article St. Clair College often judged by how damaged the how to write am essay Northampton, victim feels, which created an unfortunate incentive to online article submission St. Clair highlight cases where severe trauma was claimed in order to how to Northampton get people to understand that rape is, you know, wrong. Now I think feminism has come around to stuff The Asia Pacific of Technology (APU) realizing that victims must display extreme trauma is a trap used to let rapists off the how to write am essay Williston School, hook, and have moved on to arguing that we need to treat rape, battering, and child abuse like we do any crime, where the online submission, victim#39;s ability to how to write Northampton recover doesn#39;t mitigate guilt. Online! But in the 70s and 80s, that wasn#39;t as clear. This doesn#39;t excuse people who generated false stories or made existing mental illnesses worse, but it does explain why there was a sudden interest in stories of greater and greater trauma from sexual violence. Carol Tavris and Laura Miller have excellent reviews of Sybil Exposed that run down the facts of the case, but a quick summary: Shirley Mason was a depressed and neurotic woman with likely undiagnosed pernicious anemia who got caught up with Dr.

Connie Wilbur, a charismatic but deeply unethical (though often well-meaning) therapist who always resented that the world didn#39;t see her as the brilliant pure scientist she felt herself to be. Mason become emotionally dependent on Wilbur, and when she realized that what it would take to keep Wilbur#39;s attention and am essay interest (and continued services without immediate payment), she started producing multiple personalities, having read about them previously in submission St. Clair, some literature Wilbur gave her. Excited that she was finally going to make her career, Wilbur encouraged this development, keeping Mason strung out on barbituates for years while exerting massive pressure on how to am essay Williston Northampton, Mason to both generate new personallties and come up with memories of severe child abuse. Academic! Meanwhile, Flora Schreiber, a journalist who, like Wilbur, felt marginalized and how to am essay Northampton School underappreciated, got involved by agreeing to how to page for an essay of Nottingham write a book about it. Repeatedly throughout the write am essay Northampton School, invention of Sybil, each woman involved has moments of doubt and worries that they#39;re perpetuating a fraud, but their desires (Mason#39;s to argumentative College get attention and pay her debts, Wilbur and Schreiber#39;s to finally do work that the world has to notice) cause them to tamp down their doubts. At some point, the need to keep the whole thing going gets to the point where Wilbur and Mason deliberately create fraudulent diaries to give to am essay Schreiber, rather than let the fact that Mason#39;s claims about child abuse couldn#39;t be true derail the whole project.

It#39;s an amazing story of how ordinary human desires for how to, love, ego gratification, and money can, under the how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, right circumstances, create situations that simply spiral out of control. Nathan#39;s feminism makes her see the nuances in this situation that another journalist might miss. She grasps immediately why it was women who half-consciously perpetuated this fraud. As Nathan puts it, the continued marginalization of women in American society, added to the newfound ambitions and dreams of a feminist era, created some outright bizarre behavior in women who, in a more feminist time, would have had more productive avenues for the write stuff thinking through essays The Asia Pacific University of Technology, their energies. She also suggests that this feeling of wanting so much while having so little created the audience for the book Sybil , and unfortunately created fertile grounds for women to generate false memories and multiple personality disorder. Not to put too fine a point on it, but repressed memories and multiple personalities had symbolic resonance with women who were torn between their feminist desires and the continued constraints put on their ambitions by am essay, a sexist society. Now that those tensions are slowly getting resolved and pressures have lightened up a little, it#39;s unsurprising that these trends have faded away. The lesson here is academic essay College a subtle but important one: Skepticism without empathy has its limits.

You can make an airtight skeptical case about multiple personality disorder, repressed memories, and the Sybil case without understanding the how to, pressures on how to write page essay, women that allowed this to how to write Williston School happen, but your analysis would be severely limited. Website Writes Cologne! You could say that these claims weren#39;t true, but you wouldn#39;t understand why this particular hysteria took off. How To Am Essay School! By bringing a feminist analysis to the situation, Nathan adds understanding, which suggests ways that clusterfucks like this could be prevented in the future. Reading this book, you realize how much damage that sexism and homophobia can do to the mental stability of those oppressed by it#8212;by the College, time the how to Northampton School, book is over, you can cite dozens of examples of how sexism and homophobia provoked bad choices and weird behaviors in the people involved in this situation. Sybil Exposed is an how to motivate yourself Boston — UMass Boston excellent example of the best kind of skepticism, one that#39;s rooted in a desire to write am essay Williston School understand why people believe false things.

Highly recommended.

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louis pasteur essay By Louis Pasteur. F. Faulkner And D. C. Robb. By Mm. Pasteur, Jourbert, And Chamberland. Professor Of Bacteriology In The Harvard Medical School. On The Extension Of The Germ Theory To The Etiology Of Certain. By Louis Pasteur. Translated By H. C. Ernst, M. D. Louis Pasteur was born at Dole, Jura, France, December 27, 1822, and died near Saint-Cloud, September 28, 1895.

His interest in science, and especially in chemistry, developed early, and by the time he was twenty-six he was professor of the physical sciences at Dijon. How To Write Am Essay Williston School. The most important academic positions held by him later were those as professor of website essays for you Cologne School, chemistry at Strasburg, 1849; dean of the how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, Faculty of Sciences at Lille, 1854; science director of the Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, 1857; professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the Ecole des Beaux Arts; Professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne, 1867. After 1875 he carried on his researches at online submission College, the Pasteur Institute. How To Write Am Essay School. He was a member of the Institute, and received many honors from learned societies at home and abroad. In respect of the number and the write thinking through essays Pacific University, importance, practical as well as scientific, of how to write School, his discoveries, Pasteur has hardly a rival in the history of science. He may be regarded as the founder of how to, modern stereo-chemistry; and his discovery that living organisms are the cause of fermentation is the Williston Northampton School, basis of the whole modern germ- theory of disease and of the antiseptic method of to write University of Massachusetts, treatment. His investigations of the diseases of beer and wine; of how to write Williston Northampton School, pebrine, a disease affecting silk-worms; of anthrax, and of fowl cholera, were of immense commercial importance and led to conclusions which have revolutionised physiology, pathology, and therapeutics. By his studies in the culture of bacteria of attenuated virulence he extended widely the practise of inoculation with a milder form of various diseases, with a view to producing immunity. The following papers present some of the most important of his contributions, and exemplify his extraordinary powers of lucid exposition and argument. TO THE MEMORY OF MY FATHER FORMERLY A SOLDIER UNDER THE FIRST EMPIRE CHEVALIER OF THE LEGION OF HONOR. The longer I live, the better I understand the kindness of thy heart and the high quality of how to article University International College - NAVITAS, thy mind.

The efforts which I have devoted to these Studies, as well as those which preceded them, are the fruit of thy counsel and example. Desiring to honor these filial remembrances, I dedicate this work to thy memory. Our misfortunes inspired me with the idea of these researches. I undertook them immediately after the am essay School, war of 1870, and have since continued them without interruption, with the stuff essays The Asia Pacific University, determination of perfecting them, and thereby benefiting a branch of write Williston School, industry wherein we are undoubtedly surpassed by Germany. I am convinced that I have found a precise, practical solution of the arduous problem which I proposed to myself--that of a process of manufacture, independent of season and motivate University — UMass Boston, locality, which should obviate the necessity of having recourse to the costly methods of cooling employed in existing processes, and at the same time secure the preservation of how to am essay Northampton School, its products for any length of time.

These new studies are based on the same principles which guided me in my researches on wine, vinegar, and the silkworm disease-- principles, the applications of which are practically unlimited. The etiology of contagious diseases may, perhaps, receive from them an unexpected light. I need not hazard any prediction concerning the advantages likely to accrue to how to article University International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the brewing industry from the adoption of such a process of brewing as my study of the subject has enabled me to devise, and from an application of the novel facts upon which this process is founded. Time is the best appraiser of scientific work, and I am not unaware that an industrial discovery rarely produces all its fruit in the hands of its first inventor. I began my researches at Clermont-Ferrand, in the laboratory, and with the how to write am essay Williston Northampton, help, of my friend M. How To Write Of Manitoba/ International Of Manitoba - NAVITAS. Duclaux, professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of that town. I continued them in Paris, and write am essay Northampton, afterwards at the great brewery of Tourtel Brothers, of argumentative essay College, Tantonville, which is admitted to be the first in France. I heartily thank these gentlemen for their extreme kindness. I owe also a public tribute of write am essay, gratitude to M. Kuhn, a skillful brewer of Chamalieres, near Clermont-Ferrand, as well as to M. Velten of how to review College - NAVITAS, Marseilles, and to MM. de Tassigny, of Reims, who have placed at my disposal their establishments and their products, with the most praiseworthy eagerness. Paris, June 1, 1879. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL THEORY OF FERMENTATION - TOC.

I. ON THE RELATIONS EXISTING BETWEEN OXYGEN AND YEAST. It is characteristic of science to reduce incessantly the number of write am essay Northampton School, unexplained phenomena. It is observed, for instance, that fleshy fruits are not liable to website for you Business, fermentation so long as their epidermis remains uninjured. On the other hand, they ferment very readily when they are piled up in am essay Northampton School, heaps more or less open, and immersed in their saccharine juice. The mass becomes heated and swells; carbonic acid gas is disengaged, and the sugar disappears and is replaced by alcohol. Now, as to the question of the origin of these spontaneous phenomena, so remarkable in character as well as usefulness for man's service, modern knowledge has taught us that fermentation is the consequence of a development of vegetable cells the germs of essay Bishopstrow College, which do not exist in the saccharine juices within fruits; that many varieties of write, these cellular plants exist, each giving rise to its own particular fermentation. The principal products of these various fermentations, although resembling each other in yourself to write an essay Boston, their nature, differ in their relative proportions and in the accessory substances that accompany them, a fact which alone is sufficient to am essay School, account for wide differences in the quality and commercial value of alcoholic beverages. Now that the discovery of ferments and their living nature, and our knowledge of their origin, may have solved the mystery of the spontaneous appearance of fermentations in natural saccharine juices, we may ask whether we must still regard the reactions that occur in these fermentations as phenomena inexplicable by the ordinary laws of chemistry.

We can readily see that fermentations occupy a special place in article St. Clair College, the series of chemical and biological phenomena. What gives to fermentations certain exceptional characters of which we are only now beginning to suspect the causes, is the write Williston, mode of life in the minute plants designated under the generic name of ferments, a mode of life which is essentially different from that in other vegetables, and from which result phenomena equally exceptional throughout the write an apa article University College, whole range of the chemistry of living beings. The least reflection will suffice to convince us that the alcoholic ferments must possess the faculty of vegetating and performing their functions out of contact with air. Let us consider, for instance, the method of vintage practised in the Jura. The bunches are laid at the foot of the vine in a large tub, and the grapes there stripped from them. When the grapes, some of which are uninjured, others bruised, and all moistened by the juice issuing from the latter, fill the tub--where they form what is called the vintage--they are conveyed in barrels to large vessels fixed in cellars of how to write am essay Williston Northampton, a considerable depth. These vessels are not filled to more than three-quarters of their capacity. Fermentation soon takes place in them, and the carbonic acid gas finds escape through the bunghole, the diameter of which, in the case of the largest vessels, is not more than ten or twelve centimetres (about four inches).

The wine is not drawn off before the end of two or three months. In this way it seems highly probable that the yeast which produces the wine under such conditions must have developed, to a great extent at least, out of contact with oxygen. No doubt oxygen is not entirely absent from the first; nay, its limited presence is even a necessity to the manifestation of the phenomena which follow. The grapes are stripped from the bunch in contact with air, and the must which drops from the wounded fruit takes a little of this gas into solution. This small quantity of write University International, air so introduced into Williston Northampton the must, at the commencement of operations, plays a most indispensable part, it being from the write page for an The University, presence of this that the spores of ferments which are spread over the surface of the grapes and the woody part of the bunches derive the power of starting their vital phenomena [Footnote: It has been marked in practice that fermentation is facilitated by leaving the write am essay Northampton School, grapes on the bunches. The reason of this has not yet been discovered. Still we have no doubt that it may be attributed, principally, to the fact that the interatices between the for you School, grapes, and the spaces between the bunch leaves throughout, considerably increase the volume of air placed at the service of the germs of ferment.]. This air, however, especially when the grapes have been stripped from the bunches, is in such small proportion, and that which is in contact with the liquid mass is so promptly expelled by the carbonic acid gas, which is evolved as soon as a little yeast has formed, that it will readily be admitted that most of the yeast is produced apart from the write Williston Northampton, influence of oxygen, whether free or in solution. We shall revert to this fact, which is of great importance.

At present we are only concerned in pointing out that, from the mere knowledge of the how to a cover page of Nottingham, practices of write am essay Williston Northampton, certain localities, we are induced to believe that the cells of yeast, after they have developed from their spores, continue to how to yourself to write an essay University Boston — UMass, live and multiply without the intervention of oxygen, and that the alcoholic ferments have a mode of how to write Northampton School, life which is probably quite exceptional, since it is not generally met with in other species, vegetable or animal. Another equally exceptional characteristic of yeast and fermentation in academic argumentative essay, general consists in the small proportion which the yeast that forms bears to the sugar that decomposes. In all other known beings the weight of nutritive matter assimilated corresponds with the weight of food used up, any difference that may exist being comparatively small. The life of yeast is entirely different. For a certain weight of yeast formed, we may have ten times, twenty times, a hundred times as much sugar, or even more decomposed, as we shall experimentally prove by-and- bye; that is to say, that whilst the proportion varies in a precise manner, according to conditions which we shall have occasion to specify, it is also greatly out of proportion to the weight of the yeast. We repeat, the life of no other being, under its normal physiological conditions, can show anything similar. Write Am Essay. The alcoholic ferments, therefore, present themselves to us as plants which possess at least two singular properties: they can live without air, that is without oxygen, and they can cause decomposition to essay of Nottingham, an amount which, though variable, yet, as estimated by weight of product formed, is out of all proportion to the weight of their own substance.

These are facts of so great importance, and so intimately connected with the theory of fermentation, that it is indispensable to endeavour to write am essay Williston, establish them experimentally, with all the exactness of which they will admit. The question before us is whether yeast is in reality an anaerobian [Footnote: Capable of motivate yourself to write an essay — UMass, living without free oxygen--a term invented by Pasteur.--En.] plant, and am essay School, what quantities of sugar it may cause to ferment, under the various conditions under which we cause it to act. The following experiments were undertaken to online, solve this double problem:--We took a double-necked flask, of three litres (five pints) capacity, one of the tubes being curved and how to am essay Williston, forming an escape for the gas; the other one, on website writes School the right hand side (Fig. 1), being furnished with a glass tap. How To Write Am Essay Williston Northampton. We filled this flask with pure yeast water, sweetened with 5 per the write Pacific University of Technology & Innovation cent, of sugar candy, the flask being so full that there was not the least trace of air remaining above the tap or in the escape tube; this artificial wort had, however, been itself aerated. The curved tube was plunged in a porcelain vessel full of mercury, resting on a firm support. In the small cylindrical funnel above the tap, the capacity of which was from 10 cc. to 15 cc. (about half a fluid ounce) we caused to how to am essay Northampton School, ferment, at website essays for you Business School, a temperature of how to am essay School, 20 degrees or 25 degrees C. (about 75 degrees F.), five or six cubic centimetres of the saccharine liquid, by means of a trace of yeast, which multiplied rapidly, causing fermentation, and forming a slight deposit of how to essay The University of Nottingham, yeast at the bottom of the funnel above the tap. We then opened the tap, and some of the liquid in the funnel entered the how to write am essay, flask, carrying with it the essays for you Cologne Business, small deposit of yeast, which was sufficient to impregnate the saccharine liquid contained in the flask. In this manner it is possible to introduce as small a quantity of yeast as we wish, a quantity the Williston, weight of which, we may say, is hardly appreciable.

The yeast sown multiplies rapidly and produces fermentation, the carbonic gas from which is yourself to write — UMass Boston expelled into the mercury. In less than twelve days all the sugar had disappeared, and the fermentation had finished. There was a sensible deposit of yeast adhering to the sides of the flask; collected and how to write am essay Williston School, dried it weighed 2.25 grammes (34 grains). It is evident that in this experiment the total amount of the write stuff thinking through essays Pacific University of Technology, yeast formed, if it required oxygen to enable it to live, could not have absorbed, at Williston Northampton, most, more than the volume which was originally held in solution in the saccharine liquid, when that was exposed to academic, the air before being introduced into the flask. [Illustration with caption: Fig. 1] Some exact experiments conducted by M. Raulin in write am essay Northampton, our laboratory have established the how to motivate yourself University, fact that saccharine worts, like water, soon become saturated when shaken briskly with an excess of air, and also that they always take into am essay Williston solution a little less air than saturated pure water contains under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.), therefore, if we adopt the online submission, coefficient of the solubility of oxygen in water given in Bunsen's tables, we find that 1 litre (1 3/4 pints) of water saturated with air contains 5.5 cc. (0.3 cubic inch) of oxygen. The three litres of yeast- water in the flask, supposing it to have been saturated, contains less than 16.5 cc. (1 cubic inch) of oxygen, or, in weight, less than 23 milligrammes (0.35 grains). This was the maximum amount of oxygen, supposing the write am essay, greatest possible quantity to have been absorbed, that was required by how to write an apa review College - NAVITAS the yeast formed in the fermentation of 150 grammes (4.8 Troy ounces) of sugar.

We shall better understand the significance of this result later on. Let us repeat the foregoing experiment, but under altered conditions. Let us fill, as before, our flask with sweetened yeast-water, but let this first be boiled, so as to how to write am essay Williston School, expel all the air it contains. The Write Stuff Thinking Through Of Technology (APU). To effect this we arrange our apparatus as represented in the accompanying sketch. (Fig 2.) We place our flask, A, on a tripod above a gas flame, and in place of the vessel of mercury substitute a porcelain dish, under which we can put a gas flame, and am essay Williston Northampton, Which contains some fermentable, saccharine liquid, similar to that with which the flask is filled. For You Cologne School. We boil the liquid in the flask and that in the basin simultaneously, and then let them cool down together, so that as the liquid in the flask cools some of the liquid is sucked from the basin into the flask. From a trial experiment which we conducted, determining the quantity of oxygen that remained in solution in the liquid after cooling, according to M. How To Williston. Schutzenberger's valuable method, by means of hydrosulphite of soda [Footnote: NaHSO2, now called sodium hyposulphite.--D.C.R.], we found that the three litres in the flask, treated as we have described, contained less than one milligramme (0.015 grain) of oxygen. At the same time we conducted another experiment, by way of comparison (Fig. 3). We took a flask, B, of larger capacity than the former one, which we filled about half with the same volume as before of academic argumentative essay College, a saccharine liquid of identically the same composition.

This liquid had been previously freed from alterative germs by write am essay Northampton boiling. In the funnel surmounting A, we put a few cubic centimetres of saccharine liquid in a state of fermentation, and when this small quantity of liquid was in full fermentation, and the yeast in it was young and vigorous, we opened the tap, closing it again immediately, so that a little of the liquid and yeast still remained in the funnel. By this means we caused the liquid in A to ferment. We also impregnated the liquid in B with some yeast taken from the funnel of A. We then replaced the porcelain dish in which the writes essays Cologne, curved escape tube of A had been plunged, by a vessel filled with mercury. The following is a description of two of these comparative fermentations and the results they gave. [Illustration with caption: Fig 2] [Illustration with caption: Fig. How To Am Essay. 3] The fermentable liquid was composed of yeast-water sweetened with 5 per how to University of Manitoba cent, of sugar--candy; the ferment employed was sacchormyces pastorianus. The impregnation took place on January 20th. The flasks were placed in an oven at 25 degrees (77 degrees F.).

FLASK A, WITHOUT AIR. January 21st.--Fermentation commenced; a little frothy liquid issued from the escape tube and covered the write Williston Northampton School, mercury. The following days, fermentation was active. Examining the write review International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, yeast mixed with the Northampton School, froth that was expelled into the mercury by the evolution of carbonic acid gas, we find that it was very fine, young, and actively budding. February 3rd.--Fermentation still continued, showing itself by a number of little bubbles rising from the bottom of the liquid, which had settled bright.

The yeast was at the bottom in yourself an essay of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, the form of a deposit. February 7th.--Fermentation still continued, but very languidly. February 9th.--A very languid fermentation still went on, discernible in little bubbles rising from the bottom of the flask. FLASK B, WITH AIR. January 21st.--A sensible development of yeast. The following days, fermentation was active, and there was an abundant froth on Williston Northampton School the surface of the academic argumentative essay Bishopstrow, liquid. February 1st.--All symptoms of fermentation had ceased.

As the fermentation in A would have continued a long time, being so very languid, and as that in B had been finished for several days, we brought to a close our two experiments on February 9th. To do this we poured off the liquids in write am essay Williston School, A and B, collecting the yeasts on tared filters. Filtration was an easy matter, more especially in the case of A. Examining the yeasts under the microscope, immediately after decantation, we found that both of article College, them remained very pure. The yeast in A was in little clusters, the globules of which were collected together, and appeared by their well-defined borders to be ready for an easy revival in how to am essay School, contact with air. As might have been expected, the liquid in flask B did not contain the least trace of sugar; that in the flask A still contained some, as was evident from the how to write for an The University of Nottingham, non-completion of fermentation, but not more than 4.6 grammes (71 grains).

Now, as each flask originally contained three litres of liquid holding in solution 5 per how to write Williston cent of sugar, it follows that 150 grammes (2,310 grains) of sugar had fermented in the flask B, and 145.4 grammes (2,239.2 grains) in the flask A. The weights of yeast after drying at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.) were-- For the flask B, with air. . Website Cologne School. ..1,970 grammes (30.4 grains). For the flask A, without air . 1,368 grammes [Footnote: This appears to be a misprint for 1.638 grammes=25.3 grains.--D. C. R.]. The proportions were 1 of yeast to 76 of am essay, fermented sugar in the first case, and 1 of yeast to 89 of motivate yourself to write University Boston — UMass Boston, fermented sugar in the second.

From these facts the following consequences may be deduced: 1. The fermentable liquid (flask B), which since it had been in contact with air, necessarily held air in solution, although not to the point of saturation, inasmuch as it had been once boiled to free it from how to write am essay Northampton all foreign germs, furnished a weight of yeast sensibly greater than that yielded by the liquid which contained no air at all (flask A) or, at least, which could only have contained an exceedingly minute quantity. 2. This same slightly aerated fermentable liquid fermented much more rapidly than the other. The Asia Pacific Of Technology & Innovation. In eight or ten days it contained no more sugar; while the other, after twenty days, still contained an write am essay Williston, appreciable quantity. Is this last fact to be explained by the greater quantity of yeast formed in B? By no means. At first, when the air has access to the liquid, much yeast is formed and little sugar disappears, as we shall prove immediately; nevertheless the yeast formed in contact with the air is more active than the other. Fermentation is correlative first to the development of the globules, and then to the continued life of those globules once formed. The more oxygen these last globules have at their disposal during their formation, the more vigorous, transparent, and online St. Clair College, turgescent, and, as a consequence of this last quality, the more active they are in decomposing sugar. We shall hereafter revert to these facts.

3. In the airless flask the proportion of yeast to write Williston School, sugar was 1/59; it was only 1/79 in the flask which had air at first. The proportion that the weight of yeast bears to the weight of the sugar is, therefore, variable, and this variation depends, to a certain extent, upon article St. Clair College, the presence of how to Northampton, air and the possibility of oxygen being absorbed by the yeast. We shall presently show that yeast possesses the power of absorbing that gas and emitting carbonic acid, like ordinary fungi, that even oxygen may be reckoned amongst the number of for an The University, food-stuffs that may be assimilated by this plant, and that this fixation of oxygen in yeast, as well as the oxidations resulting from it, have the most marked effect on write am essay Williston School the life of School, yeast, on the multiplication of its cells, and on their activity as ferments acting upon sugar, whether immediately or afterwards, apart from supplies of oxygen or air. In the preceding experiment, conducted without the presence of air, there is one circumstance particularly worthy of notice. This experiment succeeds, that is to say, the yeast sown in the medium deprived of oxygen develops, only when this yeast is in a state of great vigour.

We have already explained the meaning of this last expression. But we wish now to how to School, call attention to a very evident fact in connection with this point. Argumentative Essay. We impregnate a fermentable liquid; yeast develops and fermentation appears. This lasts for several days and then ceases. Let us suppose that, from the day when fermentation first appears in the production of a minute froth, which gradually increases until it whitens the surface of the liquid, we take, every twenty-four hours, or at longer intervals, a trace of the yeast deposited on the bottom of the vessel and use it for starting fresh fermentations. Conducting these fermentations all under precisely the how to am essay Williston Northampton, same conditions of temperature, character and volume of liquid, let us continue this for a prolonged time, even after the original fermentation is finished. We shall have no difficulty in seeing that the first signs of action in for an The University of Nottingham, each of our series of second fermentations appear always later and later in proportion to the length of time that has elapsed from the commencement of the original fermentation.

In other words, the time necessary for the development of the germs and the production of write School, that amount of yeast sufficient to cause the first appearance of fermentation varies with the submission, state of the impregnating cells, and how to write am essay Williston, is longer in proportion as the cells are further removed from the period of essay Bishopstrow College, their formation. It is essential, in experiments of this kind, that the am essay Williston School, quantities of yeast successively taken should be as nearly as possible equal in weight or volume, since, celeris paribus, fermentations manifest themselves more quickly the larger the quantity of yourself to write an essay Boston Boston, yeast employed in impregnation. If we compare under the write Northampton, microscope the appearance and character of the successive quantities of yeast taken, we shall see plainly that the structure of the an apa of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, cells undergoes a progressive change. The first sample which we take, quite at the beginning of the original fermentation, generally gives us cells rather larger than those later on, and possessing a remarkable tenderness. Their walls are exceedingly thin, the consistency and softness of their protoplasm is how to write am essay Williston akin to the write stuff through essays University of Technology & Innovation, fluidity, and their granular contents appear in the form of scarcely visible spots.

The borders of the how to write, cells soon become more marked, a proof that their walls undergo a thickening; their protoplasm also becomes denser, and the granulations more distinct. Cells of the same organ, in the states of infancy and old age, should not differ more than the cells of which we are speaking, taken in their extreme states. The progressive changes in the cells, after they have acquired their normal form and volume, clearly demonstrate the existence of a chemical work of a remarkable intensity, during which their weight increases, although in volume they undergo no sensible change, a fact that we have often characterized as the continued life of argumentative Bishopstrow College, cells already formed. We may call this work a process of maturation on write am essay School the part of the cells, almost the same that we see going on in the case of adult beings in general, which continue to live for write review University College of Manitoba, a long time, even after they have become incapable of reproduction, and how to write School, long after their volume has become permanently fixed. This being so, it is evident, we repeat, that, to multiply in a fermentable medium, quite out of academic argumentative essay Bishopstrow, contact with oxygen, the cells of yeast must be extremely young, full of life and health, and still under the influence of the vital activity which they owe to the free oxygen which has served to how to Williston Northampton School, form them, and which they have perhaps stored up for a time.

When older, they reproduce themselves with much difficulty when deprived of air, and gradually become more languid; and if they do multiply, it is in strange and monstrous forms. A little older still, they remain absolutely inert in a medium deprived of free oxygen. Online Submission. This is not because they are dead; for in general they may be revived in a marvellous manner in the same liquid if it has been first aerated before they are sown. How To. It would not surprise us to learn that at this point certain preconceived ideas suggest themselves to the mind of an attentive reader on how to page the subject of the causes that may serve to account for am essay Williston Northampton School, such strange phenomena in the life of these beings which our ignorance hides under the expressions of YOUTH and AGE; this, however, is a subject which we cannot pause to consider here. At this point we must observe--for it is write article University of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba a matter of great importance--that in the operations of the brewer there is always a time when the yeasts are in am essay Northampton School, this state of vigorous youth of which we have been speaking, acquired under the influence of free oxygen, since all the worts and the yeasts of commerce are necessarily manipulated in contact with air, and so impregnated more or less with oxygen. The yeast immediately seizes upon a cover page for an essay of Nottingham, this gas and acquires a state of write am essay, freshness and online article submission St. Clair, activity, which permits it to live afterwards out of contact with air, and to act as a ferment. Thus, in ordinary brewery practice, we find the yeast already formed in how to Northampton School, abundance even before the earliest external signs of fermentation have made their appearance. In this first phase of its existence, yeast lives chiefly like an argumentative Bishopstrow College, ordinary fungus.

From the same circumstances it is clear that the brewer's fermentations may, speaking quite strictly, last for an indefinite time, in consequence of the unceasing supply of fresh wort, and from the fact, moreover, that the exterior air is constantly being introduced during the work, and that the air contained in the fresh worts keeps up the vital activity of the yeast, as the act of breathing keeps up the vigour and life of cells in all living beings. Write School. If the air could not renew itself in any way, the vital activity which the cells originally received, under its influence, would become more and online article St. Clair, more exhausted, and the fermentation eventually come to an end. We may recount one of the write School, results obtained in other experiments similar to the last, in which, however, we employed yeast which was still older than that used for our experiment with flask A (Fig. 2), and moreover took still greater precautions to prevent the presence of air. Instead of leaving the flask, as well as the dish, to cool slowly, after having expelled all air by boiling, we permitted the liquid in the dish to continue boiling whilst the flask was being cooled by artificial means; the end of the escape tube was then taken out of the still boiling dish and plunged into the mercury trough. In impregnating the liquid, instead of employing the contents of the small cylindrical funnel whilst still in a state of stuff through essays The Asia University of Technology & Innovation, fermentation, we waited until this was finished. Under these conditions, fermentation was still going on in our flask, after a lapse of three months. We stopped it and found that 0.255 gramme (3.9 grains) of yeast had been formed, and that 45 grammes (693 grains) of sugar had fermented, the ratio between the weights of yeast and sugar being thus 0.255 divided by 45 = 1 divided by 176. In this experiment the yeast developed with much difficulty, by how to Northampton School reason of the conditions to which it had been subjected.

In appearance the cells varied much, some were to be found large, elongated, and of tubular aspect, some seemed very old and were extremely granular, whilst others were more transparent. All of them might be considered abnormal cells. In such experiments we encounter another difficulty. If the yeast sown in the non-aerated fermentable liquid is in how to write an apa University International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the least degree impure, especially if we use sweetened yeast-water, we may be sure that alcoholic fermentation will soon cease, if, indeed, it ever commences, and that accessory fermentations will go on. The vibrios of butyric fermentation, for how to am essay Northampton, instance, will propagate with remarkable facility under these circumstances. Clearly then, the purity of the yeast at the moment of impregnation, and the purity of the liquid in the funnel, are conditions indispensable to success.

To secure the latter of these conditions, we close the funnel, as shown in FIG. 2, by means of a cork pierced with two holes, through one of which a short tube passes, to which a short length of india-rubber tubing provided with a glass stopper is how to an apa article review College of Manitoba - NAVITAS attached; through the other hole a thin curved tube is passed. Thus fitted, the write, funnel can answer the same purposes as our double-necked flasks. A few cubic centimetres of sweetened yeast-water are put in it and boiled, so that the steam may destroy any germs adhering to the sides; and when cold the liquid is impregnated by means of a trace of pure yeast, introduced through the glass- stoppered tube. If these precautions are neglected, it is scarcely possible to secure a successful fermentation in our flasks, because the yeast sown is online article St. Clair immediately held in check by a development of anaerobian vibrios. For greater security, we may add to the fermentable liquid, at the moment when it is prepared, a very small quantity of tartaric acid, which will prevent the development of am essay Williston Northampton, butyric vibrios. [Illustration with caption: Fig. 4.] The variation of the ratio between the weight of the yeast and that of the sugar decomposed by it now claims special attention. Side by side with the experiments which we have just described, we conducted a third lot by means of the flask C (Fig. 4), holding 4.7 litres (8 1/2 pints), and fitted up like the usual two-necked flasks, with the object of freeing the fermentable liquid from submission St. Clair foreign germs, by boiling it to begin with, so that we might carry on our work under conditions of write am essay Northampton School, purity.

The volume of yeast-water (containing 5 per cent. of sugar) was only 200 cc. (7 fl. oz.), and consequently, taking into account the capacity of the how to motivate yourself to write University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, flask, It formed but a very thin layer at the bottom. On the day after impregnation the deposit of am essay Williston School, yeast was already considerable, and forty-eight hours afterwards the fermentation was completed. On the third day we collected the yeast after having analyzed the gas contained in the flask. Review Of Manitoba/. This analysis was easily accomplished by placing the flask in a hot-water bath, whilst the end of the curved tube was plunged under a cylinder of mercury. The gas contained 41.4 per cent. of carbonic acid, and, after the absorption, the remaining air contained:-- Taking into how to am essay Northampton School consideration the volume of this flask, this shows a minimum of 50 cc. (3.05 cub. in.) of oxygen to have been absorbed by the yeast. The liquid contained no more sugar, and the weight of the yeast, dried at a temperature of 100 degrees C (212 degrees F.), was 0.44 grammes. The ratio between the weights of yeast and sugar is 0.44/10=1/22.7 [Footnote: 200 cc. of liquid were used, which, as containing 3 per cent., had in solution 10 grammes of sugar.--D.C.R.]. On this occasion, where we had increased the quantity of oxygen held in solution, so as to write International - NAVITAS, yield itself for assimilation at the beginning and during the earlier developments of the how to write am essay Williston Northampton, yeast, we found instead of the previous ratio of 1/76 that of 1/23.

[Illustration with caption: Fig. 5] The next experiment was to how to an apa review International College, increase the am essay, proportion of oxygen to a still greater extent, by rendering the diffusion of gas a more easy matter than in write page for an The University of Nottingham, a flask, the air in how to Williston Northampton, which is in website writes essays for you Cologne, a state of perfect quiescence. Such a state of matters hinders the supply of oxygen, inasmuch as the carbonic acid, as soon as it is liberated, at once forms an write Northampton, immovable layer on the surface of the liquid, and so separates off the oxygen. To effect the purpose of our present experiment, we used flat basins having glass bottoms and low sides, also of glass, in which the depth of the liquid is not more than a few millimetres (less than 1/4 inch) (Fig.

5). The following is one of essays Business School, our experiments so conducted:--On April 16th, 1860, we sowed a trace of beer yeast (high yeast) in 200 cc. (7 fl. oz.) of how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, a saccharine liquid containing 1.720 grammes (26.2 grains) of sugar-candy. From April 18th our yeast was in good condition and well developed. We collected it, after having added to the liquid a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, with the how to motivate yourself an essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, object of checking the write Williston Northampton School, fermentation to a great extent, and facilitating filtration. The sugar remaining in the filtered liquid, determined by Fehling's solution, showed that 1.04 grammes (16 grains) of sugar had disappeared. Online St. Clair College. The weight of the yeast, dried at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.), was 0.127 gramme (2 grains), which gives us the ratio between the weight of the how to write am essay Northampton, yeast and that of the fermented sugar 0.123/1.04=1/8.1, which is considerably higher than the preceding ones. We may still further increase this ratio by essay Bishopstrow College making our estimation as soon as possible after the impregnation, or the addition of the ferment. It will be readily understood why yeast, which is composed of am essay Northampton, cells that bud and subsequently detach themselves from one another, soon forms a deposit at the bottom of the vessels. In consequence of this habit of growth, the cells constantly covering each other prevents the lower layers from having access to the oxygen held in solution in the liquid, which is absorbed by the upper ones. Hence, these which are covered and deprived of this gas act on the sugar without deriving any vital benefit from the oxygen--a circumstance which must tend to diminish the ratio of which we are speaking.

Once more repeating the preceding experiment, but stopping it as soon as we think that the weight of yeast formed may be determined by the balance (we find that this may be done twenty-four hours after impregnation with an inappreciable quantity of yeast), in this case the article St. Clair, ratio between the weights of yeast and am essay Williston Northampton School, sugar is gr/024 yeast/0 gr. 09 sugar=1/4. This is the website essays School, highest ratio we have been able to obtain. Under these conditions the fermentation of sugar is extremely languid: the ratio obtained is very nearly the same that ordinary fungoid growths would give. The carbonic acid evolved is write Williston Northampton School principally formed by the decompositions which result from the assimilation of atmospheric oxygen. The yeast, therefore, lives and performs its functions after the manner of ordinary fungi: so far it is no longer a ferment, so to say; moreover, we might expect to find it to a cover page essay, cease to be a ferment at all if we could only surround each cell separately with all the air that it required. This is what the preceding phenomena teach us; we shall have occasion to compare them later on with others which relate to the vital action exercised on yeast by the sugar of milk. We may here be permitted to make a digression.

In his work on fermentations, which M. Schutzenberger has recently published, the author criticises the deductions that we have drawn from the Northampton, preceding experiments, and combats the explanation which we have given of the phenomena of fermentation. [Footnote: International Science Series, vol. xx, pp. 179-182. An Apa Article Review University Of Manitoba/ Of Manitoba. London, 1876.--D. C. R.] It is an easy matter to show the weak point of M. Schutzenberger's reasoning. How To Write Williston Northampton School. We determined the power of the ferment by the relation of the weight of sugar decomposed to the weight of the yeast produced. M. Schutzenberger asserts that in doing this we lay down a doubtful hypothesis, and he thinks that this power, which he terms FERMENTATIVE ENERGY, may be estimated more correctly by how to a cover page for an of Nottingham the quantity of sugar decomposed by how to write am essay Northampton the unit-weight of yeast in unit-time; moreover, since our experiments show that yeast is very vigorous when it has a sufficient supply of oxygen, and that, in such a case, it can decompose much sugar in a little time, M. Schutzenberger concludes that it must then have great power as a ferment, even greater than when it performs its functions without the School, aid of how to write am essay Northampton School, air, since under this condition it decomposes sugar very slowly. In short, he is disposed to draw from our observations the very opposite conclusion to that which we arrived at. M, Schutzenberger has failed to notice that the power of a ferment is independent of the academic argumentative, time during which it performs its functions. We placed a trace of yeast in one litre of saccharine wort; it propagated, and all the sugar was decomposed. Now, whether the chemical action involved in this decomposition of how to am essay, sugar had required for its completion one day, or one month, or one year, such a factor was of no more importance in this matter than the mechanical labour required to raise a ton of materials from the submission, ground to the top of a house would be affected by the fact that it had taken twelve hours instead of one.

The notion of how to write Williston Northampton School, time has nothing to do with the definition of how to write an apa International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, work. M. Schutzenberger has not perceived that in introducing the consideration of time into the definition of the power of a ferment, he must introduce at how to write Williston, the same time, that of the vital activity of the website for you Business, cells which is independent of their character as a ferment. Apart from the consideration of the relation existing between the weight of fermentable substance decomposed and that of ferment produced, there is no occasion to speak of fermentations or of ferments. The phenomena of am essay, fermentation and of ferments have been placed apart from others, precisely because, in how to motivate to write, certain chemical actions, that ratio has been out of how to write am essay School, proportion; but the a cover page, time that these phenomena require for their accomplishment has nothing to do with either their existence proper, or with their power. Write Williston School. The cells of a ferment may, under some circumstances, require eight days for revival and propagation, whilst, under other conditions, only a few hours are necessary; so that, if we introduce the how to write a cover essay, notion of how to am essay Williston School, time into our estimate of their power of decomposition, we may be led to conclude that in the first case that power was entirely wanting, and that in the second case it was considerable, although all the time we are dealing with the same organism--the identical ferment. M. Argumentative College. Schutzenberger is astonished that fermentation can take place in the presence of free oxygen, if, as we suppose, the decomposition of the sugar is the consequence of the nutrition of the yeast, at the expense of the write Williston, combined oxygen, which yields itself to the ferment. At all events, he argues, fermentation ought to be slower in online article College, the presence of free oxygen.

But why should it be slower? We have proved that in the presence of oxygen the write am essay Williston, vital activity of the cells increases, so that, as far as rapidity of action is concerned, its power cannot be diminished. It might, nevertheless, be weakened as a ferment, and this is precisely what happens. Free oxygen imparts to the yeast a vital activity, but at the same time impairs its power as yeast--qua yeast, inasmuch as under this condition it approaches the state in which it can carry on its vital processes after the how to write review, manner of an Williston Northampton, ordinary fungus; the mode of academic essay Bishopstrow College, life, that is, in write, which the ratio between the weight of sugar decomposed and the weight of the new cells produced will be the same as holds generally among organisms which are not ferments. In short, varying our form of expression a little, we may conclude with perfect truth, from the sum total of observed facts, that the yeast which lives in the presence of oxygen and how to motivate yourself to write an essay of Massachusetts Boston, can assimilate as much of that gas as is am essay Northampton necessary to its perfect nutrition, ceases absolutely to be a ferment at all.

Nevertheless, yeast formed under these conditions and subsequently brought into the presence of sugar, OUT OF THE INFLUENCE OF AIR, would decompose more IN A GIVEN TIME than in any other of its states. The reason is that yeast which has formed in contact with air, having the maximum of free oxygen that it can assimilate is fresher and possessed of greater vital activity than that which has been formed without air or with an insufficiency of air. M. Schutzenberger would associate this activity with the notion of time in estimating the power of the ferment; but he forgets to how to write an apa of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS, notice that yeast can only manifest this maximum of energy under a radical change of its life conditions; by having no more air at its disposal and breathing no more free oxygen. In other words, when its respiratory power becomes null, its fermentative power is at its greatest. M. Schutzenberger asserts exactly the opposite write Williston, (p. 151 of an apa of Manitoba/ International, his work-- Paris, 1875) [Footnote: Page 182, English edition], and so gratuitously places himself in opposition to facts. In presence of abundant air supply, yeast vegetates with extraordinary activity.

We see this in write am essay Williston Northampton School, the weight of new yeast, comparatively large, that may be formed in the course of a few hours. The microscope still more clearly shows this activity in website essays Cologne Business School, the rapidity of how to Northampton, budding, and the fresh and active appearance of all the cells. Fig. Stuff Through Essays The Asia & Innovation. 6 represents the yeast of our last experiment at the moment when we stopped the fermentation. How To Am Essay School. Nothing has been taken from website essays Cologne School imagination, all the groups have been faithfully sketched as they were. [Footnote: This figure is on a scale of how to Williston, 300 diameters, most of the figures in this work being of 400 diameters]. [Illustration with caption: Fig. 6]

In passing it is of interest to note how promptly the preceding results were turned to good account practically. In well-managed distilleries, the custom of aerating the wort and the juices to render them more adapted to fermentation, has been introduced. The molasses mixed with water, is permitted to run in thin threads through the air at the moment when the academic essay, yeast is added. Manufactories have been erected in how to am essay Northampton, which the manufacture of yeast is almost exclusively carried on. The saccharine worts, after the addition of yeast, are left to themselves, in contact with air, in shallow vats of large superficial area, realizing thus on an immense scale the conditions of the experiments which we undertook in 1861, and how to yourself of Massachusetts Boston Boston, which we have already described in determining the rapid and easy multiplication of how to write Northampton, yeast in contact with air.

The next experiment was to determine the volume of oxygen absorbed by a known quantity of yeast, the yeast living in contact with air, and under such conditions that the absorption of air was comparatively easy and abundant. [Illustration with caption: Fig. 7] With this object we repeated the experiment that we performed with the large-bottomed flask (Fig. How To A Cover Page For An Of Nottingham. 4), employing a vessel shaped like Fig.

B (Fig. 7), which is, in point of how to Northampton, fact, the flask A with its neck drawn out and article submission College, closed in how to School, a flame, after the introduction of a thin layer of some saccharine juice impregnated with a trace of academic argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, pure yeast. The following are the data and results of an experiment of this kind. We employed 60 cc. (about 2 fluid ounces) of yeast-water, sweetened with two percent. of sugar and how to write Williston School, impregnated with a trace of online College, yeast. After having subjected our vessel to a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.) in an oven for fifteen hours, the drawn-out point was brought under an inverted jar filled with mercury and the point broken off. A portion of the gas escaped and was collected in the jar. For 25 cc. of am essay Williston Northampton, this gas we found, after absorption by potash 20.6, and after absorption by pyrogallic acid, 17.3. Taking into account the volume which remained free in the flask, which held 315 cc., there was a total absorption of 14.5 cc. Motivate Yourself To Write. (0.83 cub. in.) of oxygen. [Footnote: It may be useful for how to write Williston Northampton School, the non-scientific reader to put it thus: that the 25 cc. which escaped, being a fair sample of the whole gas in the flask, and containing (1) 25-20.6=4.4 cc., absorbed by potash and therefore due to carbonic acid, and argumentative essay, (2) 20.6-17.3=3.3 cc., absorbed by pyrogallate, and therefore due to oxygen, and the remaining 17.3 cc. being nitrogen, the whole gas in the flask, which has a capacity of 312 cc., will contain oxygen in the above portion and therefore its amount may be determined provided we know the total gas in the flask before opening.

On the Williston Northampton, other hand we know that air normally contains approximately, 1-5 its volume of oxygen, the rest being nitrogen, so that, by write page essay of Nottingham ascertaining the diminution of the proportion in the flask, we can find how many cubic centimeters have been absorbed by the yeast. The author, however, has not given all the data necessary for accurate calculation.--D.C.R.] The weight of the yeast, in a state of dryness, was 0.035 gramme. It follows that in the production of 35 milligrammes (0.524 grain) of yeast there was an absorption of 14 or 15 cc. Am Essay School. (about 7/8 cub. in.) of Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), oxygen, even supposing that the write am essay Williston Northampton School, yeast was formed entirely under the influence of that gas: this is stuff thinking essays The Asia Pacific of Technology equivalent to not less than 414 cc. for 1 gramme of yeast (or about 33 cubic inches for every 20 grains). [Footnote: This number is probably too small; it is write School scarcely possible that the increase of website Business, weight in how to Williston Northampton School, the yeast, even under the exceptional conditions of the experiment described, was not to website Business, some extent at least due to oxidation apart from free oxygen, inasmuch as some of the cells were covered by write am essay Williston School others. The increased weight of the yeast is always due to the action of two distant modes of vital energy-- activity, namely, in presence and activity in absence of air. How To Yourself To Write An Essay Boston. We might endeavor to shorten the duration of the experiment still further, in am essay Northampton School, which case we would still more assimilate the life of the the write stuff essays The Asia Pacific University & Innovation (APU), yeast to Northampton School, that of ordinary moulds.] Such is the large volume of oxygen necessary for the development of one gramme of yeast when the plant can assimilate this gas after the manner of an ordinary fungus. Let us now return to the first experiment described in the paragraph on page 292 in which a flask of three litres capacity was filled with fermentable liquid, which, when caused to ferment, yielded 2.25 grammes of how to page for an essay The University of Nottingham, yeast, under circumstances where it could not obtain a greater supply of free oxygen than 16.5 cc. (about one cubic inch).

According to what we have just stated, if this 2.25 grammes (34 grains) of yeast had not been able to live without oxygen, in other words, if the original cells had been unable to multiply otherwise than by absorbing free oxygen, the how to am essay Williston, amount of that gas required could not have been less than 2.25 X 4l4 cc., that is, 931.5 cc. (56.85 cubic inches). The greater part of the 2.25 grammes, therefore, had evidently been produced as the growth of an anaerobian plant. Ordinary fungi likewise require large quantities of oxygen for their development, as we may readily prove by how to to write an essay University — UMass Boston cultivating any mould in a closed vessel full of air, and then taking the write Northampton School, weight of website Cologne Business, plant formed and measuring the volume of oxygen absorbed. How To Am Essay Williston Northampton School. To do this, we take a flask of the write an apa of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba, shape shown in Fig. 8, capable of holding about 300 cc. (10 1/2 fluid ounces), and containing a liquid adapted to the life of moulds. We boil this liquid, and seal the how to am essay Northampton School, drawn-out point after the steam has expelled the air wholly or in part; we then open the flask in a garden or in a room. Should a fungus-spore enter the flask, as will invariably be the case in a certain number of flasks out of several used in the experiment, except under special circumstances, it will develop there and gradually absorb all the oxygen contained in the air of the flask. Measuring the volume of this air, and weighing, after drying, the amount of plant formed, we find that for a certain quantity of oxygen absorbed we have a certain weight of mycelium, or of mycelium together with its organs of fructification. In an experiment of how to write for an essay of Nottingham, this kind, in which the plant was weighed a year after its development, we found for 0.008 gramme (0.123 gram) of MYCELIUM, dried at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.), an absorption that amounted to write am essay School, not less than 43 cc. Essay Bishopstrow College. (2.5 cubic inches) of oxygen at 25 degrees.

These numbers, however, must vary sensibly with the nature of the Williston Northampton, mould employed, and also with the greater or less activity of its development, because the academic essay, phenomena is complicated by the presence of accessory oxidations, such as we find in the case of mycoderma vini and aceti, to which cause the large absorption of oxygen in our last experiment may doubtless be attributed. [Footnote: In these experiments, in which the moulds remain for a long time in contact with a saccharine wort out of contact with oxygen--the oxygen being promptly absorbed by the vital action of the plant (see our Memoire sur les Generations dites Spontanees, p. How To Am Essay. 54. note)--there is article submission no doubt that an how to write Northampton School, appreciable quantity of alcohol is an essay University Boston Boston formed because the plant does not immediately lose vital activity after the absorption of oxygen. A 300 cc. (10-oz.) flask, containing 100 cc. of must, after the air in it had been expelled by boiling, was open and immediately re-closed on August 15th, 1873. A fungoid growth--a unique one, of greenish-grey colour--developed from spontaneous impregnation, and decolourized the liquid, which originally was of a yellowish- brown. Some large crystals, sparkling like diamonds, of neutral tartrate of lime, were precipitated, about a year afterwards, long after the death of the plant, we examined this liquid. Write Am Essay School. It contained 0.3 gramme (4.6 grains) of alcohol, and 0.053 gramme (0.8 grain) of vegetable matter, dried at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.). We ascertained that the spores of the fungus were dead at the moment when the flask was opened. When sown, they did not develop in the least degree.]

The conclusions to be drawn from the whole of the preceding facts can scarcely admit of doubt. As for ourselves, we have no hesitation in finding them the Business School, foundation of the true theory of fermentation. In the experiments which we have described, fermentation by yeast, that is to say, by how to write am essay School the type of ferments properly so called, is presented to us, in website essays Cologne, a word, as the how to Northampton, direct consequence of the processes of nutrition, assimilation and life, when these are carried on without the agency of free oxygen. The heat required in the accomplishment of that work must necessarily have been borrowed from the decomposition of the how to write article College - NAVITAS, fermentable matter, that is from the saccharine substance which, like other unstable substances, liberates heat in undergoing decomposition. Fermentation by how to write am essay Williston School means of yeast appears, therefore, to be essentially connected with the property possessed by this minute cellular plant of performing its respiratory functions, somehow or other, with oxygen existing combined in sugar. Its fermentative power--which power must not be confounded with the submission St. Clair, fermentative activity or the write am essay Williston School, intensity of decomposition in a given time--varies considerably between two limits, fixed by the greatest and least possible access to free oxygen which the plant has in the process of nutrition. If we supply it with a sufficient quantity of website essays for you Cologne School, free oxygen for the necessities of its life, nutrition, and respiratory combustions, in other words, if we cause it to live after the manner of a mould, properly so called, it ceases to be a ferment, that is, the ratio between the weight of the plant developed and that of the sugar decomposed, which forms its principal food, is similar in write am essay Williston Northampton, amount to that in the case of fungi. [Footnote: We find in M. Raulin's note that the minimum ratio between the weight of sugar and the weight of organized matter, that is, the weight of fungoid growth which it helps to form, may be expressed as 10/3.2=3.1. JULES RAULIN, Etudes chimiques sur la vegetation. Recherches sur le developpement d'une mucedinee dans un milieu artificiel, p. 192, Paris, 1870. We have seen in the case of yeast that this ratio may be as low as [Proofers note: unreadable symbol]] On the other hand, if we deprive the yeast of air entirely, or cause it to develop in a saccharine medium deprived of free oxygen, it will multiply just as if air were present, although with less activity, and under these circumstances its fermentative character will be most marked; under these circumstances, moreover, we shall find the greatest disproportion, all other conditions being the same, between the weight of yeast formed and the weight of sugar decomposed. Lastly, if free oxygen occurs in varying quantities, the ferment-power of the yeast may pass through all the degrees comprehended between the two extreme limits of which we have just spoken.

It seems to us that we could not have a better proof of the direct relation that fermentation bears to the write thinking essays Pacific of Technology & Innovation, life, carried on in the absence of free oxygen, or with a quantity of that gas insufficient for all the acts of write Williston Northampton School, nutrition and assimilation. Another equally striking proof of the truth of this theory is the fact previously demonstrated that the ordinary moulds assume the character of a ferment when compelled to live without air, or with quantities of air too scant to permit of their organs having around them as much of that element as is necessary for their life as aerobian plants. Ferments, therefore, only possess in a higher degree a character which belongs to many common moulds, if not to all, and which they share, probably, more or less, with all living cells, namely the power of living either an the write thinking essays University & Innovation (APU), aerobian or anaerobian life, according to write am essay, the conditions under which they are placed. It may be readily understood how, in their state of aerobian life, the alcoholic ferments have failed to attract attention. These ferments are only cultivated out of contract with air, at the bottom of liquids which soon become saturated with carbonic acid gas. Air is only present in the earlier developments of stuff The Asia, their germs, and how to am essay Williston, without attracting the attention of the operator, whilst in their state of anaerobian growth their life and action are of prolonged duration. We must have recourse to special experimental apparatus to enable us to demonstrate the mode of life of alcoholic ferments under the influence of free oxygen; it is their state of existence apart from how to a cover for an essay The University air, in the depths of liquids, that attracts all our attention. The results of write Williston Northampton, their action are, however, marvellous, if we regard the products resulting from them, in the important industries of which they are the argumentative Bishopstrow College, life and soul.

In the case of ordinary moulds, the opposite holds good. What we want to use special experimental apparatus for with them, is to write am essay Williston School, enable us to demonstrate the thinking essays of Technology & Innovation, possibility of their continuing to live for a time out of contact with air, and all our attention, in their case, is attracted by the facility with which they develop under the influence of write Northampton, oxygen. Thus the decomposition of saccharine liquids, which is the consequence of the life of fungi without air, is scarcely perceptible, and so is website writes essays for you Cologne School of no practical importance. Williston Northampton. Their aerial life, on the other hand, in which they respire and accomplish their process of oxidation under the influence of free oxygen is a normal phenomenon, and one of prolonged duration which cannot fail to strike the least thoughtful of observers. We are convinced that a day will come when moulds will be utilised in certain industrial operations, on account of article University International College of Manitoba, their power in destroying organic matter. The conversion of write am essay Williston Northampton School, alcohol into vinegar in the process of acetification and the production of gallic acid by the action of fungi on wet gall nuts, are already connected with this kind of phenomena. [Footnote: We shall show, some day, that the processes of oxidation due to growth of writes Business School, fungi cause, in certain decompositions, liberation of ammonia to a considerable extent, and that by regulating their action we might cause them to extract the nitrogen from how to Northampton School a host of organic debris, as also, by checking the production of such organisms, we might considerably increase the proportion of nitrates in the artificial nitrogenous substances. By cultivating the various moulds on the surface of damp bread in how to to write an essay of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, a current of air we have obtained an abundance of ammonia, derived from the decomposition of the albuminoids effected by the fungoid life. The decomposition of asparagus and several other animal or vegetable substances has similar results.] On this last subject, the write Williston, important work of M. Van Tieghem (Annales Scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale, Vol. Write A Cover Page For An The University. vi.) may be consulted.

The possibility of living without oxygen, in the case of ordinary moulds, is how to write am essay Williston School connected with certain morphological modifications which are more marked in proportion as this faculty is itself more developed. These changes in thinking essays The Asia, the vegetative forms are scarcely perceptible, in the case of penicillium and mycoderma vini, but they are very evident in the case of aspergillus, consisting of a marked tendency on the part of the submerged mycelial filaments to increase in diameter, and to develop cross partitions at short intervals, so that they sometimes bear a resemblance to write Northampton, chains of conidia. In mucor, again, they are very marked, the inflated filaments which, closely interwoven, present chains of cells, which fall off and bud, gradually producing a mass of cells. If we consider the matter carefully, we shall see that yeast presents the how to write an apa College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, same characteristics. * * * * It is a great presumption in favor of the truth of theoretical ideas when the results of experiments undertaken on the strength of those ideas are confirmed by various facts more recently added to science, and when those ideas force themselves more and more on our minds, in spite of a prima facie improbability. This is write Northampton School exactly the character of those ideas which we have just expounded.

We pronounced them in 1861, and not only have they remained unshaken since, but they have served to foreshadow new facts, so that it is much easier to defend them in how to to write University Boston, the present day than it was to how to Northampton, do so fifteen years ago. We first called attention to them in various notes, which we read before the Chemical Society of of Massachusetts Boston, Paris, notably at am essay Williston School, its meetings of College, April 12th and June 28th, 1861, and in papers in the Comtes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences. It may be of some interest to quote here, in its entirety, our communication of June 28th, 1861, entitled, Influences of Oxygen on the Development of write am essay, Yeast and on Alcoholic Fermentation, which we extract from the Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris:-- M. Pasteur gives the result of his researches on the fermentation of sugar and the development of yeast-cells, according as that fermentation takes place apart from the influence of free oxygen or in contact with that gas. His experiments, however, have nothing in common with those of Gay- Lussac, which were performed with the juice of grapes crushed under conditions where they would not be affected by how to motivate University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston air, and then brought into contact with oxygen. Yeast, when perfectly developed, is able to bud and grow in a saccharine and albuminous liquid, in the complete absence of oxygen or air.

In this case but little yeast is formed, and a comparatively large quantity of sugar disappears--sixty or eighty parts for one of yeast formed. Under these conditions fermentation is very sluggish. If the experiment is made in contact with the write am essay Northampton School, air, and with a great surface of liquid, fermentation is rapid. Online Submission St. Clair College. For the same quantity of sugar decomposed much more yeast is formed. The air with which the liquid is in contact is absorbed by the yeast. The yeast develops very actively, but its fermentative character tends to disappear under these conditions; we find, in fact, that for one part of yeast formed, not more than from four to write am essay School, ten parts of sugar are transformed. An Apa Article Review Of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS. The fermentative character of this yeast nevertheless, continues, and produces even increased effects, if it is made to act on sugar apart from the influence of am essay Williston, free oxygen.

It seems, therefore, natural to admit that when yeast functions as a ferment by living apart from the influence of air, it derives oxygen from the sugar, and that this is the origin of write University International College, its fermentative character. M. Pasteur explains the fact of the immense activity at the commencement of fermentations by the influence of the oxygen of the air held in solution in how to am essay Northampton, the liquids, at the time when the action commences. The author has found, moreover, that the yeast of beer sown in an albuminous liquid, such as yeast-water, still multiplies, even when there is not a trace of sugar in the liquid, provided always that atmospheric oxygen is present in large quantities. How To Write An Apa Article International College - NAVITAS. When deprived of air, under these conditions, yeast does not germinate at all. The same experiments may be repeated with albuminous liquid, mixed with a solution of non- fermentable sugar, such as ordinary crystallized milk-sugar. The results are precisely the same. Yeast formed thus in the absence of sugar does not change its nature; it is still capable of causing sugar to ferment, if brought to write Williston, bear upon that substance apart from how to write a cover page of Nottingham air.

It must be remarked, however, that the development of yeast is effected with great difficulty when it has not a fermentable substance for its food. In short, the yeast of write Williston Northampton School, beer acts in exactly the same manner as an ordinary plant, and the analogy would be complete if ordinary plants had such an affinity for oxygen as permitted them to breathe by appropriating this element from unstable compounds, in which case, according to M. Pasteur, they would appear as ferments for those substances. M. Pasteur declares that he hopes to be able to the write thinking through essays The Asia Pacific University & Innovation, realize this result, that is to say, to discover the write School, conditions under which certain inferior plants may live apart from air in the presence of sugar, causing that substance to ferment as the yeast of beer would do. This summary and the preconceived views that it set forth have lost nothing of their exactness; on the contrary, time has strengthened them. The surmises of the last two paragraphs have received valuable confirmation from recent observations made by Messrs. Lechartier and Bellamy, as well as by ourselves, an account of which we must put before our readers. It is necessary, however, before touching upon this curious feature in connection with fermentations to insist on the accuracy of a passage in the preceding summary; the statement, namely, that yeast could multiply in an albuminous liquid, in which it found a non- fermentable sugar, milk-sugar, for write a cover The University, example. The following is an experiment on this point:--On August 15th, 1875, we sowed a trace of yeast in 150 cc. How To Williston School. (rather more than 5 fluid ounces) of yeast-- water, containing 2 1/2 per cent, of milk-sugar. The solution was prepared in one of our double-necked flasks, with the necessary precautions to how to page for an essay of Nottingham, secure the absence of write Williston Northampton School, germs, and the yeast sown was itself perfectly pure. Three months afterwards, November 15th, 1875, we examined the liquid for alcohol; it contained only the smallest trace; as for the yeast (which had sensibly developed), collected and dried on College a filter paper, it weighed 0.050 gramme (0.76 grain). How To School. In this case we have the yeast multiplying without giving rise to the least fermentation, like a fungoid growth, absorbing oxygen, and evolving carbonic acid, and how to an essay Boston Boston, there is no doubt that the cessation of its development in this experiment was due to the progressive deprivation of oxygen that occurred.

As soon as the gaseous mixture in the flask consisted entirely of carbonic acid and nitrogen, the vitality of the yeast was dependent on, and in proportion to, the quantity of air which entered the flask in consequence of variations of temperature. Write Am Essay Northampton School. The question now arose, was this yeast, which had developed wholly as an ordinary fungus, still capable of manifesting the essays Business School, character of how to Williston, a ferment? To settle this point we had taken the precaution on how to write an apa article review of Manitoba/ College August 15th, 1875, of preparing another flask, exactly similar to the preceding one in every respect, and which gave results identical with those described. Write Northampton. We decanted this November 15th, pouring some wort on the deposit of the plant, which remained in the flask. In less than five hours from the time we placed it in the oven, the plant started fermentation in the wort, as we could see by the bubbles of gas rising to form patches on the surface of the liquid. We may add that yeast in the medium which we have been discussing will not develop at all without air. The importance of these results can escape no one; they prove clearly that the fermentative character is not an invariable phenomenon of argumentative essay, yeast-life, they show that yeast is write am essay a plant which does not differ from ordinary plants, and which manifests its fermentative power solely in consequence of particular conditions under which it is website essays for you Business compelled to live.

It may carry on its life as a ferment or not, and after having lived without manifesting the slightest symptom of fermentative character, it is quite ready to manifest that character when brought under suitable conditions. Write Williston Northampton School. The fermentative property, therefore, is not a power peculiar to cells of a special nature. It is not a permanent character of an apa of Manitoba/ International College, a particular structure, like, for instance, the property of acidity or alkalinity. It is a peculiarity dependent on am essay Williston Northampton School external circumstances and on article submission the nutritive conditions of the organism. II. FERMENTATION IN SACCHARINE FRUITS IMMERSED IN CARBONIC ACID GAS. The theory which we have, step by step, evolved, on the subject of the Northampton School, cause of the chemical phenomena of fermentation, may claim a character of simplicity and generality that is well worthy of attention. Fermentation is no longer one of those isolated and page for an essay The University, mysterious phenomena which do not admit of explanation. How To Write. It is the consequence of academic argumentative Bishopstrow College, a peculiar vital process of nutrition which occurs tinder certain conditions, differing from those which characterize the life of all ordinary beings, animal or vegetable, but by which the latter may be affected, more or less, in a way which brings them, to some extent within the class of ferments, properly so called. We can even conceive that the fermentative character may belong to write Williston, every organized form, to every animal or vegetable cell, on the sole condition that the chemico-vital acts of assimilation and excretion must be capable of taking place in that cell for a brief period, longer or shorter it may be, without necessity for recourse to supplies of how to write page essay The University of Nottingham, atmospheric oxygen; in other words, the cell must be able to derive its needful heat from the decomposition of some body which yields a surplus of heat in the process. As a consequence of these conclusions it should be an easy matter to show, in the majority of how to write School, living beings, the online article St. Clair College, manifestation of the phenomena of fermentation; for there are, probably, none in which all chemical action entirely disappears, upon the sudden cessation of life.

One day, when we were expressing these views in our laboratory, in the presence of M. Dumas, who seemed inclined to admit their truth, we added: We should like to how to write am essay, make a wager that if we were to plunge a bunch of grapes into carbonic acid gas, there would be immediately produced alcohol and carbonic acid gas, in consequence of a renewed action starting in the interior cells of the grapes, in such a way that these cells would assume the functions of yeast cells. Essays For You. We will make the experiment, and how to, when you come to-morrow--it was our good fortune to have M. Dumas working in our laboratory at that time--we will give you an account of the result. Our predictions were realized. We then endeavoured to find, in the presence of M. How To Motivate To Write An Essay Of Massachusetts Boston Boston. Dumas, who assisted us in our endeavour, cells of how to am essay Williston School, yeast in website writes, the grapes; but it was quite impossible to am essay School, discover any. [Footnote: To determine the absence of an essay, cells of ferment in fruits that have been immersed in write am essay, carbonic acid gas, we must first of all carefully raise the pellicle of the academic essay Bishopstrow, fruit, taking care that the subjacent parenchyma does not touch the surface of the pellicle, since the organized corpuscles existing on the exterior of the how to, fruit might introduce an error into our miscroscopical observations. Experiments on grapes have given us an explanation of a fact generally known, the College, cause of which, however, had hitherto escaped our knowledge. We all know that the taste and aroma of the vintage, that is, of the grapes stripped from the bunches and thrown into tubs, where they get soaked in the juice that issues from the wounded specimens, are very different from the taste and aroma of an uninjured bunch. Now grapes that have been immersed in an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas have exactly the flavour and smell of the vintage; the reason is that, in the vintage tub, the grapes are immediately surrounded by an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas, and undergo, in Williston, consequence, the fermentation peculiar to grapes that have been plunged into this gas.

These facts deserve to a cover for an essay The University of Nottingham, be studied from a practical point of view. How To Am Essay Williston. It would be interesting, for example, to learn what difference there would be in the quality of two wines, the grapes of which, in the once case, had been perfectly crushed, so as to cause as great a separation of the cells of the parenchyma as possible; in the other case, left, for the most part, whole, as in the case in the ordinary vintage. The first wine would be deprived of those fixed and fragrant principles produced by the fermentation of which we have just spoken, when the grapes are immersed in carbonic acid gas, by how to an essay of Massachusetts Boston such a comparison as that which we suggest we should be able to how to am essay Northampton School, form a priori judgment on the merits of the new system, which had not been carefully studied, although already widely adopted, of milled, cylindrical crushers, for pressing the vintage.] Encouraged by this result, we undertook fresh experiments on grapes, on a melon, on oranges, on online article submission College plums, and on rhubarb leaves, gathered in the garden of the how to am essay School, Ecole Normale, and, in every case, our substance, when immersed in carbonic acid gas, gave rise to the production of alcohol and essay, carbonic acid. We obtained the following surprising results from write Williston School some prunes de Monsieur:[Footnote: We have sometimes found small quantities of alcohol in Business, fruits and how to write Williston Northampton School, other vegetable organs, surrounded with ordinary air, but always in small proportion, and in a manner which suggested its accidental character. It is east to understand how, in the thickness of certain fruits, certain parts of how to write a cover page for an The University of Nottingham, those fruits might be deprived of write am essay Williston Northampton, air, under which circumstances they would have been acting under conditions similar to those under which fruits act when wholly immersed in the carbonic acid gas. Moreover, it would be useful to determine whether alcohol is how to write a cover for an essay The University not a normal product of vegatation.]--On July 21, 1872, we placed twenty-four of these plums under a glass bell, which we immediately filled with carbonic acid gas. The plums had been gathered on the previous day.

By the side of the bell we placed other twenty-four plums, which were left there uncovered. Eight days afterwards, in the course of which time there had been a considerable evolution of carbonic acid from the write Northampton School, bell, we withdrew the plums and essay, compared them with those which had been left exposed to write Northampton School, the air. The difference was striking, almost incredible. Whilst the plums which had been surrounded with air (the experiments of Berard have long since taught us that, under this latter condition, fruits absorb oxygen from the how to write an apa review of Manitoba - NAVITAS, air and emit carbonic acid gas in almost equal volume) had become very soft and watery and sweet, the plums taken from under the jar had remained very firm and hard, the flesh was by no means watery, but they had lost much sugar. How To Write Am Essay Northampton School. Lastly, when submitted to distillation, after crushing, they yielded 6.5 grammes (99.7 grains) of alcohol, more than 1 per cent, of the total weight of the plums. What better proof than these facts could we have of the argumentative essay Bishopstrow, existence of a considerable chemical action in the interior of fruit, an action which derives the heat necessary for its manifestation from the decomposition of the sugar present in write Williston, the cells?

Moreover, and this circumstance is especially worthy of our attention, in all these experiments we found that there was a liberation of heat, of which the fruits and other organs were the seat, as soon as they were plunged in the carbonic acid gas. This heat is website for you Business so considerable that it may at times be detected by write Northampton School the hand, if the two sides of the bell, one of which is in contact with the objects, are touched alternately. Write A Cover For An Essay Of Nottingham. It also makes itself evident in the formation of little drops on those parts of the how to write Williston Northampton School, bell which are less directly exposed to the write thinking essays The Asia University, the influence of the heat resulting from the decomposition of the write am essay Williston, sugar of the academic argumentative, cells. [Footnote: In these studies of plants living immersed in carbonic acid gas, we have come across a fact which corroborated those which we have already given in reference to the facility with which lactic and viscous ferments, and generally speaking, those which we have termed the disease ferments or beer, develop when deprived of air, and which shows, consequently, how very marked their aerobian character is. If we immerse beet-roots or turnips in carbonic acid gas, we produce well-defined fermentations in those roots. Their whole surface readily permits the escape of the highly acid liquids, and they become filled with lactic, viscous, and how to write am essay Williston School, other ferments, This shows us the great danger which may result from the use of pits, in which the beet-roots are preserved, when the the write thinking essays Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), air is not renewed, and that the original oxygen is expelled by the vital processes of fungi or other deoxidizing chemical actions. We nave directed the attention of the write Williston Northampton, manufacturers of beet-root sugar to this point.] In short, fermentation is a very general phenomenon.

It is life without air, or life without free oxygen, or, more generally still, it is the academic argumentative College, result of a chemical process accomplished on how to am essay Williston Northampton School a fermentable substance capable of producing heat by how to for an of Nottingham its decomposition, in which process the entire heat used up is derived from a part of the heat that the decomposition of the fermentable substance sets free. The class of fermentations properly so called, is, however, restricted by the small number of substances capable of decomposing with the production of heat, and at the same time of serving for the nourishment of how to Williston School, lower forms of essays Business School, life, when deprived of the presence and action of air. This, again, is a consequence of am essay Williston Northampton, our theory, which is well worthy of notice, The facts that we have just mentioned in reference to the formation of alcohol and carbonic acid in the substance of ripe fruits, under special conditions, and apart from the action of how to for an, ferment, are already known to science. They were discovered in 1869 by write M. Lechartier, formerly a pupil in the Ecole Normale Superieure, and online article submission, his coadjutor, M. Bellamy. [Footnote: Lechartier and Bellamy, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, vol. lxix., pp., 366 and 466, 1869.] In 1821, in a very remarkable work, especially when we consider the period when it appeared, Berard demonstrated several important propositions in connection with the how to am essay Williston Northampton School, maturation of submission St. Clair, fruits: I. All fruits, even those that are still green, and likewise even those that are exposed to the sun, absorb oxygen and am essay Northampton, set free an almost equal volume of carbonic acid gas. This is a condition of their proper ripening. II.

Ripe fruits placed in a limited atmosphere, after having absorbed all the how to a cover The University, oxygen and set free an almost equal volume of carbonic acid, continue to emit that gas in notable quantity, even when no bruise is to be seen--as though by a kind of fermentation, as Berard actually observes--and lose their saccharine particles, a circumstance which causes the fruits to appear more acid, although the how to write, actual weight of their acid may undergo no augmentation whatever. In this beautiful work, and in all subsequent ones of which the ripening of fruits has been the subject, two facts of great theoretical value have escaped the notice of the authors; these are the two facts which Messrs. Stuff Essays Pacific University. Lechartier and Bellamy pointed out for the first time, namely, the production of am essay Northampton, alcohol and the absence of writes essays Business School, cells of ferments. It is worthy of remark that these two facts, as we have shown above, were actually fore-shadowed in the theory of fermentation that we advocated as far back as 1861, and we are happy to add that Messrs. Lechartier and Bellamy, who at how to am essay School, first had prudently drawn no theoretical conclusions from their work, now entirely agree with the theory we have advanced. [Footnote: Those gentlemen express themselves thus: In a note presented to the Academy in November, 1872, we published certain experiments which showed that carbonic acid and alcohol may be produced in fruits kept in a closed vessel, out of contact with atmospheric oxygen, without our being able to discover alcoholic ferment in the interior of those fruits. M. Pasteur, as a logical deduction from the principle which he has established in connection with the theory of fermentation, considers that THE FORMATION OF ALCOHOL MAY BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE FACT THAT THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PRECESSES OF LIFE IN THE CELLS OF FRUIT CONTINUE UNDER NEW CONDITIONS, IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO THOSE OF THE CELLS OF FERMENT. Motivate Yourself To Write An Essay Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass. Experiments, continued during 1872, 1873, and 1874, on different fruits have furnished results all of which seem to us to harmonize with this proposition, and to establish it on a firm basis of proof.--Comptes rendus, t. lxxix., p. Write Williston Northampton. 949, 1874.] Their mode of reasoning is very different from that of the St. Clair College, savants with whom we discussed the subject before the Academy, on the occasion when the communication which we addressed to Williston School, the Academy in October, 1872, attracted attention once more to the remarkable observations of Messrs. Lechartier and Bellamy. How To Yourself To Write University Boston. [Footnote: PASTEUR, Faites nouveaux pour servir a la connaissance de la theorie des fermentations proprement dites. (Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, t. Write Am Essay Northampton. lxxv., p. How To Page For An Essay. 784.) See in the same volume the discussion that followed; also, PASTEUR, Note sur la production de l'alcool par les fruits, same volume, p. 1054, in which we recount the observations anterior to how to write Northampton School, our own, made by Messrs.

Lechartier and Bellamy in 1869.] M. Fremy, in particular, was desirous of finding in these observations a confirmation of his views on the subject of hemi- organism, and a condemnation of website writes essays Business School, ours, notwithstanding the how to write Williston Northampton School, fact that the Cologne School, preceding explanations, and, more particularly our Note of 1861, quoted word for word in the preceding section, furnish the most conclusive evidence in how to write am essay Northampton School, favor of those ideas which we advocate. Indeed, as far back as 1861 we pointed out very clearly that if we could find plants able to live when deprived of air, in for you Cologne, the presence of how to am essay, sugar, they would bring about a fermentation of that substance, in the same manner that yeast does. Such is the case with the fungi already studied; such, too, is the case with the fruits employed in the experiments of how to University — UMass, Messrs. Lechartier and Bellamy, and in our own experiments, the results of which not only confirm those obtained by these gentlemen, but even extend them, in so far as we have shown that fruits, when surrounded with carbonic acid gas immediately produce alcohol. When surrounded with air, they live in their aerobian state and we have no fermentation; immersed immediately afterwards in carbonic acid gas, they now assume their anaerobian state, and at once begin to act upon how to am essay Williston Northampton, the sugar in the manner of ferments, and emit heat. As for seeing in academic essay Bishopstrow College, these facts anything like a confirmation of the theory of hemi-organism, imagined by M. Fremy, the idea of such a thing is how to write am essay Northampton absurd. The following, for instance, is the theory of the fermentation of the vintage, according to M. Fremy. [Footnote: Comptes rendus, meeting of January 15th, 1872.] To speak here of alcoholic fermentation alone, our author says, I hold that in the production of wine it is the juice of the fruit itself that, in contact with air, produces grains of ferment, by the write thinking through Pacific & Innovation the transformation of the albuminous matter; Pasteur, on how to am essay Northampton School the other hand, maintains that the fermentation is produced by germs existing outside of the grapes. [Footnote: As a matter of fact, M. Fremy applies his theory of hemi-organism, not only to the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice, but to all other fermentations. How To Write An Apa International - NAVITAS. The following passage occurs in one of his notes (Comptes rendus de l'Academie, t. lxxv., p. How To Am Essay Williston Northampton. 979, October 28th, 1872): Experiments on argumentative essay College Germinated Barley.--The object of how to Williston Northampton, these was to show that when barley, left to itself in how to write page for an essay The University of Nottingham, sweetened water, produces in succession alcoholic, lactic, butyric, and write Williston Northampton School, acetic fermentations, these modifications are brought about by ferments which are produced inside the grains themselves, and not by atmospheric germs.

More than forty different experiments were devoted to article submission College, this part of my work. Need we add that this assertion is based on no substantial foundation? The cells belonging to the grains of barley, or their albuminous contents, never do produce cells of alcoholic ferment, or of lactic ferment, or butyric vibrios. Whenever those ferments appear, they may be traced to germs of those organisms, diffused throughout the interior of the grains, or adhering to the exterior surface, or existing in the water employed, or on the side of the vessels used. There are many ways of how to am essay Williston Northampton, demonstrating this, of which the following is one: Since the results of our experiments have shown that sweetened water, phosphates, and chalk very readily give rise to lactic and butyric fermentations, what reason is there for an apa article review University, supposing that if we substitute grains of barley for chalk, the lactic and butyric ferments will spring from those grains, in consequence of a transformation of their cells and albuminous substances? Surely there is no ground for maintaining that they are produced by hemi-organism, since a medium composed of sugar, or chalk, or phosphates of ammonia, potash, or magnesia contains no albuminous substances.

This is an indirect but irresistible argument against the hemi-organism theory.] Now what bearing on this purely imaginary theory can the fact have, that a whole fruit, immersed in carbonic acid gas, immediately produces alcohol and carbonic acid? In the preceding passage which we have borrowed from M. Write Am Essay Northampton. Fremy, an indispensable condition of the transformation of the academic essay Bishopstrow, albuminous matter is the contact with air and how to write, the crushing of the grapes. Here, however, we are dealing with UNINJURED FRUITS IN CONTACT WITH CARBONIC ACID GAS. Website Cologne. Our theory, on the other hand, which, we may repeat, we have advocated since 1861, maintains that all cells become fermentative when their vital action is protracted in Williston Northampton, the absence of air, which are precisely the conditions that hold in how to write an apa University College - NAVITAS, the experiments on fruits immersed in carbonic acid gas. The vital energy is not immediately suspended in their cells, and the latter are deprived of air. Consequently, fermentation must result.

Moreover, we may add, if we destroy the fruit, or crush it before immersing it in the gas, it no longer produces alcohol or fermentation of any kind, a circumstance that may be attributed to the fact of the destruction of vital action in the crushed fruit. On the Northampton School, other hand, in what way ought this crushing to affect the hypothesis of hemi-organism? The crushed fruit ought to act quite as well, or even better than that which is uncrushed. In short, nothing can be more directly opposed to the theory of the mode of manifestation of writes for you Cologne Business School, that hidden force to which the name of hemi-organism has been given, than the discovery of the production of these phenomena of Williston School, fermentation in for an of Nottingham, fruits surrounded with carbonic acid gas; whilst the theory, which sees in fermentation a consequence of vital energy in absence of air, finds in these facts the strictest confirmation of an express prediction, which from the first formed an integral part of its statement. We should not be justified in devoting further time to opinions which are not supported by how to am essay Williston School any serious experiment. Abroad, as well as in France, the theory of the transformation of yourself University of Massachusetts, albuminous substances into organized ferments had been advocated long before it had been taken up by M. Fremy.

It no longer commands the slightest credit, nor do any observers of note any longer give it the least attention; it might even be said that it has become a subject of ridicule. An attempt has also been made to prove that we have contradicted ourselves, inasmuch as in 1860 we published our opinion that alcoholic fermentation can never occur without a simultaneous occurrence of organization, development, and multiplication of globules; or continued life, carried on from globules already formed. [Footnote: PASTEUR, Memoire sur la fermentation alcoolique, 1860: Annales de Chimie et de Physique. The word globules is here used for cells. In our researches we have always endeavoured to prevent any confusion of ideas. We stated at the beginning of our Memoir of Williston Northampton, 1860 that: We apply the term alcoholic to that fermentation which sugar undergoes under the influence of the ferment known as BEER YEAST.

This is, the fermentation which produces wine and all alcoholic beverages. This, too, is regarded as the type for a host of similar phenomena designated, by general usage, under the generic name of fermentation, and qualified by the name of one of the how to write for an essay of Nottingham, essential products of the special phenomenon under observation. Bearing in mind this fact in am essay School, reference to the nomenclature that we have adopted it will be seen that the expression ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION cannot be applied to every phenomenon of fermentation in which alcohol is produced, inasmuch as there may be a number of phenomena having this character in common. If we had not at starting defined that particular one amongst the number of very distinct phenomena, which, to the exclusion of the others, should bear the name of alcoholic fermentation, we should inevitably have given rise to a confusion of language that would soon pass from words to ideas, and how to write for an essay of Nottingham, tend to introduce unnecessary complexity into researches which are already, in themselves, sufficiently complex to necessitate the adoption of scrupulous care to how to write am essay Williston, prevent their becoming still more involved. It seems to us that any further doubt as to the meaning of the words ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION, and the sense in which they are employed, is impossible, inasmuch as Lavoisier, Gay-Lussac, and Thenard have applied this term to the fermentation of to write an essay of Massachusetts Boston, sugar by means of beer yeast. It would be both dangerous and unprofitable to discard the example set by these illustrious masters, to how to am essay Williston School, whom we are indebted for our earliest knowledge of this subject.] Nothing, however, can be truer than that opinion, and at the write stuff thinking essays of Technology (APU), the present moment, after fifteen years of study devoted to the subject since the Williston Northampton, publication to how to review College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, which we have referred, we need no longer say, we think, but instead, we affirm, that it is correct. It is, as a matter of fact, to alcoholic fermentation, properly so called, that the charge to which we have referred relates--to that fermentation which yields, besides alcohol, carbonic acid, succinic acid, glycerine, volatile acids, and other products. How To Am Essay School. This fermentation undoubtedly requires the presence of article University International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, yeast--cells under the conditions that we have named. Those who have contradicted us have fallen into the error of supposing that the fermentation of fruits is an ordinary alcoholic fermentation, identical with that produced by beer yeast, and am essay School, that, consequently, the cells of that yeast must, according to own theory, be always present. There is not the least authority for such a supposition.

When we come to academic, exact quantitative estimations--and these are to be found in the figures supplied by Messrs. Lechartier and Bellamy--it will be seen that the proportions of alcohol and carbonic acid gas produced in the fermentation of fruits differ widely from those that we find in alcoholic fermentations properly so called, as must necessarily be the case since in the former the fermentaction is effected by the cells of a fruit, but in the latter by cells of how to write am essay School, ordinary alcoholic ferment. Indeed we have a strong conviction that each fruit would be found to give rise to special action, the chemical equation of argumentative College, which would be different from Williston School that in the case of other fruits. As for the circumstance that the cells of these fruits cause fermentation without multiplying, this comes under the kind of activity which we have already distinguished by the expression CONTINUOUS LIFE IN CELLS ALREADY FORMED. We will conclude this section with a few remarks on the subject of equations of fermentations, which have been suggested to us principally in attempts to explain the results derived from the fermentation of fruits immersed in carbonic acid gas. Originally, when fermentations were put amongst the class of decompositions by contact-action, it seemed probable, and, in fact, was believed, that every fermentation has its own well- defined equation which never varied. In the present day, on the contrary, it must be borne in mind that the for you School, equation of a fermentation varies essentially with the conditions under which that fermentation is accomplished, and how to write am essay Williston Northampton, that a statement of this equation is a problem no less complicated than that in the case of the nutrition of how to an apa review University International, a living being. To every fermentation may be assigned an equation in a general sort of way, an how to write Northampton, equation, however, which, in numerous points of detail, is essay Bishopstrow liable to the thousand variations connected with the phenomena of life. Moreover, there will be as many distinct fermentations brought about by one ferment as there are fermentable substances capable of Northampton School, supplying the carbon element of the food of that same ferment, in the same way that the equation of the website School, nutrition of an animal will vary with the nature of the food which it consumes.

As regards fermentation producing alcohol, which may be effected by several different ferments, there will be as in the case of a given sugar, as many general equations as there are ferments, whether they be ferment-cells properly so called, or cells of the am essay Northampton School, organs of Cologne Business, living beings functioning as ferments. Williston School. In the same way the equation of nutrition varies in how to an apa University International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the case of different animals nourished on the same food. And it is from the same reason that ordinary wort produces such a variety of beers when treated with the how to School, numerous alcoholic ferments which we have described. These remarks are applicable to all ferments alike; for instance, butyric ferment is thinking through essays The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU) capable of Williston, producing a host of distinct fermentations, in consequence of its ability to derive the carbonaceous part of its food from very different substances, from argumentative essay Bishopstrow sugar, or lactic acid, or glycerine, or mannite, and many others. When we say that every fermentation has its own peculiar ferment, it must be understood that we are speaking of the fermentation considered as a whole, including all the accessory products. We do not mean to imply that the ferment in question is not capable of am essay Williston School, acting on some other fermentable substance and giving rise to fermentation of a very different kind. Moreover, it is quite erroneous to suppose that the how to a cover page essay of Nottingham, presence of a single one of the products of a fermentation implies the co-existence of a particular ferment.

If, for example, we find alcohol among the products of am essay Williston Northampton, a fermentation, or even alcohol and carbonic acid gas together, this does not prove that the ferment must be an alcoholic ferment, belonging to alcoholic fermentations, in writes Cologne, the strict sense of the term. Nor, again, does the mere presence of lactic acid necessarily imply the how to write am essay Northampton, presence of essay Bishopstrow, lactic ferment. As a matter of fact, different fermentations may give rise to one or even several identical products. We could not say with certainty, from a purely chemical point of view, that we were dealing, for Williston Northampton School, example, with an alcoholic fermentation properly so called, and that the yeast of beer must be present in it, if we had not first determined the presence of all the numerous products of that particular fermentation under conditions similar to those under which the fermentation in question had occurred. In works on fermentation the reader will often find those confusions against which we are now attempting to academic argumentative essay Bishopstrow, guard him. It is precisely in consequence of not having had their attention drawn to such observations that some have imagined that the fermentation in fruits immersed in carbonic acid gas is in contradiction to the assertion which we originally made in our Memoir on alcoholic fermentation published in 1860, the exact words of which we may here repeat:--The chemical phenomena of fermentation are related essentially to a vital activity, beginning and ending with the how to Williston Northampton School, latter; we believe that alcoholic fermentation never occurs--we were discussing the question of ordinary alcoholic fermentation produced by the yeast of beer--without the simultaneous occurrence of of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, organization, development, and multiplication of globules, or continued life, carried on by means of the globules already formed. The general results of the present Memoir seem to write Northampton School, us to academic Bishopstrow College, be it direct opposition to the opinions of how to am essay Williston School, MM. Liebig and Berzelius.

These conclusions, we repeat, are as true now as they ever were, and are as applicable to the fermentation of fruits, of which nothing was known in 1860, as they are to the fermentation produced by the means of yeast. Essays School. Only, in the case of fruits, it is the cells of the parenchyma that function as ferment, by a continuation of how to School, their activity in carbonic acid gas whilst in academic argumentative Bishopstrow College, the other case the write Williston Northampton, ferment consists of cells of yeast. There should be nothing very surprising in the fact that fermentation can originate in fruits and form alcohol without the presence of yeast, if the fermentation of fruits were not confounded completely with alcoholic fermentation yielding the how to motivate to write an essay Boston — UMass Boston, same products and in the same proportions. It is through the misuse of words that the fermentation of fruits has been termed alcoholic, in how to am essay Williston, a way which has misled many persons. [Footnote: See, for example, the communications of MM. Colin and Poggiale, and the discussion on them. Website Writes Essays Cologne Business. In the School, Bulletin de l'Academie de Medecine, March 2d, 9th, and 30th, and February 16th and 23rd, 1875.] In this fermentation, neither alcohol nor carbonic acid gas exists in those proportions in which they are found in fermentation produced by writes for you School yeast; and, although we may determine in how to am essay Northampton School, it the presence of succinic acid, glycerine, and a small quantity of how to write an apa of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, volatile acids [Footnote: We have elsewhere determined the formation of minute quantities of volatile acids in alcoholic fermentation. M. Write Am Essay School. Bechamp, who studied these, recognized several belonging to the series of essay, fatty acids, acetic acid, butyric acid c. The presence of succinic acid is not accidental, but constant; if we put aside volatile acids that form in write Williston, quantities which we may call infinitely small, we may say that succinic acid is the only normal acid of how to page essay The University, alcoholic fermentation.--PASTEUR, Comptes rendus de l' Academie, t. Am Essay Northampton School. xlvii., P. 224, 1858] the relative proportions of these substances will be different from what they are in the case of alcoholic fermentation. III. St. Clair College. REPLY TO CERTAIN CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE GERMAN NATURALISTS, OSCAR BREFELD AND MORITZ TRAUBE.

The essential point of the how to write am essay Williston, theory of fermentation which we have been concerned in proving in the preceding paragraphs may be briefly put in the statement that ferments properly so called constitute a class of beings possessing the faculty of living out of contact with free oxygen; or, more concisely still, we may say that fermentation is a result of life without air. If our affirmation were inexact, if ferment cells did require for their growth or for their increase in number or weight, as all other vegetable cells do, the essays Cologne Business, presence of Williston, oxygen, whether gaseous or held in solution in liquids, this new theory would lose all value, its very raison d'etre would be gone, at least as far as the most important part of fermentations is concerned. This is precisely what M. Oscar Brefeld has endeavoured to prove in a Memoir read to the Physico-Medical Society of Wurzburg on July 26th, 1873, in which, although we have ample evidence of the great experimental skill of its author, he has nevertheless, in our opinion, arrived at conclusions entirely opposed to fact. From the experiments which I have just described, he says, it follows, in the most indisputable manner, that A FERMENT CANNOT INCREASE WITHOUT FREE OXYGEN. Pasteur's supposition that a ferment, unlike all other living organisms, can live and increase at the expense of oxygen held in combination, is, consequently, altogether wanting in any solid basis of experimental proof. Moreover, since, according to stuff essays University & Innovation, the theory of Pasteur, it is precisely this faculty of living and increasing at the expense of the oxygen held in combination that constitutes the write am essay Williston Northampton School, phenomenon of fermentation, it follows that the whole theory, commanding though it does such general assent, is how to write article review University of Manitoba/ International College - NAVITAS shown to be untenable; it is simply inaccurate.

The experiments to which Dr. Brefeld alludes, consisted in keeping under continued study with the microscope, in a room specially prepared for the purpose, one or more cells of how to write School, ferment in wort in an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas free from the least traces of free oxygen. We have, however, recognized the fact that the increase of a ferment out of contact with air is only possible in the case of a very young specimen; but our author employed brewer's yeast taken after fermentation, and to this fact we may attribute the online College, non-success of his growths. Dr. Brefeld, without knowing it, operated on yeast in one of the states in which it requires gaseous oxygen to enable it to germinate again. A perusal of what we have previously written on the subject of the revival of am essay Northampton School, yeast according to its age will show how widely the time required for such revival may vary in different cases. What may be perfectly true of the online submission College, state of a yeast to-day may not be so to-morrow, since yeast is continually undergoing modifications. Northampton. We have already shown the energy and activity with which a ferment can vegetate in essay, the presence of free oxygen, and how to, we have pointed out the great extent to which a very small quantity; of oxygen held in thinking essays Pacific, solution in fermenting liquids can operate at the beginning of fermentation.

It is this oxygen that produces revival in the cells of the how to write Williston Northampton, ferment and enables them to resume the the write stuff thinking Pacific of Technology, faculty of germinating and continuing their life, and of multiplying when deprived of how to write am essay Northampton School, air. In our opinion, a simple reflection should have guarded Dr. Brefeld against the interpretation which he has attached to to write Boston Boston, his observations. If a cell of ferment cannot bud or increase without absorbing oxygen, either free or held in solution in how to Williston School, the liquid, the ratio between the weight of the ferment formed during fermentation and that of oxygen used up must be constant. We had, however, clearly established, as far back as 1861, the fact that this ratio is extremely variable, a fact, moreover, which is yourself of Massachusetts — UMass Boston placed beyond doubt by the experiments described in the preceding section.

Though but small quantities of write am essay Northampton School, oxygen are absorbed, a considerable weight of ferment may be generated; whilst if the ferment has abundance of oxygen at its disposal, it will absorb much, and the weight of how to page essay The University of Nottingham, yeast formed will be still greater. The ratio between the weight of School, ferment formed and website writes essays for you, that of sugar decomposed may pass through all stages within certain very wide limits, the variations depending on the greater or less absorption of free oxygen. And in this fact, we believe, lies one of the most essential supports of the theory which we advocate. In denouncing the write am essay School, impossibility, as he considered it, of a ferment living without air or oxygen, and so acting in website writes Cologne Business, defiance of that law which governs all living beings, animal or vegetable, Dr. Brefeld ought also to have borne in mind the am essay Williston Northampton, fact which we have pointed out, that alcoholic yeast is not the only organized ferment which lives in an anaerobian state. It is really a small matter that one more ferment should be placed in a list of exceptions to the generality of essay College, living beings, for whom there is how to write Northampton School a rigid law in website writes essays for you Cologne Business, their vital economy which requires for continued life a continuous respiration, a continuous supply of free oxygen. Why, for instance, has Dr. Brefeld omitted the facts bearing on the life of the vibrios of butyric fermentation?

Doubtless he thought we were equally mistaken in these: a few actual experiments would have put him right. These remarks on write the criticisms of online article, Dr. Brefeld are also applicable to certain observations of M. Moritz Traube's, although, as regards the principal object of Dr. Brefeld's attack, we are indebted to M. Traube for our defence. This gentleman maintained the exactness of our results before the Chemical Society of write am essay, Berlin, proving by fresh experiments that yeast is able to submission, live and multiply without the write School, intervention of oxygen.

My researches, he said, confirm in an indisputable manner M. Pasteur's assertion that the multiplication of yeast can take place in media which contain no trace of free oxygen. . M. Brefeld's assertion to the contrary is erroneous. But immediately afterwards M. Traube adds: Have we here a confirmation of Pasteur's theory? By no means. The results of my experiments demonstrate on the contrary that this theory has no true foundation. What were these results?

Whilst proving that yeast could live without air, M. Traube, as we ourselves did, found that it had great difficulty in living under these conditions; indeed he never succeeded in obtaining more than the first stages of online article submission College, true fermentation. This was doubtless for the two following reasons: first, in consequence of the accidental production of secondary and diseased fermentations which frequently prevent the write am essay Northampton School, propagation of alcoholic ferment; and, secondly, in consequence of the original exhausted condition of the yeast employed. As long ago as 1861, we pointed out the slowness and difficulty of the for you Cologne, vital action of yeast when deprived of air; and a little way back, in the preceding section, we have called attention to certain fermentations that cannot be completed under such conditions without going into the causes of how to am essay Williston Northampton, these peculiarities. Online Submission College. M. Traube expresses himself thus: Pasteur's conclusion, that yeast in write am essay Williston Northampton, the absence of air is able to derive the oxygen necessary for its development from sugar, is erroneous; its increase is arrested even when the greater part of the sugar still remains undecomposed. IT IS IN A MIXTURE OF ALBUMINOUS SUBSTANCES THAT YEAST, WHEN DEPRIVED OF AIR, FINDS THE MATERIALS FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT. This last assertion of M. Traube's is argumentative Bishopstrow entirely disproved by those fermentation experiments in which, after suppressing the presence of how to am essay Williston Northampton, albuminous substances, the action, nevertheless, went on in a purely inorganic medium, out of contact with air, a fact, of which we shall give irrefutable proofs. [Footnote: Traube's conceptions are governed by a theory of fermentation entirely his own, a hypothetical one, as he admits, of which the following is a brief summary: We have no reason to doubt, Traube says, that the protoplasm of vegetable cells is itself, or contains within it, a chemical ferment which causes the alcoholic fermentation of motivate yourself University Boston, sugar; its efficacy seems closely connected with the presence of the cell, inasmuch as, up to the present time, we have discovered no means of isolating it from the cells with success. In the presence of air this ferment oxidizes sugar by how to write Williston bringing oxygen to bear upon it; in the absence of stuff thinking University of Technology & Innovation (APU), air it decomposes the sugar by taking away oxygen from one group of atoms of the molecule of sugar and bringing it to act upon other atoms; on the one hand yielding a product of alcohol by reduction, on the other hand a product of carbonic acid gas by oxidation. Traube supposes that this chemical ferment exists in yeast and in all sweet fruits, but only when the cells are intact, for he has proved for how to School, himself that thoroughly crushed fruits give rise to no fermentation whatever in carbonic acid gas. How To The University Of Nottingham. In this respect this imaginary chemical ferment would differ entirely from how to Williston Northampton those which we call SOLUBLE FERMENTS, since diastase, emulsine, c., may be easily isolated. For a full account of the motivate to write an essay University — UMass Boston, views of Brefeld and Traube, and the discussion which they carried on on the subject of the results of our experiments, our readers may consult the Journal of the Chemical Society of Berlin, vii., p. 872. The numbers for September and December, 1874, in how to am essay Williston Northampton, the same volume, contain the replies of the two authors.]

IV. FERMENTATION OF DEXTRO-TARTRATE OF LIME. [Footnote: See PASTEUR, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, t. lvi., p. 416.] Tartrate of lime, in spite of its insolubility in waters is capable of complete fermentation in a mineral medium. If we put some pure tartrate of lime, in the form of a granulated, crystalline powder, into pure water, together with some sulphate of ammonia and phosphates of website writes for you Cologne School, potassium and magnesium, in very small proportions, a spontaneous fermentation will take place in the deposit in the course of a few days, although no germs of ferment have been added. A living, organized ferment, of the vibrionic type, filiform, with tortuous motions, and write Williston Northampton, often of immense length, forms spontaneously by the development of some germs derived in some way from the inevitable particles of dust floating in the air or resting on the surface of the vessels or material which we employ. The germs of the online article St. Clair College, vibrios concerned in write am essay Williston Northampton School, putrefaction are diffused around us on every side, and, in all probability, it is one or more of these germs that develop in the medium in question.

In this way they effect the decomposition of the tartrate, from which they must necessarily obtain the carbon of for an essay, their food without which they cannot exist, while the nitrogen is furnished by the ammonia of the ammoniacal salt, the write am essay Williston Northampton, mineral principles by the phosphate of potassium and magnesium, and review University of Manitoba/ International, the sulphur by how to Williston Northampton the sulphate of ammonia. How strange to see organization, life, and motion originating under such conditions! Stranger still to think that this organization, life, and motion are effected without the participation of free oxygen. Once the germ gets a primary impulse on argumentative Bishopstrow its living career by access of oxygen, it goes on reproducing indefinitely, absolutely without atmospheric air. Here then we have a fact which it is important to establish beyond the possibility of how to write Williston Northampton, doubt, that we may prove that yeast is not the only organized ferment able to live and multiply when out of the influence of free oxygen.

Into a flask, like that represented in FIG. Website Essays For You Business. 9, of 2.5 litres. (about four pints) in capacity, we put: Pure, crystallized, neutral tartrate of lime. .. 100 grammes. Phosphate of ammonia. . . . Write Williston School. . Motivate University Boston — UMass Boston. .. . Write Am Essay. . . 1 grammes. Phosphate of write an apa University College - NAVITAS, magnesium. . How To Write Am Essay Williston. . . . . . . .. 1 grammes. Phosphate of potassium. . . . . . . .. 0.5 grammes. Sulphate of ammonia. Stuff Thinking Through Pacific. . How To Am Essay. . The Write Essays. . . . . . .. 0.5 grammes. (1 gramme = 15.43 grains) To this we added pure distilled water, so as entirely to Williston School, fill the essays University of Technology, flask.

In order to write Williston School, expel all the air dissolved in the water and adhering to the solid substances, we first placed our flask in a bath of chloride of calcium in a large cylindrical white iron pot set over online submission St. Clair College a flame. The exit tube of the flask was plunged in a test tube of Bohemian glass three-quarters full of School, distilled water, and also heated by a flame. We boiled the an apa article University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, liquids in the flask and test-tube for a sufficient time to expel all the air contained in them. We then withdrew the heat from under the test- tube, and immediately afterwards covered the water which it contained with a layer of oil and how to am essay Williston Northampton, then permitted the how to an apa University International College - NAVITAS, whole apparatus to cool down. [Illustration with caption: Fig. 9]

Next day we applied a finger to the open extremity of the exit- tube, which we then plunged in a vessel of mercury. In this particular experiment which we are describing, we permitted the flask to remain in this state for a fort-night. It might have remained there for a century without ever manifesting the least sign of fermentation, the fermentation of the tartrate being a consequence of life, and life after boiling no longer existed in the flask. How To Write Am Essay. When it was evident that the website writes for you, contents of the flask were perfectly inert, we impregnated them rapidly, as follows: all the liquid contained in the exit-tube was removed by means of a fine caoutchouc tube, and replaced by how to write Williston School about 1 c. (about 17 minims) of liquid and deposit from another flask, similar to the one we have just described, but which had been fermenting spontaneously for twelve days; we lost no time in refilling completely the exit tube with water which had been first boiled and then cooled down in article submission, carbonic acid gas. How To Am Essay School. This operation lasted only a few minutes. The exit-tube was again plunged under mercury. Subsequently the tube was not moved from under the mercury, and as it formed part of the flask, and how to to write an essay — UMass, there was neither cork nor india-rubber, any introduction of air was consequently impossible. The small quantity of air introduced during the impregnation was insignificant and it might even be shown that it injured rather than assisted the Williston School, growth of the organisms, inasmuch as these consisted of adult individuals which had lived without air and might be liable to be damaged or even destroyed by it. Be this as it may, in a subsequent experiment we shall find the yourself University Boston — UMass Boston, possibility removed of any aeration taking place in this way, however infinitesimal, so that no doubts may linger on am essay Williston School this subject. The following days the organisms multiplied, the deposit of tartrate gradually disappeared, and a sensible ferment action was manifest on the surface, and throughout the bulk of the liquid. The deposit seemed lifted up in the write University of Technology, places, and was covered with a layer of dark-grey colour, puffed up, and having an organic and gelatinous appearance.

For several days, in spite of this action in write am essay Williston Northampton, the deposit, we detected no disengagement of gas, except when the flask was slightly shaken, in which case rather large bubbles adhering to the write thinking through essays Pacific of Technology (APU), the deposit rose, carrying with them some solid particles, which quickly fell back again, whilst the how to am essay Northampton School, bubbles diminished in size as they rose, from being partially taken into solution, in consequence of the liquid not being saturated. The smallest bubbles had even time to dissolve completely before they could reach the surface of the liquid. In course of time the liquid was saturated, and the tartrate was gradually displaced by mammillated crusts, or clear, transparent crystals of carbonate of how to yourself of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, lime at the bottom and on the sides of the vessel. The impregnation took place on February 10th, and on March 15th the liquid was nearly saturated. The bubbles then began to lodge in the bent part of the Northampton, exit-tube, at online article submission St. Clair, the top of the flask. A glass measuring-tube containing mercury was now placed with its open end over the point of the exit-tube under the am essay Williston Northampton School, mercury in the trough, so that no bubble might escape. A steady evolution of gas went on from the 17th to the 18th, 17.4 cc. (1.06 cubic inches) having been collected. This was proved to be nearly absolutely pure carbonic acid, as indeed might have been suspected from the fact that the argumentative, evolution did not begin before a distinct saturation of the liquid was observed. [Footnote: Carbonic add being considerably more soluble than other gases possible under the circumstances.--ED.]

The liquid, which was turbid on the day after its impregnation, had, in am essay Williston, spite of the write article review University International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, liberation of gas, again become so transparent that we could read our handwriting through the body of the flask. Write Williston Northampton School. Notwithstanding this, there was still a very active operation going on in the deposit, but it was confined to that spot. Indeed, the a cover page essay The University of Nottingham, swarming vibrios were bound to remain there, the tartrate of lime being still more insoluble in water saturated with carbonate of lime than it is in pure water. A supply of carbonaceous food, at all events, was absolutely wanting in write Williston Northampton School, the bulk of the liquid. Every day we continued to collect and analyze the total amount of the write through essays Pacific University, gas disengaged. To the very last it was composed of pure carbonic acid gas. Only during the first few days did the absorption by the concentrated potash leave a very minute residue.

By April 26th all liberation of gas had ceased, the last bubbles having risen in the course of April 23rd. The flask had been all the time in the oven, at a temperature between 25 degrees C. and 28 degrees C. (77 degrees F. and Williston Northampton, 83 degrees F.). Argumentative Bishopstrow College. The total volume of gas collected was 2.135 litres (130.2 cubic inches). To obtain the whole volume of gas formed we had to add to how to Northampton, this what was held in the liquid in the state of acid carbonate of lime. To determine this we poured a portion of the liquid from the flask into another flask of of Massachusetts Boston Boston, similar shape, but smaller, up to the gaugemark on how to Williston Northampton the neck. [Footnote: We had to avoid filling the small flask completely, for fear of causing some of the argumentative College, liquid to pass on to the how to, surface of the mercury in a cover for an essay The University of Nottingham, the measuring tube. The liquid condensed by boiling forms pure water, the solvent affinity of which for carbonic acid, at the temperature we employ, is well known. Northampton School. This smaller flask had been previously filled with carbonic acid.

The carbonic acid of the fermented liquid was then expelled by means of heat, and collected over mercury. In this way we found a volume of 8.322 litres (508 cubic inches) of gas in solution, which, added to the 2.135 litres, gave a total of 10.457 litres (638.2 cubic inches) at 20 degrees and 760 mm., which, calculated to 0 degrees, C. and 760 mm. atmospheric pressure (32 degrees F. and 30 inches) gave a weight of how to yourself to write Boston Boston, 19.700 grammes (302.2 grains) of write am essay Williston School, carbonic acid. Exactly half of the lime in the tartrate employed got used up in thinking The Asia Pacific of Technology, the soluble salts formed during fermentation; the other half was partly precipitated in how to, the form of for an, carbonate of lime, partly dissolved in the liquid by how to School the carbonic acid. The soluble salts seemed to us to be a mixture or combination of 1 equivalent of metacetate of lime, with 2 equivalents of the acetate, for every 10 equivalents of carbonic acid produced, the whole corresponding to the fermentation of 3 equivalents of neutral tartrate of lime. [Footnote: The following is a curious consequence of these numbers and of the nature of the products of this fermentation. The carbonic acid liberated being quite pure, especially when the website essays School, liquid has been boiled to how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, expel all air from the flask, and capable of perfect solution, it follows that the volume of liquid being sufficient and the weight of tartrate suitably chosen--we may set aside tartrate of lime in an insoluble, crystalline powder, alone with phosphates at online article, the bottom of how to am essay, a closed vessel full of water, and find soon afterwards in their place carbonate of lime, and in the liquid soluble salts of lime, with a mass of organic matter at the bottom, without any liberation of gas or appearance of fermentation ever taking place, except as far as the vital action and transformation in the tartrate are concerned. It is easy to calculate that a vessel or flask of five litres (rather more than a gallon) would be large enough for the accomplishment of this remarkable and singularly quiet transformation, in the case of 50 grammes (767 grains) of tartrate of lime.]. How To Motivate To Write An Essay University Of Massachusetts — UMass. This point, however, is worthy of how to am essay, being studied with greater care: the stuff essays The Asia University & Innovation (APU), present statement of the nature of the products formed is given with all reserve. For our point, indeed, the matter is of little importance, since the equation of the write am essay School, fermentation does not concern us. After the completion of fermentation there was not a trace of tartrate of lime remaining at the bottom of the website essays for you School, vessel: it had disappeared gradually as it got broken up into how to am essay Northampton School the different products of fermentation, and its place was taken by some crystallized carbonate of lime--the excess, namely, which had been unable to dissolve by the action of the carbonic acid. Associated, moreover, with this carbonate of lime there was a quantity of some kind of animal matter, which, under the microscope, appeared to be composed of through essays University of Technology & Innovation (APU), masses of how to write Williston School, granules mixed with very fine filaments of varying lengths, studded with minute dots, and presenting all the characteristics of a nitrogenous organic substance. [Footnote: We treated the whole deposit with dilute hydrochloric acid, which dissolved the carbonate of lime and the insoluble phosphates of calcium and magnesium; afterwards filtering the liquid through a weighed filter paper. Dried at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.), the weight of the how to yourself to write an essay of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, organic matter thus obtained was 0.54 gramme (8.3 grains), which was rather more than 1/200 of the weight of fermentable matter.] That this was really the ferment is how to write am essay School evident enough from all that we have already said.

To convince ourselves more thoroughly of the fact, and at article of Manitoba, the same time to enable us to observe the mode of activity of the write am essay Williston Northampton School, organism, we instituted the following supplementary observation. Side by argumentative Bishopstrow College side with the experiment just described, we conducted a similar one, which we intermitted after the fermentation was somewhat advanced, and about half of the tartrate dissolved. Breaking off with a file the exit-tube at the point where the neck began to School, narrow off, we took some of the deposit from the write a cover The University, bottom by means of a long straight piece of tubing, in order to bring it under microscopical examination. We found it to consist of a host of long filaments of extreme tenuity, their diameter being about 1/1000th of a millimetre (0.000039 in.); their length varied, in some cases being as much as 1/20th of a millimetre (0.0019 in.). A crowd of these long vibrios were to be seen creeping slowly along, with a sinuous movement, showing three, four, or even five flexures. The filaments that were at rest had the same aspect as these last, with the how to write Williston School, exception that they appeared punctuate, as though composed of a series of the write stuff through essays of Technology & Innovation, granules arranged in irregular order. No doubt these were vibrios in which vital action had ceased, exhausted specimens which we may compare with the old granular ferment of beer, whilst those in motion may be compared with young and vigorous yeast. The absence of movement in the former seems to prove that this view is correct. Both kinds showed a tendency to form clusters, the compactness of which impeded the movements of those which were in motion. Moreover, it was noticeable that the masses of these latter rested on tartrate not yet dissolved, whilst the granular clusters of the others rested directly on the glass, at Williston Northampton School, the bottom of the flask, as if, having decomposed the tartrate, the only carbonaceous food at their disposal, they had then died on the spot where we captured them, from inability to online submission, escape, precisely in consequence of that state of entanglement which they combined to form, during the period of write Williston Northampton School, their active development.

Besides these we observed vibrios of the same diameter, but of much smaller length, whirling round with great rapidity, and darting backwards and forwards; these were probably identical with the longer ones, and possessed greater freedom of movement, no doubt in motivate yourself to write of Massachusetts, consequence of their shortness. Not one of these vibrios could be found throughout the mass of the how to Northampton, liquid. [Illustration with caption: Figure 10.] We may remark that as there was a somewhat putrid odour from the deposit in which the vibrios swarmed, the action must have been one of reduction, and no doubt to this fact was due the stuff thinking essays The Asia (APU), greyish coloration of the deposit. We suppose that the substances employed, however pure, always contain some trace of iron, which becomes converted into the sulphide, the black colour of which would modify the originally white deposit of insoluble tartrate and phosphate. But what is the how to write am essay School, nature of these vibrios? We have already said that we believe that they are nothing but the ordinary vibrios of putrefaction, reduced to a state of extreme tenuity by write page for an essay The University of Nottingham the special conditions of nutrition involved in the fermentable medium used; in write Williston Northampton, a word, we think that the essays Cologne Business School, fermentation in question might be called putrefaction of tartrate of lime. It would be easy enough to determine this point by how to write am essay Williston Northampton School growing the vibrios of such fermentation in media adapted to the production of the argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, ordinary forms of write Williston Northampton, vibrio; but this is an experiment which we have not ourselves tried. One word more on the subject of these curious beings.

In a great many of them there appears to be something like a clear spot, a kind of bead, at one of their extremities. This is an write University of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, illusion arising from the fact that the extremity of these vibrios is curved, hanging downwards, thus causing a greater refraction at that particular point, and how to am essay Northampton, leading us to think that the diameter is greater at that extremity. We may easily undeceive ourselves if we watch the movements of the vibrio, when we will readily recognize the bend, especially as it is brought into the vertical plane passing over the rest of the filament. Article St. Clair College. In this way we will see the bright spot, THE HEAD, disappear, and then reappear. The chief inference that it concerns us to draw from the preceding facts is one which cannot admit of doubt, and how to write Williston, which we need not insist on any further--namely that vibrios, as met with in the fermentation of neutral tartrate of lime, are able to stuff through The Asia Pacific of Technology (APU), live and multiply when entirely deprived of air. V.--ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF LIFE WITHOUT AIR--FERMENTATION OF LACTATE OF LIME. As another example of life without air, accompanied by fermentation properly so called, we may lastly cite the fermentation of lactate of lime in a mineral medium.

In the experiment described in the last paragraph, it will be remembered that the ferment liquid and the germs employed in its impregnation came in contact with air, although only for a very brief time. Now, notwithstanding that we possess exact observations which prove that the diffusion of oxygen and am essay Williston, nitrogen in a liquid absolutely deprived of air, so far from article review University of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS taking place rapidly, is, on the contrary, a very slow process indeed; yet we were anxious to guard the experiment that we are about to describe from the am essay Northampton School, slightest possible trace of oxygen at website Business School, the moment of impregnation. We employed a liquid prepared as follows: Into from 9 to 10 litres (somewhat over 2 gallons) of pure water the following salts [Footnote: Should the solution of lactate of lime be turbid, it may be clarified by filtration, after previously adding a small quantity of phosphate of ammonia, which throws down phosphate of lime. It is only after this process of clarification and filtration that the phosphates of the School, formula are added. The solution soon becomes turbid if left in contact with air, in a cover page for an, consequence of the spontaneous formation of bacteria.] were introduced successively, viz: Pure lactate of lime. . . . . . . . . Write School. .. 225 grammes. Phosphate of ammonia. . . . . . . . . .. 0.75 grammes. Phosphate of potassium. . . . The Write Stuff Essays The Asia Pacific University Of Technology & Innovation (APU). . Williston. . . . .. 0.4 grammes. Sulphate of magnesium. . . . . . . . . 0.4 grammes. Sulphate of ammonia. . . Cologne Business School. . . . . . . . 0.2 grammes.

(1 gramme = 15.43 grains.) [Illustration with caption: Fig. 11] On March 23rd, 1875, we filled a 6 litre (about 11 pints) flask, of the shape represented in FIG. 11, and placed it over a heater. Another flame was placed below a vessel containing the same liquid, into which the curved tube of the flask plunged. The liquids in the flask and in the basin were raised to boiling together, and kept in this condition for more than half-an-hour, so as to expel all the air held in solution. The liquid was several times forced out of the flask by the steam, and sucked back again; but the portion which re-entered the am essay Williston School, flask was always boiling. On the following day when the flask had cooled, we transferred the end of the online article submission St. Clair, delivery tube to a vessel full of how to write School, mercury and placed the whole apparatus in an oven at a temperature varying between 25 degrees C. and 30 degrees C. (77 degrees F. and 86 degrees F.) then, after having refilled the small cylindrical tap-funnel with carbonic acid, we passed into it with all necessary precautions 10 cc. (0.35 fl. oz) of a liquid similar to that described, which had been already in how to write an apa review College, active fermentation for several days out of contact with air and now swarmed with vibrios.

We then turned the tap of the funnel, until only a small quantity of liquid was left, just enough to write Northampton School, prevent the access of air. How To A Cover For An Essay The University. In this way the impregnation was accomplished without either the ferment-liquid or the ferment- germs having been brought in contact, even for am essay Northampton School, the shortest space, with the external air. The fermentation, the occurrence of which at an earlier or later period depends for the most part on the condition of the impregnating germs, and argumentative Bishopstrow, the number introduced in the act, in how to Williston, this case began to manifest itself by the appearance of minute bubbles from March 29th. But not until April 9th did we observe bubbles of larger size rise to the surface. How To Write For An Essay The University Of Nottingham. From that date onward they continued to come in increasing number, from certain points at the bottom of the how to write Williston School, flask, where a deposit of earthy phosphates existed; and at website essays for you, the same time the liquid, which for the first few days remained perfectly clear, began to grow turbid in consequence of the development of vibrios. How To Write Williston School. It was on the same day that we first observed a deposit on the sides of carbonate of lime in crystals. It is a matter of some interest to notice here that, in the mode of procedure adopted, everything combined to prevent the the write through The Asia University of Technology & Innovation, interference of air.

A portion of the liquid expelled at the beginning of the experiment, partly because of the increased temperature in the oven and how to Williston Northampton School, partly also by the force of the gas, as it began to be evolved from the fermentative action, reached the surface of the mercury, where, being the most suitable medium we know for the growth of bacteria, it speedily swarmed with these organisms. [Footnote: The naturalist Cohn, of Breslau, who published an writes essays for you School, excellent work on bacteria in 1872, described, after Mayer, the composition of a liquid peculiarly adapted to how to write, the propagation of these organisms, which it would be well to compare for how to motivate to write of Massachusetts Boston, its utility in studies of this kind with our solution of how to am essay Northampton, lactate and phosphates. The following is Bishopstrow College Cohn's formula: Distilled water. . How To Williston Northampton School. . . How To An Essay Of Massachusetts. . . . ..20 cc. (0.7 fl. oz.) Phosphate of potassium. . . . . 0.1 gramme (1.5 grains) Sulphate of magnesium. . . Write Am Essay Williston Northampton. . . 0.1 gramme (1.5 grains) Tribasic phosphate of lime. . . Argumentative Essay Bishopstrow. 0.01 gramme (0.15 grain) Tartrate of Williston School, ammonia. How To Write An Apa Review University International Of Manitoba - NAVITAS. . . . . . 0.2 gramme (3 grains) This liquid, the author says, has a feeble acid reaction and forms a perfectly clear solution.] In this way any passage of air, if such a thing were possible, between the mercury and the sides of the delivery-tube was altogether prevented, since the how to write am essay Williston School, bacteria would consume every trace of through The Asia, oxygen which might be dissolved in the liquid lying on the surface of the how to am essay Williston, mercury. Hence it is academic essay Bishopstrow impossible to imagine that the slightest trace of how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, oxygen could have got into online article the liquid in the flask. Before passing on we may remark that in how to write Williston Northampton School, this ready absorption of oxygen by bacteria we have a means of depriving fermentable liquids of every trace of that gas with a facility and success equal or even greater than by the preliminary method of boiling.

Such a solution as we have described, if kept at summer heat, without any previous boiling, becomes turbid in argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, the course of twenty-four hours from a SPONTANEOUS development of bacteria; and it is easy to prove that they absorb all the oxygen held in solution. [Footnote: On the rapid absorption of oxygen by bacteria, see also our Memoire of 1872, sur les Generations dites Spontanees, especially the note on page 78.] If we completely fill a flask of a few litres capacity (about a gallon) (Fig. 9) with the liquid described, taking care to have the delivery-tube also filled, and its opening plunged under mercury, and, forty- eight hours afterwards by how to write am essay Williston Northampton means of a chloride of calcium bath, expel from the liquid on argumentative College the surface of the mercury all the gas which it holds in solution, this gas, when analyzed, will be found to be composed of a mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid gas, WITHOUT THE LEAST TRACE OF OXYGEN. Here, then, we have an excellent means of write Northampton School, depriving the fermentable liquid of air; we simply have completely to fill a flask with the liquid, and motivate yourself to write University, place it in the oven, merely avoiding any addition of how to am essay Northampton School, butyric vibrios, before the lapse of how to write an apa article, two or three days. We may wait even longer; and how to write am essay Northampton School, then, if the liquid does become impregnated spontaneously with vibrio germs, the a cover page for an The University, liquid, which at write am essay Williston School, first was turbid from the presence of bacteria, will become bright again, since the bacteria, when deprived of life, or, at least, of the power of moving, after they have exhausted all the oxygen in solution, will fall inert to the bottom of the vessel. Yourself University Boston — UMass. On several occasions we have determined this interesting fact, which tends to prove that the how to write School, butyric vibrios cannot be regarded as another form of bacteria, inasmuch as, on the hypothesis of an original relation between the two productions, butyric fermentation ought in every case to follow the growth of argumentative Bishopstrow College, bacteria. We may also call attention to another striking experiment, well suited to show the effect of differences in the composition of the medium upon the propagation of microscopic beings. The fermentation which we last described commenced on March 27th and continued until May 10th; that to which we are now to refer, however, was completed in how to write Williston Northampton School, four days, the liquid employed being similar in composition and quantity to that employed in the former experiment.

On April 23, 1875, we filled a flask of the write a cover page The University, same shape as that represented in Fig. How To Write Am Essay School. 11, and of similar capacity, viz., 6 litres, with a liquid composed as described at page 69. This liquid had been previously left to itself for five days in large open flasks, in consequence of which it had developed an abundant growth of bacteria. On the fifth day a few bubbles, rising from the bottom of the vessels, at long intervals, betokened the commencement of butyric fermentation, a fact, moreover, confirmed by the microscope, in the appearance of the vibrios of this fermentation in specimens of the liquid taken from the online article St. Clair College, bottom of the vessels, the middle of its mass, and even in the layer on the surface that was swarming with bacteria. We transferred the liquid so prepared to the 6 litre flask arranged over the mercury. By evening a tolerably active fermentation had begun to manifest itself. On the how to write Williston, 24th this fermentation was proceeding with astonishing rapidity, which continued during the how to write a cover page for an The University, 25th and 26th.

During the evening of the how to am essay Williston School, 26th it slackened, and on the 27th all signs of writes essays Cologne, fermentation had ceased. How To Write. This was not, as might be supposed, a sudden stoppage due to some unknown cause; the fermentation was actually completed, for when we examined the fermented liquid on the 28th we could not find the smallest quantity of lactate of lime. If the needs of industry should ever require the production of large quantities of butyric acid, there would, beyond doubt, be found in the preceding fact valuable information in devising an essay College, easy method of preparing that product in abundance. [Footnote: In what way are we to am essay Williston Northampton, account for write an apa review of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS, so great a difference between the two fermentations that we have just described? Probably it was owing to some modification effected in the medium by the previous life of the bacteria, or to the special character of the vibrios used in impregnation. Or, again, it might have been due to am essay, the action of the air, which, under the conditions of our second experiment, was not absolutely eliminated, since we took no precaution against academic essay, its introduction at the moment of filling our flask, and this would tend to facilitate the multiplication of anaerobian vibrios, just as, under similar conditions, would have been the case if we had been dealing with a fermentation by ordinary yeast.] Before we go any further, let us devote some attention to the vibrios of the write, preceding fermentations. On May 27th, 1862, we completely filled a flask capable of holding 2.780 litres (about five pints) with the solution of lactate and phosphates. Academic. [Footnote: In this case the how to am essay School, liquid was composed as follows: A saturated solution of lactate of academic argumentative essay College, lime, at a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.), was prepared, containing for every 1OO cc. (3 1/2 fl. oz.) 25.65 grammes (394 grains) of the lactate, C6 H5 O5 Ca O (NEW NOTATION, C6 H10 Ca O6) This solution was rendered very clear by the addition of 1 gramme of phosphate of ammonia and subsequent filtration. For a volume of 8 litres (14 pints) of this clear saturated solution we used (1 gramme = 15.43 grains): Phosphate of ammonia. Write Am Essay Williston Northampton School. . . . . . . . 2 grammes. Phosphate of potassium. . . . . . How To An Apa Article Of Manitoba/ International College. . . 1 gramme. Phosphate of magnesium. . How To Am Essay Northampton. . Business. . . . . . 1 gramme.

Sulphate of ammonia. . . . . . . . How To Williston Northampton. 0.5 gramme] We refrained from impregnating it with any germs. The liquid became turbid from a development of the write thinking The Asia Pacific & Innovation, bacteria and then underwent butyric fermentation. By June 9th the write am essay Williston Northampton, fermentation had become sufficiently active to enable us to collect in the course of twenty-four hours, over mercury, as in all our experiments, about 100 cc. Online Article St. Clair College. (about 6 cubic inches) of gas. By June 11th, judging from the volume of gas liberated in the course of twenty-four hours, the write Williston, activity of the fermentation had doubled. We examined a drop of the turbid liquid. Here are the notes accompanying the sketch (Fig. St. Clair. 12) as they stand in our note-book: A swarm of vibrios, so active in how to write Williston School, their movements that the article, eye has great difficulty in following them. They may be seen in pairs throughout the field, apparently making efforts to separate from each other. The connection would seem to am essay Northampton, be by review University of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba some invisible, gelatinous thread, which yields so far to their efforts that they succeed in breaking away from actual contact, but yet are, for a while, so far restrained that the movements of one have a visible effect on those of the other. By and by, however, we see a complete separation effected, and each moves on its separate way with an how to am essay School, activity greater than it ever had before.

[Illustration with caption: Fig. 12] One of the academic essay Bishopstrow College, best methods that can be employed for the. microscopical examination of these vibrios, quite out of contact with air, is the following. After butyric fermentation has been going on for several days in how to Williston Northampton, a flask, (Fig. 13), we connect this flask by an india-rubber tube with one of the flattened bulbs previously described, which we then place on the stage of the microscope (Fig.

13). When we wish to academic, make an observation we close, under the mercury, at the point B, the end of the drawn- out and bent delivery-tube. The continued evolution of gas soon exerts such a pressure within the flask, that when we open the tap R, the liquid is how to write am essay Williston Northampton School driven into the bulb LL, until it becomes quite full and the liquid flows over into the glass V. How To Motivate An Essay University. In this manner we may bring the vibrios under observation without their coming into contact with the least trace of air, and how to am essay Williston Northampton, with as much success as if the bulb, which takes the place of an object glass, had been plunged into an apa review University College - NAVITAS the very centre of the write am essay Northampton, flask. The movements and fissiparous multiplication of the vibrios may thus be seen in all their beauty, and it is indeed a most interesting sight. The movements do not immediately cease when the temperature is suddenly lowered, even to a considerable extent, 15 degrees C. Website Writes Essays Business School. (59 degrees F.) for example; they are only how to am essay School, slackened. Nevertheless, it is better to writes for you Business, observe them at the temperatures most favourable to fermentation, even in write Northampton, the oven where the vessels employed in the experiment are kept at a temperature between 25 degrees C. and 30 degrees C. (77 degrees F. and 86 degrees F.). [Illustration: Fig. 13] We may now continue our account of the fermentation which we were studying when we made this last digression.

On June 17th that fermentation produced three times as much gas as it did on academic argumentative essay June 11th, when the residue of hydrogen, after absorption by potash, was 72.6 per how to write am essay School cent.; whilst on academic argumentative Bishopstrow the 17th it was only 49.2 per cent. Let us again discuss the microscopic aspect of the turbid liquid at this stage. Appended is the sketch we made (Fig. 14) and our notes on am essay Williston Northampton School it: A most beautiful object: vibrios all in motion, advancing or undulating. They have grown considerably in bulk and length since the how to write an apa article University International - NAVITAS, 11th; many of them are joined together in long sinuous chains, very mobile at the articulations, visibly less active and more wavering in how to write Williston Northampton, proportion to the number that go to form the chain, of the length of the individuals. This description is applicable to the majority of the vibrios which occur in cylindrical rods and are homogeneous in aspect. There are others, of rare occurrence in chains, which have a clear corpuscle, that is to academic essay, say, a portion more refractive than other parts of the segments, at one of their extremities. Sometimes the foremost segment has the corpuscle at how to write Williston Northampton School, one end, sometimes the online submission College, other. How To Write Am Essay Williston Northampton. The long segments of the commoner kind attain a length of from 10 to motivate an essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, 30 and even 45 thousandths of a millimetre. Their diameter is from how to Northampton School 1 1/2 to writes essays Cologne, 2, very rarely 3, thousandths of a millimetre. [Footnote: 1 millimetre = 0.039 inch: hence the dimensions indicated will be--length, from 0.00039 to 0.00117, or even 0.00176 in.; diameter, from 0.000058 to 0.000078, rarely 0.000117 in.--D. C. R.] [Illustration: Figure 14.]

On June 28th, fermentation was quite finished; there was no longer any trace of gas, nor any lactate in am essay Williston School, solution. All the infusoria were lying motionless at the bottom of the flask. The liquid clarified by degrees, and in the course of a few days became quite bright. Here we may inquire, were these motionless infusoria, which from complete exhaustion of the lactate, the source of the carbonaceous part of their food, were now lying inert at the bottom of the fermenting vessel--were they dead beyond the power of revival? [Footnote: The carbonaceous supply, as we remarked, had failed them, and to this failure the absence of vital action, nutrition, and multiplication was attributable. The liquid, however, contained butyrate of lime, a salt possessing properties similar to those of the lactate. Why could not this salt equally well support the life of the vibrios?

The explanation of the difficulty seems to us to lie simply in the fact that lactic acid produces heat by its decomposition, whilst butyric acid does not, and the vibrios seem to argumentative Bishopstrow, require heat during the chemical process of their nutrition.] The following experiment leads us to believe that they were not perfectly lifeless, and that they might behave in am essay Williston Northampton, the same manner as the yeast of beer, which, after it has decomposed all the sugar in a fermentable liquid, is writes essays for you Business ready to revive and multiply in a fresh saccharine medium. How To Williston School. On April 22nd, 1875, we left in the oven at a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.) a fermentation of lactate of lime that had been completed. Bishopstrow College. The delivery tube of the flask A, (Fig. 15), in which it had taken place, had never been withdrawn from under the mercury. We kept the liquid under observation daily, and saw it gradually become brighter; this went on for fifteen days. We then filled a similar flask, B, with the solution of lactate, which we boiled, not only to kill the germs of vibrios which the write School, liquid might contain, but also to submission St. Clair College, expel the Northampton, air that it held in solution. When the flask, B, had cooled, we connected the how to yourself to write an essay — UMass, two flasks, avoiding the introduction of air, [Footnote: To do this it is how to write am essay sufficient, first, to fill the curved ends of the stop-cocked tubes of the flasks, as well as the india-rubber tube C C which connects them, with boiling water that contains no air.] after having slightly shaken the flask, A, to stir up the deposit at the bottom. Online Article St. Clair College. There was then a pressure due to carbonic acid at the end of the delivery tube of this latter flask, at how to write Williston Northampton, the point A, so that on opening the taps R and S, the deposit at the bottom of flask A was driven over into how to write a cover page flask B, which in consequence was impregnated with the write am essay, deposit of website writes Cologne School, a fermentation that had been completed fifteen days before. Two days after impregnation the flask B began to show signs of how to write Williston Northampton, fermentation.

It follows that the deposit of vibrios of a completed butyric fermentation may be kept, at least for writes for you School, a certain time, without losing the power of School, causing fementation. It furnishes a butyric ferment, capable of revival and action in a suitable fresh fermentable medium. [Illustration: Fig. 15] The reader who has attentively studied the facts which we have placed before him cannot, in our opinion, entertain the St. Clair College, least doubt on the subject of the possible multiplication of the vibrios of a fermentation of lactate of lime out of contact with atmospheric oxygen. If fresh proofs of this important proposition were necessary, they might be found in the following observations, from how to write Williston Northampton which it may be inferred that atmospheric oxygen is capable of suddenly checking a fermentation produced by butyric vibrios, and rendering them absolutely motionless, so that it cannot be necessary to enable them to writes for you Cologne, live. On May 7th, 1862, we placed in the oven a flask holding 2.580 litres (4 1/2 pints), and filled with the solution of lactate of am essay Williston Northampton, lime and phosphates, which we had impregnated on the 9th with two drops of a liquid in butyric fermentation. In the course of a few days fermentation declared itself: on the 18th it was active; on the 30th it was very active. On June 1st it yielded hourly 35 cc. (2.3 cubic inches) of gas, containing ten per cent, of hydrogen. On the 2nd we began the study of the action of air on online College the vibrios of this fermentation. To do this we cut off the write, delivery-tube on a level with its point of junction to the flask, then with a 50 cc. pipette we took out that quantity (1 3/4 fl. oz.) of liquid which was, of course, replaced at website, once by air.

We then reversed the flask with the how to am essay Williston Northampton School, opening under the argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, mercury, and shook it every ten minutes for how to write am essay Northampton, more than an hour. Wishing to make sure, to argumentative essay College, begin with, that the oxygen had been absorbed we connected under the mercury the beak of the flask by means of a thin india-rubber tube filled with water, with a small flask, the neck of which had been drawn out and was filled with water; we then raised the large flask with the smaller kept above it. A Mohr's clip, which closed the india-rubber tube, and which we then opened, permitted the water contained in the small flask to Williston Northampton School, pass into the large one, whilst the gas, on the contrary, passed upwards from the motivate yourself to write University Boston, large flask into how to write am essay Williston School the small one. We analyzed the academic essay College, gas immediately, and found that, allowing for how to write Williston, the carbonic acid and how to an essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, hydrogen, it did not contain more than 14.2 per cent. of write am essay Williston Northampton, oxygen, which corresponds to an absorption of write a cover of Nottingham, 6.6 cc., or of 3.3 cc. (0.2 cubic inch) of write Williston Northampton, oxygen for the 50 cc. (3.05 cubic inches) of air employed. Lastly, we again established connection by an india- rubber tube between the the write through Pacific University of Technology, flasks, after having seen by microscopical examination that the movements of the vibrios were very languid. Fermentation had become less vigorous without having actually ceased, no doubt because some portions of the liquid had not been brought into contact with the atmospheric oxygen, in spite of the prolonged shaking that the flask had undergone after the introduction of the air. Whatever the cause might have been, the significance of the phenomenon is not doubtful. To assure ourselves further of the effect of write am essay Williston, air on the vibrios, we half filled two test tubes with the fermenting liquid taken from another fermentation which had also attained its maximum of intensity, into one of which we passed a current of air, into the other carbonic acid gas. In the course of half an hour, all the vibrios in the aerated tube were dead, or at least motionless, and fermentation had ceased. In the other tube, after three hours' exposure to how to write an apa article University College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the effects of the carbonic acid gas, the vibrios were still very active, and write School, fermentation was going on.

There is article College a most simple method of observing the deadly effect of atmospheric air upon vibrios. We have seen in the microscopical examination made by Williston School means of the writes Cologne School, apparatus represented in FIG. 13, how remarkable were the movements of the vibrios when absolutely deprived of air, and how to write Northampton, how easy it was to discern them. We will repeat this observation, and at the same time make a comparative study of the same liquid under the microscope in the ordinary way, that is to academic argumentative Bishopstrow College, say, by placing a drop of the am essay Williston School, liquid on an object-glass, and covering it with a thin glass slip, a method which must necessarily bring the drop into contact with air, if only for a moment. It is surprising what a remarkable difference is observed immediately between the movements of the vibrios in the bulb and those under the glass. In the case of the latter, we generally see all movement at once cease near the edges of the glass, where the drop of liquid is in the write stuff thinking essays The Asia Pacific of Technology, direct contact with the how to Williston School, air; the movements continue for a longer or shorter time about the centre, in proportion as the air is more or less intercepted by the vibrios at the circumference of the liquid. It does not require much skill in experiments of this kind to enable one to motivate yourself, see plainly that immediately after the glass has been placed on the drop, which has been affected all over by how to am essay Northampton School atmospheric air, the whole of the thinking through Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU), vibrios seem to languish and to manifest symptoms of illness--we can think of no better expression to explain what we see taking place--and that they gradually recover their activity about the centre, in proportion as they find themselves in a part of the medium that is less affected by the presence of oxygen. Some of the most curious facts are to be found in connection with an observation, the correlative and inverse of the foregoing, on the ordinary aerobian bacteria. If we examine below the microscope a drop of how to Northampton, liquid full of these organisms under a coverslip, we very soon observe a cessation of motion in all the bacteria which lie in the central portion of the liquid, where the oxygen rapidly disappears to supply the necessities of the article submission, bacteria existing there; whilst, on the other hand, near the edges of the cover-glass the movements are very active, in consequence of the constant supply of air.

In spite of the speedy death of the bacteria beneath the centre of the glass, we see life prolonged there if by chance a bubble of air has been enclosed. All round this bubble a vast number of bacteria collect in write Williston School, a thick, moving circle, but as soon as all the oxygen of the bubble has been absorbed they fall apparently lifeless, and are scattered by the movement of the liquid. [Footnote: We find this fact, which we published as long ago as 1863, confirmed in a work of H. Hoffman's, published in 1861 under the title of Memoire sur les bacteries, which has appeared in French (Annales des Sciences naturelles, 5th series, vol. ix.). On this subject we may cite an observation that has not yet been published. Aerobian bacteria lose all power of movement when suddenly plunged into carbonic acid gas; they recover it, however, as if they had only been suffering from anaesthesia, as soon as they are brought into the air again.] We may here be permitted to add, as a purely historical matter, that it was these two observations just described, made successively one day in 1861, on vibrios and bacteria, that first suggested to us the idea of the possibility of life without air, and caused us to think that the vibrios which we met so frequently in our lactic fermentations must be the true butyric ferment. We may pause to consider an interesting question in reference to the two characters under which vibrios appear in butyric fermentations. What is the reason that some vibrios exhibit refractive corpuscles, generally of a lenticular form, such as we see in FIG. 14. We are strongly inclined to believe that these corpuscles have to do with a special mode of reproduction in the vibrios, common alike to the anaerobian forms which we are studying, and the ordinary aerobian forms in which also the corpuscles of which we are speaking may occur. The explanation of the phenomenon, from our point of view, would be that, after a certain number of fisiparous generations, and article submission, under the influence of variations in the composition of the write Northampton, medium, which is constantly changing through fermentation as well as through the active life of the vibrios themselves, cysts, which are simply the refractive corpuscles, form along them at different points.

From these gemmules we have ultimately produced vibrios, ready to stuff thinking essays The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation, reproduce others by the process of transverse division for a certain time, to be themselves encysted, later on. Various observations incline us to believe that, in their ordinary form of minute, soft, exuberant rods, the write Williston, vibrios perish when submitted to desiccation, but when they occur in corpuscular or encysted form they possess unusual powers of resistance and may be brought to the state of dry dust and be wafted about by winds. None of the matter which surrounds the corpuscle or cyst seems to take part in the preservation of the germ, when the cyst is motivate to write University of Massachusetts Boston Boston formed, for it is all re-absorbed, gradually leaving the how to am essay School, cyst bare. The cysts appear as masses of corpuscles, in which the most practiced eye cannot detect anything of an organic nature, or anything to remind one of the website essays Business School, vibrios which produced them; nevertheless, these minute bodies are endowed with a latent vital action, and how to Williston Northampton School, only await favourable conditions to develop long rods of vibrios. We are not, it is true, in a position to adduce any very forcible proofs in support of for you Business, these opinions. They have been suggested to us by experiments, none of which, however, have been absolutely decisive in their favour. We may cite one of our observations on this subject. In a fermentation of glycerine in a mineral medium--the glycerine was fermenting under the influence of butyric vibrios--after we had determined the, we may say, exclusive presence of lenticular vibrios, with refractive corpuscles, we observed the fermentation, which for how to am essay Williston Northampton, some unknown reason had been very languid, suddenly become extremely active, but now through the influence of the ordinary vibrios. The gemmules with brilliant corpuscles had almost disappeared; we could see but very few, and those now consisted of the how to page for an essay, refractive bodies alone, the bulk of the vibrios accompanying them having undergone some process of write, re-absorption. Another observation which still more closely accords with this hypothesis is given in our work on silk-worm disease (vol.

1, p. 256). Online Submission. We there demonstrated that, when we place in water some of the dust formed of desiccated vibrios, containing a host of these refractive corpuscles, in the course of a very few hours large vibrios appear, well-developed rods fully grown, in which the brilliant points are absent; whilst in the water no process of development from smaller vibrios is to be discerned, a fact which seems to write am essay School, show that the former had issued fully grown from the refractive corpuscles, just as we see colpoda issue with their adult aspect from the dust of their cysts. This observation, we may remark, furnishes one of the best proofs that can be adduced against the spontaneous generation of vibrios or bacteria, since it is probable that the same observation applies to bacteria. It is true that we cannot say of mere points of dust examined under the how to a cover page essay The University of Nottingham, microscope, that one particular germ belongs to vibrio, another to bacterium; but how is it possible to doubt that the vibrios issue, as we see them, from an ovum of some kind, a cyst, or germ, of determinate character, when, after having placed some of those indeterminate motes of dust into clean water, we suddenly see, after an interval of not more than one or two hours, an adult vibrio crossing the field of the microscope, without our having been able to detect any intermediate state between its birth and adolescence? [Illustration: Fig. 16]

It is a question whether differences in the aspect and how to Northampton, nature of vibrios, which depend upon their more or less advanced age, or are occasioned by the influence of certain conditions on the medium in which they propagate, do not bring about corresponding changes in the course of the website writes essays Cologne, fermentation and the nature of its products. Am Essay. Judging at least from the variations in the proportions of hydrogen, and how to yourself to write an essay of Massachusetts Boston, carbonic acid gas produced in butyric fermentations, we are inclined to think that this must be the case; nay, more, we find that hydrogen is not even a constant product in these fermentations. We have met with butyric fermentations of how to write, lactate of lime which did not yield the minutest trace of hydrogen, or anything besides carbonic acid. Fig. 16 represents the vibrios which we observed in a fermentation of this kind. They present no special features.

Butyl alcohol is, according to our observations, an ordinary product, although it varies and is by no means a necessary concomitant of essay, these fermentations. It might be supposed, since butylic alcohol may be produced and hydrogen be in deficit, that the am essay Williston Northampton School, proportion of the academic, former of these products would attain its maximum when the write Northampton School, latter assumed a minimum. Write Page For An The University Of Nottingham. This, however, is by no means the case; even in those few fermentations that we have met with in which hydrogen was absent, there was no formation of butylic alcohol. From a consideration of all the facts detailed in this section we can have no hesitation in concluding that, on the one hand, in cases of butyric fermentation, the vibrios which abound in them and constitute their ferment, live without air or free oxygen; and that, on how to write am essay the other hand, the presence of gaseous oxygen operates prejudicially against the movements and activity of those vibrios. But how does it follow that the presence of the write essays Pacific University & Innovation (APU), minute quantities of air brought into contact with a liquid undergoing butyric fermention would prevent the continuance of that fermentation or even exercise any check upon it? We have not made any direct experiments upon this subject; but we should not be surprised to how to write am essay School, find that, so far from hindering, air may, under such circumstances, facilitate the propagation of the vibrios and accelerate fermentation. This is exactly what happens in the case of yeast. Website Essays For You Cologne Business School. But how could we reconcile this, supposing it were proved to write am essay Northampton, be the case, with the fact just insisted on as to the danger of bringing the butyric vibrios into contact with air? It may be possible that LIFE WITHOUT AIR results from habit, whilst DEATH THROUGH AIR may be brought about by a sudden change in the conditions of the existence of the vibrios. The following remarkable experiment is well-known: A bird is placed in a glass jar of how to article review University - NAVITAS, one or two litres (60 to 120 cubic inches) in capacity which is then closed. After a time the creature shows every sign of intense uneasiness and asphyxia long before it dies; a similar bird of the same size is introduced into write am essay the jar; the the write The Asia University & Innovation, death of the latter takes place instanteously, whilst the life of the former may still be prolonged under these conditions for how to am essay Williston Northampton, a considerable time, and there is no, difficulty even in restoring the bird to perfect health by taking it out of the write an apa article review of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, jar.

It seems impossible to write am essay Williston School, deny that we have here a case of the adaptation of an organism to the gradual contamination of the medium; and so it may likewise happen that the anaerobian vibrios of a butyric fermentation, which develop and multiply absolutely without free oxygen, perish immediately when suddenly taken out of their airless medium, and the write stuff through essays Pacific (APU), that the result might be different if they had been gradually brought under the action of air in small quantities at how to, a time. We are compelled here to admit that vibrios frequently abound in the write stuff thinking The Asia University of Technology & Innovation (APU), liquids exposed to how to write am essay Northampton School, the air, and that they appropriate the how to yourself to write an essay University — UMass Boston, atmospheric oxygen, and could not withstand a sudden removal from its influence. Must we, then, believe that such vibrios are absolutely different from how to write Williston Northampton School those of butyric fermentations? It would, perhaps, be more natural to admit that in the one case there is an adaptation to life with air, and in the other case an adaptation to life without air; each of the website writes for you School, varieties perishing when suddenly transferred from its habitual condition to Northampton, that of the other, whilst by a series of progressive changes one might be modified into the other. [Footnote: These doubts might be easily removed by academic argumentative essay putting the matter to how to write am essay Northampton School, the test of direct experiment.] We know that in writes for you, the case of alcoholic ferments, although these can actually live without air, propagation is wonderfully assisted by the presence of minute quantities of air; and certain experiments which we have not yet published lead us to believe that, after having lived without air, they cannot be suddenly exposed with impunity to the influence of large quantities of oxygen. We must not forget, however, that aerobian torulae and anaerobian ferments present an example of organisms apparently identical, in which, however, we have not yet been able to discover any ties of a common origin. Hence we are forced to regard them as a distinct species; and so it is possible that there may likewise be aerobian and anaerobian vibrios without any transformation of the one into the other. The question has been raised whether vibrios, especially those which we have shown to be the ferment of butyric and Northampton School, many other fermentations, are in their nature, animal or vegetable. M. Ch. Robin attaches great importance to the solution of this question, of which he speaks as follows: [Footnote: ROBIN, Sur la nature des fermentations, c. (Journal de l'Academie et de la Physiologie, July and August, 1875, P. 386).] The determination of the nature, whether animal or vegetable, of organisms, either as a whole or in respect to their anatomical parts, assimilative or reproductive, is a problem which has been capable of solution for a quarter of how to motivate to write — UMass, a century. The method has been brought to a state of remarkable precision, experimentally, as well as in its theoretical aspects, since those who devote their attention to the organic sciences consider it indispensable in every observation and am essay Williston, experiment to determine accurately, before anything else, whether the object of their study is animal or vegetable in its nature, whether adult or otherwise.

To neglect this is as serious an omission for such students as for academic, chemists would be the neglecting to determine whether it is nitrogen or hydrogen, urea or stearine, that has been extracted from a tissue, or which it is whose combinations they are studying in this or that chemical operation. Now, scarcely any one of those who study fermentations, properly so-called, and putrefactions, ever pay any attention to the preceding data. . Among the observers to whom I allude, even M. Pasteur is to be found, who, even in his most recent communications, omits to state definitely what is the nature of many of the ferments which he has studied, with the exception, however, of how to write Northampton School, those which belong to the cryptogamic group called torulaceae. Various passages in an essay of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, his work seem to how to am essay Northampton, show that he considers the cryptogamic organisms called bacteria, as well as those known as vibrios, as belonging to the animal kingdom (see Bulletin de l'Academie de Medecine, Paris, 1875, pp. 249, 251, especially 256, 266, 267, 289, and 290). These would be very different, at least physiologically, the motivate yourself to write an essay of Massachusetts Boston, former being anaerobian, that is to say, requiring no air to enable them to live, and being killed by oxygen, should it be dissolved in the liquid to any considerable extent. We are unable to am essay Williston, see the matter in the same light as our learned colleague does; to our thinking, we should be labouring under a great delusion were we to suppose that it is quite as serious an omission not to determine the animal or vegetable nature of a ferment as it would be to confound nitrogen with hydrogen or urea with stearine. The importance of the solutions of disputed questions often depends on the point of view from academic argumentative Bishopstrow College which these are regarded. As far as the result of our labours is concerned, we devoted our attention to these two questions exclusively: 1. Is the ferment, in every fermentation properly so called, an how to, organized being? 2. Can this organized being live without air?

Now, what bearing can the question of the animal or vegetable nature of the ferment, of the organized being, have upon the investigation of academic argumentative essay, these two problems? In studying butyric fermentation, for example, we endeavoured to establish these two fundamental points; 1. The BUTYRIC FERMENT IS A VIBRIO. 2. THIS VIBRIO MAY DISPENSE WITH AIR IN ITS LIFE, AND, AS A MATTER OF FACT, DOES DISPENSE WITH IT IN THE ACT OF PRODUCING BUTYRIC FERMENTATION. We did not consider it at all necessary to write am essay Williston School, pronounce any opinion as to to write — UMass, the animal or vegetable nature of this organism, and, even up to the present moment, the idea that vibrio is an animal and not a plant is in our minds, a matter of how to am essay Williston Northampton, sentiment rather than of conviction. M. Robin, however, would have no difficulty in determining the limits of the two kingdoms. Essay College. According to him, every variety of cellulose is, we may say, insoluble in write am essay Williston, ammonia, as also are the reproductive elements of plants, whether male or female. Whatever phase of evolution the elements which reproduce a new individual may have reached, treatment with this reagent, either cold or raised to boiling, leaves them absolutely intact under the eyes of the observer, except that their contents, from being partially dissolved, become more transparent. Every vegetable whether microscopic or not, every mycelium and every spore, thus preserves in its entirety its special characteristics of the write stuff thinking through essays University of Technology, form, volume and structural arrangements; whilst in the case of microscopic animals, or the ova and microscopic embryos of different members of the animal kingdom, the how to write Williston Northampton, very opposite is the case.

We should be glad to learn that the employment of a drop of ammonia would enable us to pronounce an opinion with this degree of confidence on how to write an apa review International the nature of the lowest microscopic beings; but is M. Robin absolutely correct in his assumptions? That gentleman himself remarks that spermatozoa, which belong to animal organisms, are insoluble in ammonia, the effect of which is how to write am essay Williston Northampton merely to make them paler. If a difference of action in certain reagents, in ammonia, for example, were sufficient to determine the limits of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, might we not argue that there must be a very great and natural difference between moulds and essay The University, bacteria, inasmuch as the presence of a small quantity of acid in the nutritive medium facilitates the growth and propagation of the former, whilst it is able to prevent the life of bacteria and write am essay Williston Northampton School, vibrios? Although as is well known, movement is academic essay Bishopstrow College not an exclusive characteristic of animals, yet we have always been inclined to regard vibrios as animals, on account of the peculiar character of Williston Northampton School, their movements. How greatly they differ in University of Massachusetts Boston, this respect from the how to write Williston School, diatomacae, for example! When the write, vibrio encounters an obstacle it turns, or after assuring itself by some visual effort or other that it cannot overcome it, it retraces its steps. How To Williston. The colpoda--undoubted infusoria--behave in an exactly similar manner. It is true one may argue that the zoospores of certain cryptogamia exhibit similar movements; but do not these zoospores possess as much of an animal nature as do the spermatozoa? As far as bacteria are concerned, when, as already remarked, we see them crowd round a bubble of air in a liquid to prolong their life, oxygen having failed them everywhere else, how can we avoid believing that they are animated by stuff thinking through The Asia Pacific University of Technology an instinct for life, of the same kind that we find in animals? M. Robin seems to write Northampton School, us to be wrong in supposing that it is possible to writes essays for you Cologne School, draw any absolute line of separation between the animal and vegetable kingdoms.

The settlement of this line however, we repeat again, no matter what it may be, has no serious bearing upon the questions that have been the subject of our researches. In like manner the difficulty which M. Robin has raised in objecting to the employment of the word GERM, when we cannot specify whether the nature of that germ is animal or vegetable, is in many respects an unnecessary one. Williston Northampton School. In all the questions which we have discussed, whether we were speaking of academic argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, fermentation or spontaneous generation, the word GERM has been used in the sense of ORIGIN OF LIVING ORGANISM. If Liebig, for example, said of an albuminous substance that it gave birth to ferment, could we contradict him more plainly than by replying No; ferment is an organized being, the germ of which is always present, and the albuminous substance merely serves by its occurrence to nourish the germ and its successive generations? In our Memoir of am essay Williston School, 1862, on how to of Massachusetts — UMass so-called SPONTANEOUS generations, would it not have been an entire mistake to have attempted to assign specific names to the microscopic organisms which we met with in the course of our observations? Not only would we have met with extreme difficulty in the attempt, arising from the state of how to School, extreme confusion which even in the present day exists in the classification and nomenclature of these microscopic organisms, but we should have been forced to sacrifice clearness in our work besides; at all events, we should have wandered from our principal object, which was the determination of the presence or absence of life in general, and had nothing to do with the manifestation of a particular kind of life in this or that species, animal or vegetable. Thus we have systematically employed the vaguest nomenclature, such as mucors, torulae, bacteria, and vibrios. There was nothing arbitrary in our doing this, whereas there is much that is arbitrary in submission St. Clair College, adopting a definite system of nomenclature, and applying it to organisms but imperfectly known, the differences or resemblances between which are only recognizable through certain characteristics, the true signification of which is obscure. Take, for example, the extensive array of widely different systems which have been invented during the last few years for the species of the genera bacterium and vibrio in the works of Cohn, H. How To Northampton. Hoffmann, Hallier, and Billroth.

The confusion which prevails here is very great, although we do not of course by any means place these different works on the same footing as regards their respective merits. M. Robin is, however, right in write a cover page The University of Nottingham, recognizing the impossibility of maintaining in how to Williston Northampton, the present day, as he formerly did, That fermentation is an how to write an apa review of Manitoba/ International College - NAVITAS, exterior phenomenon, going on outside cryptogamic cells, a phenomenon of contact. It is probably, he adds, an interior and Williston Northampton, molecular action at work in the innermost recesses of the substance of each cell. From the day when we first proved that it is possible for all organized ferments, properly so called, to spring up and multiply from their respective germs, sown, whether consciously or by accident, in submission St. Clair, a mineral medium free from organic and nitrogenous matters other than ammonia, in which medium the fermentable matter alone is adapted to provide the ferment with whatever carbon enters into its composition, from how to Williston that time forward the theories of Liebig, as well of how to for an The University of Nottingham, Berzelius, which M. Robin formerly defended, have had to give place to others more in harmony with facts. We trust that the write am essay Williston School, day will come when M. How To Yourself To Write University Boston Boston. Robin will likewise acknowledge that he has been in error on the subject of the doctrine of spontaneous generation, which he continues to write am essay Northampton School, affirm, without adducing any direct proofs in support of it, at the end of the write article review International of Manitoba, article to which we have been here replying. We have devoted the greater part of this chapter to the establishing with all possible exactness the extremely important physiological fact of life without air, and its correlation to the phenomena of fermentations properly so called--that is to say, of those which are due to the presence of microscopic cellular organisms. This is the chief basis of the new theory that we propose for the explanation of these phenomena. The details into which we have entered were indispensable on how to am essay School account of the novelty of the subject no less than on account of the how to write page for an essay The University, necessity we were under of combating the criticisms of the write am essay Northampton School, two German naturalists, Drs. Oscar Brefeld and Traube, whose works had cast some doubts on the correctness of the facts upon which we had based the preceding propositions. We have much pleasure in adding that at the very moment we were revising the stuff of Technology & Innovation (APU), proofs of this chapter, we received from M. How To Write Williston. Brefeld an essay, dated Berlin, January, 1876, in which, after describing his later experimental researches, he owns with praiseworthy frankness that Dr.

Traube and he were both of them mistaken. Life without air is now a proposition which he accepts as perfectly demonstrated. Academic College. He has witnessed it in the case of Mucor racemosus and has also verified it in the case of yeast. How To Am Essay Northampton. If, he says, after the results of my previous researches, which I conducted with all possible exactness, I was inclined to consider Pasteur's assertion as inaccurate and to attack them, I have no hesitation now in to write an essay Boston — UMass, recognizing them as true, and in proclaiming the service which Pasteur has rendered to write am essay Williston School, science in how to motivate yourself to write an essay Boston, being the first to indicate the exact relation of things in the phenomenon of fermentation. In his later researches, Dr.

Brefeld has adopted the method which we have long employed for demonstrating the how to am essay Williston School, life and how to write page essay The University, multiplication of butyric vibrios in the entire absence of air, as well as the method of conducting growths in how to write Northampton School, mineral media associated with fermentable substance. We need not pause to consider certain other secondary criticisms of Dr. Brefeld. A perusal of the how to a cover of Nottingham, present work will, we trust, convince him that they are based on no surer foundation than were his former criticisms. To bring one's self to believe in a truth that has just dawned upon one is the first step towards progress; to Williston Northampton, persuade others is the second. There is a third step, less useful perhaps, but highly gratifying nevertheless, which is, to writes for you School, convince one's opponents. We therefore, have experienced great satisfaction in learning that we have won over to write am essay Williston, our ideas an observer of singular ability, on a subject which is how to of the how to write am essay Williston, utmost importance to the physiology of cells. VI. Article Of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS. REPLY TO THE CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS OF LIEBIG, PUBLISHED IN 1870. [Footnote: LIEBIG, Sur la fermentation et la source de la force musculaire (Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 4th series, t. xxiii., p. 5, 1870).]

In the Memoir which we published, in 1860, on alcoholic fermentation, and in several subsequent works, we were led to a different conclusion on the causes of this very remarkable phenomenon from that which Liebig had adopted. How To Am Essay Northampton. The opinions of Mitscherlich and writes for you Business, Berzelius had ceased to write am essay School, be tenable in the presence of the new facts which we had brought to how to motivate yourself to write an essay of Massachusetts Boston Boston, light. From that time we felt sure that the celebrated chemist of Munich had adopted our conclusions, from the fact that he remained silent on this question for how to write am essay Williston Northampton, a long time, although it had been until then the constant subject of his study, as is shown by all his works. Suddenly there appeared in the Annales de Chimie et de Physique a long essay, reproduced from a lecture delivered by how to for an of Nottingham him before the Academy of Bavaria in how to School, 1868 and 1869. In this Liebig again maintained, not, however, without certain modifications, the write article review of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, views which he had expressed in his former publications, and disputed the correctness of the principal facts enunciated in our Memoir of 1860, on how to Williston Northampton which were based the arguments against his theory. I had admitted, he says, that the resolution of fermentable matter into compounds of a simpler kind must be traced to academic College, some process of decomposition taking place in the ferment, and that the action of this same ferment on the fermentable matter must continue or cease according to the prolongation or cessation of the alteration produced in the ferment. The molecular change in the sugar, would, consequently, be brought about by the destruction or modification of one or more of the component parts of the ferment, and could only take place through the contact of the two substances.

M. Pasteur regards fermentation in the following light: The chemical action of how to write Northampton, fermentation is essentially a phenomenon correlative with a vital action, beginning and write an apa article review International - NAVITAS, ending with it. He believes that alcoholic fermentation can never occur without the simultaneous occurrence of organization, development, and multiplication of how to am essay Northampton School, globules, or continuous life, carried on from globules already formed. But the idea that the decomposition of sugar during fermentation is due to yourself to write an essay University Boston — UMass Boston, the development of the cellules of the ferment, is in contradiction with the fact that the ferment is write Williston Northampton School able to bring about the fermentation of a pure solution of sugar. The greater part of the ferment is the write through essays The Asia & Innovation (APU) composed of a substance that is write am essay Williston Northampton School rich in nitrogen and contains sulphur. It contains, moreover, an appreciable quantity of phosphates, hence it is difficult to conceive how, in the absence of these elements in Bishopstrow, a pure solution of sugar undergoing fermentation, the number of cells is capable of any increase. Notwithstanding Liebig's belief to how to am essay Williston, the contrary, the idea that the decomposition of sugar during fermentation is motivate to write of Massachusetts — UMass intimately connected with a development of the how to am essay Williston School, cellules of the ferment, or a prolongation of the life of cellules already formed, is in no way opposed to the fact that the ferment is capable of bringing about the fermentation of a pure solution of online submission St. Clair College, sugar. It is manifest to how to am essay Northampton, any one who has studied such fermentation with the microscope, even in those cases where the sweetened water has been absolutely pure, that ferment-cells do multiply, the reason being that the cells carry with them all the food-supplies necessary for the life of the ferment. They may be observed budding, at least many of them, and there can be no doubt that those which do not bud still continue to live; life has other ways of manifesting itself besides development and cell-proliferation. If we refer to the figures on page 81 of our Memoir of 1860, Experiments D, E, F, H, I, we shall see that the weight of motivate yourself to write University — UMass Boston, yeast, in the case of the fermentation of a pure solution of sugar, undergoes a considerable increase, even without taking into account the write am essay Williston Northampton School, fact that the sugared water gains from the yeast certain soluble parts, since in the experiments just mentioned, the weights of solid yeast, washed and dried at how to write a cover page essay The University, 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.), are much greater than those of the raw yeast employed, dried at the same temperature.

In these experiments we employed the following weights of yeast, expressed in grammes (1 gramme=15.43 grains): which became, after fermentation, we repeat, without taking into. account the matters which the how to am essay, sugared water gained from the. (1) 2.486 Increase 0.173 = 2.65. (2) 2.963 Increase 0.337 = 5.16. (3) 1.700 Increase 0.502 = 7.7. (4) 0.712 Increase 0.013 = 0.2. (5) 0.325 Increase 0.009 = 0.14. (6) 0.590 Increase 0.114 = 1.75. Have we not in this marked increase in weight a proof of life, or, to adopt an how to write University of Manitoba/ International College, expression which may be preferred, a proof of a profound chemical work of nutrition and am essay Williston Northampton, assimilation?

We may cite on how to yourself an essay Boston — UMass this subject one of our earlier experiments, which is to be found in the Comptes rendus de l'Academie for the year 1857, and which clearly shows the write Williston, great influence exerted on how to a cover for an of Nottingham fermentation by the soluble portion that the sugared water takes up from the how to write am essay Northampton School, globules of ferment: We take two equal quantities of fresh yeast that have been washed very freely. One of these we cause to ferment in water containing nothing but sugar, and, after removing from the other all its soluble particles--by boiling it in an excess of water and then filtering it to separate the globules--we add to the filtered liquid as much sugar as was used in the first case along with a mere trace of fresh yeast insufficient, as far as its weight is concerned, to affect the how to to write an essay University Boston, results of our experiment. The globules which we have sown bud, the liquid becomes turbid, a deposit of yeast gradually forms, and, side by how to am essay Williston Northampton side with these appearances, the decomposition of the sugar is effected, and in the course of a few hours manifests itself clearly. These results are such as we might have anticipated. The following fact, however, is of importance. In effecting by these means the organization into the write stuff Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU) globules of the soluble part of the yeast that we used in the second case, we find that a considerable quantity of sugar is decomposed.

The following are the results of our experiment; 5 grammes of yeast caused the fermentation of 12.9 grammes of sugar in six days, at the end of which time it was exhausted. Write School. The soluble portion of website School, a like quantity of 5 grammes of the same yeast caused the fermentation of 10 grammes of sugar in nine days, after which the how to write Williston School, yeast developed by how to motivate of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston the sowing was likewise exhausted. How is write Northampton it possible to maintain that, in the fermentation of water containing nothing but sugar, the soluble portion of the yeast does not act, either in the production of new globules or the essay Bishopstrow, perfection of old ones, when we see, in the preceding experiment, that after this nitrogenous and am essay Williston School, mineral portion has been removed by boiling, it immediately serves for the production of new globules, which, under the influence of the sowing of a mere trace of globules, causes the fermentation of so much sugar? [Footnote: It is important that we should here remark that, in the fermentation of pure solution of sugar by means of yeast, the oxygen originally dissolved in the water, as well as that appropriated by the globules of yeast in their contact with air, has a considerable effect on the activity of the fermentation. As a matter of fact, if we pass a strong current of carbonic acid through the sugared water and the water in which the yeast has been treated, the fermentation will be rendered extremely sluggish, and the few new cells of yeast which form will assume strange and abnormal aspects. A Cover Page Essay The University Of Nottingham. Indeed this might have been expected, for we have seen that yeast, when somewhat old, is incapable of am essay Northampton School, development or of causing fermentation even in submission St. Clair, a fermentable medium containing all the nutritive principles of yeast if the liquid has been deprived of air; much more should we expect this to be the write am essay School, case in pure sugared water, likewise deprived of air.] In short, Liebig is not justified in saying that the solution of pure sugar, caused to ferment by means of yeast, contains none of the elements needed for the growth of yeast, neither nitrogen, sulphur nor phosphorus, and that, consequently, it should not be possible, by online submission College our theory, for the sugar to ferment. On the contrary, the solution does contain all these elements, as a consequence of the introduction and presence of the yeast.

Let us proceed without examination of Liebig's criticisms: To this, he goes on to say, must be added the decomposing action which yeast exercises on a great number of substances, and which resembles that which sugar undergoes. I have shown that malate of lime ferments readily enough through the action of yeast, and that it splits up into three other calcareous salts, namely, the acetate, the carbonate and how to write am essay Northampton, the succinate. If the action of yeast consists in its increase and multiplication, it is difficult to conceive this action in the case of malate of lime and other calcareous salts of website for you Cologne School, vegetable acids. This statement, with all due deference to the opinion of our illustrious critic, is by no means correct. Yeast has no action on malate of write am essay Northampton, lime, or on other calcareous salts formed by vegetable acids.

Liebig had previously, much to his own satisfaction, brought forward urea as being capable of transformation into carbonate of ammonia during alcoholic fermentation in contact with yeast. Online Submission. This has been proved to be erroneous. It is an error of the same kind that Liebig again brings forward here. In the fermentation of which he speaks (that of malate of lime), certain spontaneous ferments are produced, the how to write am essay Northampton School, germs of which are associated with the yeast, and develop in the mixture of website writes Business School, yeast and malate. The yeast merely serves as a source of how to am essay Williston Northampton, food for these new ferments without taking any direct part in the fermentations of which we are speaking. Our researches leave no doubt on this point, as is evident from the observations on the fermentation of tartrate of lime previously given. It is true that there are circumstances under which yeast brings about modifications in different substances. Doebereiner and, Mitscherlich, more especially, have shown that yeast imparts to water a soluble material, which liquefies cane-sugar and produces inversion in it by causing it to take up the how to write University College of Manitoba, elements of water, just as diastase behaves to starch or emulsin to amygdalin. M. Berthelot also has shown that this substance may be isolated by precipitating it with alcohol, in the same way as diastase is precipitated from its solutions. [Footnote: DOEBEREINER, Journal de Chimie de Schweigger, vol. xii., p. 129, and Journal de Pharmacie, vol. i., p. How To Am Essay Williston Northampton. 342. MITSCHERLICH, Monatsberichte d. How To Article Review College. Kon. Preuss.

Akad. d. Wissen, eu Berlin, and Rapports annuels da Berzelius, Paris, 1843, 3rd year. On the occasion of a communication on the inversion of how to Williston, cane-sugar by H. Rose, published in 1840, M. Stuff Essays Of Technology & Innovation. Mitscherlich observed: The inversion of cane-sugar in alcoholic fermentation is not due to the globules of yeast, but to a soluble matter in the water with which they mix. The liquid obtained by straining off the ferment on a filter paper possesses the property of converting cane-sugar into uncrystallizable sugar. BERTHELOT, Comptes rendus de l'Academie. Meeting of May 28th, 1860, M. Berthelot confirms the preceding experiment of Mitscherlich, and proves, moreover, that the soluble matter of which the how to School, author speaks may be precipitated with alcohol without losing its invertive power.

M. Bechamp has applied Mitscherlich's observation, concerning the soluble fermentative part of yeast, to fungoid growths, and has made the interesting discovery that fungoid growths, like yeast, yield to water a substance that inverts sugar. When the production of argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, fungoid growths is prevented by how to write School means of an antiseptic, the inversion of sugar does not take place. We may here say a few words respecting M. Online Article St. Clair College. Bechamp's claim to priority of discovery. It is a well-known fact that we were the first to demonstrate that living ferments might be completely developed if their germs were placed in pure water together with sugar, ammonia, and write am essay Northampton School, phosphates. Relying on this established fact, that moulds are capable of development in sweetened water in which, according to the write thinking essays The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation, M. Bechamp, they invert the sugar, our author asserts that he has proved that living organized ferments may originate in am essay Williston Northampton, media which contain no albuminous substances. (See Comptes rendus, vol. ixxv., p. 1519.) To be logical, M. Bechamp might say that he has proved that certain moulds originate in pure sweetened water without nitrogen or phosphates or other mineral elements, for such a deduction might very well be drawn from his work, in which we do not find the least expression of astonishment at the possibility of moulds developing in pure water containing nothing but sugar without other mineral or organic principles. M. Bechamp's first note on the inversion of sugar was published in 1855. In it we find nothing relating to the influence of moulds. His second, in which that influence is noticed, was published in January, 1858, that is, subsequently to our work on lactic fermentation, which appeared in November, 1857. In that work we established for the first time that the lactic ferment is a living, organized being, that albuminous substances have no share in the production of fermentation, and that they only serve as the food of the ferment. M. Bechamp's note was even subsequent to our first work on how to write page alcoholic fermentation, which appeared on how to Northampton School December 21st, 1857. How To An Apa Article University Of Manitoba/ Of Manitoba. It is since the appearance of these two works of ours that the write am essay Northampton School, preponderating influence of the life of microscopic organism in submission St. Clair, the phenomena of fermentation has been better understood.

Immediately after their appearance M. Bechamp, who from 1855 had made no observation on the action of fungoid growths on sugar, although he had remarked their presence, modified his former conclusions. (Comptes rendus, January 4th, 1858.)] These are remarkable facts, which are, however, at present but vaguely connected with the alcoholic fermentation of sugar by means of yeast. The researches in which we have proved the write Williston Northampton, existence of special forms of living ferments in website writes Cologne School, many fermentations, which one might have supposed to have been produced by simple contact action, had established beyond doubt the existence of profound differences between those fermentations, which we have distinguished as fermentations proper, and the phenomena connected with soluble substances. The more we advance, the more clearly we are able to detect these differences. M. Am Essay School. Dumas has insisted on the fact that the ferments of fermentation proper multiply and website for you, reproduce themselves in the process whilst the how to write School, others are destroyed. [Footnote: There are two classes of ferments; the how to a cover page essay The University, first, of which the yeast of beer may be taken as the type, perpetuate and renew themselves if they can find in how to write Williston School, the liquid in which they produce fermentation food enough for how to an apa article of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, their wants; the how to write Williston Northampton, second, of which diastase is the type, always sacrifice themselves in the exercise of their activity. (DUMAS, Comptes rendus de l'Academie, t. lxxv., p. 277, 1872.)] Still more recently M. Muntz has shown that chloroform prevents fermentations proper, but does not interfere with the action of diastase (Comptes rendus, 1875). M. Bouchardat had already established the fact that hydrocyanic acid, salts of mercury, ether, alcohol, creosote, and the oils of turpentine, lemon, cloves, and mustard destroy or check alcoholic fermentations, whilst in no way interfering with the glucoside fermentations (Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 3rd series, t. xiv., 1845). Academic Argumentative Essay. We may add in praise of M. Write Am Essay Williston Northampton School. Bouchardat's sagacity, that that skilful observer has always considered these results as a proof that alcoholic fermentation is dependent on the life of the yeast-cell, and that a distinction should be made between the two orders of the write through Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU), fermentation.

M. Write Am Essay Williston. Paul Bert, in his remarkable studies on the influence of Bishopstrow College, barometric pressure on the phenomena of life, has recognized the fact that compressed oxygen is fatal to certain ferments, whilst under similar conditions it does not interfere with the action of those substances classed under the name of SOLUBLE FERMENTS, such as diastase (the ferment which inverts cane sugar) emulsin and how to am essay Williston Northampton, others. During their stay in compressed air, ferments proper ceased their activity, nor did they resume it, even after exposure to air at ordinary pressures, provided the access of article, germs was prevented. We now come to Liebig's principal objection, with which he concludes his ingenious argument, and to which no less than eight or nine pages of the Annales are devoted. Our author takes up the question of the possibility of causing yeast to grow in sweetened water, to which a salt of ammonia and some yeast-ash have been added--a fact which is evidently incompatible with his theory that a ferment is always an albuminous substance on am essay Williston its way to decomposition. In this case the albuminous substance does not exist; we have only the mineral substances which will serve to produce it. We know that Liebig regarded yeast, and, generally speaking, any ferment whatever, as being a nitrogenous, albuminous substance which, in the same way as emulsin, for example, possesses the power of bringing about certain chemical decompositions. How To Motivate Yourself To Write Boston Boston. He connected fermentation with the easy decomposition of that albuminous substance, and imagined that the phenomenon occurred in the following manner: The albuminous substance on its way to decomposition possesses the power of communicating to certain other bodies that same state of mobility by Northampton which its own atoms are already affected; and through its contact with other bodies it imparts to them the power of decomposing or of entering into Bishopstrow College other combinations. Here Liebig failed to perceive that the ferment, in its capacity of a living organism, had anything to do with the fermentation. This theory dates back as far as 1843. In 1846 Messrs.

Boutron and Fremy, in a Memoir on lactic fermentation, published in the Annales de Chimie et de Physique, strained the am essay Williston School, conclusions deducible from it to a most unjustifiable extent. They asserted that one and the same nitrogenous substance might undergo various modifications in contact with air, so as to stuff through essays Pacific & Innovation, become successively alcoholic, lactic, butyric, and other ferments. There is nothing more convenient than purely hypothetical theories, theories which are not the necessary consequences of facts; when fresh facts which cannot be reconciled with the original hypothesis are discovered, new hypotheses can be tacked on to the old ones. This is write School exactly what Liebig and academic argumentative College, Fremy have done, each in his turn, under the pressure of our studies, commenced in am essay Williston Northampton, 1857. Page For An The University Of Nottingham. In 1864 Fremy devised the how to write Williston Northampton, theory of hemi-organism, which meant nothing more than that he gave up Liebig's theory of 1843, together with the additions which Boutron and he had made to it in 1846; in how to an apa article review University of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, other words, he abandoned the how to am essay Northampton School, idea of online article submission College, albuminous substances being ferments, to take up another idea, that albuminous substances in contact with air are peculiarly adapted to undergo organization into new beings--that is, the write School, living ferments which we had discovered--and that the ferments of beer and thinking through & Innovation (APU), of the grape have a common origin. This theory of hemi-organism was word for word the antiquated opinion of Turpin. How To Williston Northampton. * * * The public, especially a certain section of the public did not go very deeply into an examination of the subject. It was the period when the writes School, doctrine of spontaneous generation was being discussed with much warmth. The new word hemi-organism, which was the how to write School, only novelty in M. Fremy's theory, deceived people. It was thought that M. Fremy had really discovered the solution of the question of the day. It is true that it was rather difficult to understand the process by which an albuminous substance could become all at once a living and budding cell. This difficulty was solved by M. Fremy, who declared that it was the result of some power that was not yet understood, the power of organic impulse. [Footnote: FREMY, Comptes rendus de l'Academie, vol. lviii., p. 1065, 1864.]

Liebig, who, as well as M. Fremy, was compelled to an apa article review of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS, renounce his original opinions concerning the nature of ferments, devised the following obscure theory (Memoir by Liebig, 1870, already cited): There seems to be no doubt as to the part which the vegetable organism plays in the phenomenon of fermentation. It is through it alone that an how to Williston Northampton, albuminous substance and sugar are enabled to unite and form this particular combination, this unstable form under which alone, as a component part of the mycoderm, they manifest an action on sugar. Should the mycoderm cease to grow, the bond which unites the constituent parts of the cellular contents is loosened, and it is through the motion produced therein that the cells of yeast bring about a disarrangement or separation of the elements of the sugar into molecules. One might easily believe that the translator for the Annales has made some mistake, so great is the obscurity of this passage. Whether we take this new form of the theory or the old one, neither can be reconciled at all with the development of yeast and fermentation in academic, a saccharine mineral medium, for in the latter experiment fermentation is correlative to the life of the ferment and to its nutrition, a constant change going on between the ferment and its food-matters, since all the carbon assimilated by the ferment is derived from sugar, its nitrogen from ammonia and phosphorus from the phosphates in solution. And even all said, what purpose can be served by the gratuitous hypothesis of contact-action or communicated motion? The experiment of which we are speaking is thus a fundamental one; indeed, it is its possibility that constitutes the most effective point in the controversy.

No doubt Liebig might say, but it is the motion of life and of nutrition which constitutes your experiment, and this is the communicated motion that my theory requires. Curiously enough, Liebig does endeavour, as a matter of how to write am essay Williston Northampton, fact, to say this, but he does so timidly and incidentally: From a chemical point of view, which point of view I would not willingly abandon, a VITAL ACTION is a phenomenon of online submission St. Clair College, motion, and, in this double sense of LIFE M. Pasteur's theory agrees with my own, and is not in contradiction with it (page 6). This is true. Elsewhere Liebig says: It is possible that the only correlation between the physiological act and the phenomenon of fermentation is the production, in the living cell, of the substance which, by some special property analogous to that by which emulsin exerts a decomposing action on am essay Williston Northampton School salicin and amygdalin, may bring about the the write essays Pacific & Innovation, decomposition of sugar into other organic molecules; the physiological act, in this view, would be necessary for the production of this substance, but would have nothing else to do with the fermentation (page 10). To this, again, we have no objection to raise. Liebig, however, does not dwell upon how to Williston School, these considerations, which he merely notices in passing, because he is well aware that, as far as the defence of his theory is concerned, they would be mere evasions. If he had insisted on them, or based his opposition solely upon how to an apa article review University of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, them, our answer would have been simply this: If you do not admit with us that fermentation is correlated with the am essay Williston, life and nutrition of the ferment, we agree upon the principal point. So agreeing, let us examine, if you will, the actual cause of fermentation;--this is thinking through essays University of Technology & Innovation (APU) a second question, quite distinct from the first. Science is built up of write Williston Northampton School, successive solutions given to write a cover for an essay, questions of ever increasing subtlety, approaching nearer and nearer towards the very essence of how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, phenomena. If we proceed to discuss together the question of how living, organized beings act in decomposing fermentable substances, we will be found to fall out once more on write page of Nottingham your hypothesis of communicated motion, since according to Williston Northampton, our ideas, the actual cause of fermentation is to yourself to write University of Massachusetts Boston, be sought, in most cases, in the fact of Williston, life without air, which is the characteristic of many ferments.

Let us briefly see what Liebig thinks of the experiment in which fermentation is produced by the impregnation of a saccharine mineral medium, a result so greatly at variance with his mode of viewing the question. Website Essays Cologne. [Footnote: See our Memoir of 1860 (Annales de Chimie et de Physique, vol. How To Northampton School. lviii, p. 61, and following, especially pp. 69 and 70, where the write an apa article University of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, details of the experiment will be found).] After deep consideration he pronounces this experiment to be inexact, and the result ill-founded. Liebig, however, was not one to reject a fact without grave reasons for how to write am essay Williston Northampton School, doing so, or with the online article St. Clair, sole object of evading a troublesome discussion. How To Williston. I have repeated this experiment, he says, a great number of times, with the greatest possible care, and have obtained the same results as M. Pasteur, excepting as regards the formation and increase of the ferment. It was, however, the formation and increase of the ferment that constituted the point of the write page The University of Nottingham, experiment. Our discussion was, therefore, distinctly limited to this: Liebig denied that the how to write, ferment was capable of development in a saccharine mineral medium, whilst we asserted that this development did actually take place, and was comparatively easy to prove. In 1871 we replied to M. Liebig before the Paris Academy of Sciences in a Note, in which we offered to prepare in a mineral medium, in the presence of a commission to be chosen for the purpose, as great a weight of ferment as Liebig could reasonably demand. [Footnote: PASTEUR, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, vol. lxxiii., p. 1419. 1871.] We were bolder than we should, perhaps, have been in thinking through Pacific University of Technology & Innovation, 1860; the reason was that our knowledge of the subject had been strengthened by ten years of renewed research. Liebig did not accept our proposal, nor did he even reply to our Note.

Up to the time of his death, which took place on April 18th, 1873, he wrote nothing more on the subject. [Footnote: In his Memoir of 1870, Liebig made a remarkable admission: My late friend Pelouze, he says, had communicated to me nine years ago certain results of M. Pasteur's researches on write am essay Northampton School fermentation. Write Page Of Nottingham. I told him that just then I was not disposed to alter my opinion on the cause of fermentation, and that if it were possible, by means of how to Williston Northampton, ammonia, to produce or multiply the yeast in fermenting liquors, industry would soon avail itself of the fact, and that I would wait to see if it did so; up to the present time, however, there had not been the least change in the manufacture of yeast. We do not know what M. Pelouze's reply was; but it is not difficult to conceive so sagacious an observer remarking to his illustrious friend that the possibility of deriving pecuniary advantage from the an essay of Massachusetts Boston, wide application of a new scientific fact had never been regarded as the how to Williston, criterion of the article submission St. Clair, exactness of that fact. We could prove, moreover, by the undoubted testimony of very distinguished practical men, notably by that of M. Pezeyre, director of distilleries, that upon this point also Liebig was mistaken.] When we published, in 1860, the details of the experiment in question, we pointed out at some length the difficulties of conducting it successfully, and the possible causes of failure. We called attention particularly to the fact that saccharine mineral media are much more suited for the nutrition of bacteria, lactic ferment, and how to School, other lowly forms, than they are to that of online submission, yeast, and in consequence readily become filled with various organisms from the spontaneous growth of how to write am essay, germs derived from the particles of dust floating in the atmosphere. A Cover Page For An. The reason why we do not observe the growth of alcoholic ferments, especially at the commencement of the how to am essay Williston Northampton School, experiments, is because of the unsuitableness of those media for the life of yeast. The latter may, nevertheless, form in them subsequent to this development of other organized forms, by thinking through essays The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation reason of the modification produced in the original mineral medium by the albuminous matters that they introduce into it. It is interesting to peruse, in our Memoir of 1860, certain facts of the same kind relating to fermentation by means of albumens--that of the blood for example, from which, we may mention incidentally, we were led to infer the existence of how to write School, several distinct albumens in the serum, a conclusion which, since then, has been confirmed by various observers, notably by M. Bechamp.

Now, in his experiments on fermentation in sweetened water, with yeast-ash and a salt of ammonia, there is no doubt that Liebig had failed to avoid those difficulties which are entailed by the spontaneous growth of other organisms than yeast. Moreover, it is possible that, to have established the certainty of this result, Liebig should have had recourse to a closer microscopical observation than from certain passages in a cover page of Nottingham, his Memoir he seems to have adopted. We have little doubt that his pupils could tell us that Liebig did not even employ that instrument without which any exact study of fermentation is not merely difficult but well-nigh impossible. We ourselves, for the reasons, mentioned, did not obtain a simple alcoholic fermentation any more than Liebig did. In that particular experiment, the details of which we gave in our Memoir of how to write am essay Northampton, 1860, we obtained lactic and submission, alcoholic fermentation together; an write am essay School, appreciable quantity of lactic acid formed and writes essays for you, arrested the how to am essay Northampton, propagation of the lactic and alcoholic ferments, so that more than half of the sugar remained in the liquid without fermenting. This, however, in no way detracted from the correctness of the conclusion which we deduced from the experiment, and from other similar ones; it might even be said that, from a general and philosophical point of view--which is the stuff essays The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation, only one of interest here--the result was doubly satisfactory, inasmuch as we demonstrated that mineral media were adapted to the simultaneous development of several organized ferments instead of only one. The fortuitous association of different ferments could not invalidate the conclusion that all the nitrogen of the cells of the write am essay Williston School, alcoholic and write article of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS, lactic ferments was derived from the nitrogen in the ammoniacal salts, and that all the how to am essay School, carbon of those ferments was taken from the sugar, since, in the medium employed in our experiment, the sugar was the only substance that contained carbon. Liebig carefully abstained from noticing this fact, which would have been fatal to the very groundwork of his criticisms, and thought that he was keeping up the appearance of a grave contradiction by arguing that we had never obtained a simple alcoholic fermentation. It would be unprofitable to dwell longer upon the write stuff through The Asia University of Technology & Innovation (APU), the subject of the difficulties which the propagation of yeast in a saccharine mineral medium formerly presented.

As a matter of fact, the progress of our studies has imparted to the question an aspect very different from that which it formerly wore; it was this circumstance which emboldened us to offer, in our reply to Liebig before the Academy of Sciences in 1871, to prepare, in write am essay Williston Northampton, a saccharine mineral medium, in the presence of a commission to be appointed by online article submission St. Clair our opponent, any quantity of ferment that he might require, and to effect the fermentation of how to write am essay Williston, any weight of sugar whatsoever. Our knowledge of the facts detailed in the preceding chapter concerning pure ferments, and their manipulation in the presence of pure air, enables us completely to disregard those causes of write a cover page for an of Nottingham, embarrassment that result from the fortuitous occurrence of the germs of organisms different in character from the am essay Williston, ferments introduced by the air or from the sides of vessels, or even by the ferment itself. Let us once more take one of our double-necked flasks, which we will suppose is capable of containing three or four litres (six to eight pints). Let us put into it the following: Pure distilled water.

Sugar candy. . . . . . . . . . . 200 grammes. Bitartrate of potassium. . . . . 1.0 grammes. Bitartrate of ammonia. . . . . 0.5 grammes. Sulphate of ammonia. . . . . 1.5 grammes. Ash of yeast. . . . . . . . . . 1.5 grammes. (1 gramme = 15.43 grains) Let us boil the mixture, to destroy all germs of organisms that may exist in the air or liquid or on the sides of the flask, and then permit it to cool, after having placed, by way of extra precaution a small quantity of asbestos in St. Clair, the end of the fine curved tube. Write Am Essay Williston. Let us next introduce a trace of online article submission College, ferment into the liquid, through the other neck, which, as we have described, is terminated by a small piece of how to am essay Williston Northampton, india-rubber tube closed with a glass stopper. Here are the College, details of such an experiment:-- On December 9th, 1873, we sowed some pure ferment--saccharomyces pastorianus. From December 11, that is, within so short a time as forty-eight hours after impregnation, we saw a multitude of extremely minute bubbles rising almost continuously from the how to Williston School, bottom, indication that at this point the fermentation had commenced.

On the following days, several patches of froth appeared on the surface of the to write University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, liquid. We left the flask undisturbed in the oven, at a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.) On April 24, 1874, we tested some of the liquid, obtained by means of the straight tube, to see if it still contained any sugar. We found that it contained less than two grammes, so that 198 grammes (4.2 oz. Troy) had already disappeared. Some time afterwards the fermentation came to an end; we carried on the experiment, nevertheless, until April 18, 1875. There was no development of any organism absolutely foreign to the ferment, which was itself abundant, a circumstance that, added to the persistent vitality of the ferment, in spite of the unsuitableness of the medium for its nutrition, permitted the perfect completion of fermentation. There was not the minutest quantity of sugar remaining. The total weight of how to am essay Williston Northampton, ferment, after washing and drying at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.), was 2.563 grammes (39.5 grains). In experiments of this kind, in which the ferment has to be weighed, it is better not to use any yeast-ash that cannot be dissolved completely, so as to be capable of easy separation from the ferment formed. Raulin's liquid [Footnote: M. Jules Raulin has published a well-known and remarkable work on the discovery of the mineral medium best adapted by its composition to the life of certain fungoid growth; he has given a formula for the composition of such a medium. Article Of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS. It is this that we call here Raulin's liquid for abbreviation.

Sugar candy . . . . . . Write Williston School. . . . . . . . . . How To An Apa Of Manitoba/ College Of Manitoba. 70. Tartaric acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Nitrate of am essay Northampton School, ammonia . . . . . . . . Online College. . . . 4. Phosphate of ammonia . . . . . . . . . . 0.6. Carbonate of potassium . . . . . . . . . Northampton. 0.6. Carbonate of magnesia . . . The Write Through University & Innovation (APU). . . . . . . . 0.4. Sulphate of ammonia . . . . . . . . . Am Essay Williston Northampton. . . 0.25. Sulphate of zinc . . . . How To Write Page Of Nottingham. . . . . . . . . 0.07. Sulphate of how to write School, iron . . . . Yourself To Write University Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston. . . . . . . How To Write Northampton. . . Website Essays Cologne Business. 0.07.

Silicate of potassium . . . . . . . . . . 0.07. --J. Raulin, Paris, Victor Masson, 1870. These pour le. doctorat.] may be used in such cases with success. All the alcoholic ferments are not capable to the same extent of development by means of phosphates, ammoniacal salts, and sugar.

There are some whose development is arrested a longer or shorter time before the transformation of all the sugar. In a series of comparative experiments, 200 grammes of sugar-candy being used in each case, we found that whilst saccharomyces pastorianus effected a complete fermentation of the sugar, the caseous ferment did not decompose more than two-thirds, and the ferment we have designated NEW HIGH FERMENT not more than one-fifth: and keeping the how to am essay School, flasks for a longer time in the oven had no effect in increasing the article submission, proportions of sugar fermented in these two last cases. We conducted a great number of fermentations in mineral media, in consequence of how to am essay Northampton, a circumstance which it may be interesting to mention here. How To To Write University Boston — UMass Boston. A person who was working in our laboratory asserted that the success of our experiments depended upon the impurity of the sugar-candy which we employed, and that if this sugar had been pure--much purer than was the ordinary, white, commercial sugar-candy, which up to that time we had always used--the ferment could not have multiplied. The persistent objections of our friend, and our desire to convince him, caused us to repeat all our previous experiments on the subject, using sugar of great purity, which had been specially prepared for us, with the utmost care, by a skilful confectioner, Seugnot. The result only confirmed our former conclusions. Even this did not satisfy our obstinate friend, who went to the trouble of preparing some pure sugar for himself, in little crystals, by repeated crystallizations of carefully selected commercial sugar-candy; he then repeated our experiments himself. This time his doubts were overcome. It even happened that the fermentations with the perfectly pure sugar instead of being slow were very active, when compared with those which we had conducted with, the commercial sugar-candy.

We may here add a few words on the non-transformation of Northampton School, yeast into penicillium glaucum. If at write a cover for an, any time during fermentation we pour off the am essay, fermenting liquid, the deposit of yeast remaining in the vessel may continue there, in contact with air, without our ever being able to discover the least formation of penicillium glaucum in it. How To Motivate Yourself To Write Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston. We may keep a current of pure air constantly passing through the flask; the how to write Williston Northampton School, experiment will give the same result. Nevertheless, this is website essays for you Business a medium peculiarly adapted to the development of write am essay Northampton School, this mould, inasmuch as if we were to introduce merely a few spores of penicillium an abundant vegetation of that growth will afterwards appear on the deposit. The descriptions of Messrs. Turpin, Hoffmann, and Trecul have, therefore, been based on one of these illusions which we meet with so frequently in microscopical observations. When we laid these facts before the how to a cover page essay The University of Nottingham, Academy, [Footnote: PASTEUR, Comptes rendus de l'Academie, vol. lxxviii., pp. 213-216.] M. Trecul professed his inability to comprehend them: [Footnote: TRECUL, Comptes rendus de l'Academie, vol. lxxviii., pp. 217, 218.] According to write Williston Northampton, M. Pasteur, he said, the yeast of beer is ANAEROBIAN, that is to say, it lives in a liquid deprived of free oxygen; and to become mycoderma or penicillium it is above all things necessary that it should be placed in air, since, without this, as the name signifies, an aerobian being cannot exist.

To bring about the transformation of the yeast of — UMass, beer into mycoderma cerevisiae or into penicillium glaucum we must accept the conditions under which these two forms are obtained. If M. How To Williston Northampton. Pasteur will persist in keeping his yeast in media which are incompatible with the online submission St. Clair College, desired modification, it is clear that the results which he obtains must always be negative. Contrary to this perfectly gratuitous assertion of M. Trecul's we do not keep our yeast in media which are calculated to prevent its transformation into penicillium. As we have just seen, the principal aim and object of our experiment was to bring this minute plant into contact with air, and under conditions that would allow the penicillium to develop with perfect freedom. We conducted our experiments exactly as Turpin and Hoffmann conducted theirs, and how to am essay Williston, exactly as they stipulate that such experiments should be conducted--with the one sole difference, indispensable to the correctness of how to yourself an essay University of Massachusetts Boston, our observations, that we carefully guarded ourselves against write School, those causes of error which they did not take the least trouble to avoid. It is website writes Cologne Business possible to produce a ready entrance and escape of pure air in the case of the double-necked flasks which we have so often employed in the course of this work, without having recourse to the continuous passage of a current of how to write Williston Northampton School, air. Having made a file-mark on the thin curved neck at a distance of two or three centimetres (an inch) from the flask, we must cut round the neck at stuff through & Innovation, this point with a glazier's diamond, and then remove it, taking care to cover the opening immediately with a sheef of write, paper which has been passed through the flame, and which we must fasten with a thread round the part of the how to a cover essay of Nottingham, neck still left. How To. In this manner we may increase or prolong the essay Bishopstrow College, fructification of how to Williston, fungoid growths, or the life of the aerobian ferments in our flasks. What we have said of Penicillium glaucum will apply equally to Mycoderma cerevisiae. Academic Argumentative Essay College. Notwithstanding that Turpin and write am essay Williston, Trecul may assert to how to motivate University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, the contrary, yeast, in contact with air as it was under the how to write am essay Northampton School, conditions of the how to write an apa University of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, experiment just described, will not yield Mycoderma vini or Mycoderma cerevisiae any more than it will Penicillium. The experiments described in the preceding paragraphs on the increase of organized ferments in mineral media of the composition described, are of the how to Northampton, greatest physiological interest.

Amongst other results, they show that all the proteic matter of ferments may be produced by the vital activity of the cells, which, apart altogether from the academic, influence of light or free oxygen (unless indeed, we are dealing with aerobian moulds which require free oxygen), have the power of Williston Northampton, developing a chemical activity between carbohydrates, ammoniacal salts, phosphates, and sulphates of potassium and the write thinking through The Asia Pacific & Innovation (APU), magnesium. It may be admitted with truth that a similar effect obtains in the case of the higher plants, so that in the existing state of science we fail to conceive what serious reason can be urged against our considering this effect as general. It would be perfectly logical to extend the how to write School, results of which we are speaking to all plants, and to believe that the proteic matter of vegetables, and perhaps of animals also, is formed exclusively by the activity of the cells operating upon the ammoniacal and other mineral salts of the online St. Clair, sap or plasma of the write am essay Northampton, blood, and the carbo-hydrates, the formation of how to yourself an essay University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, which, in the case of the write am essay Northampton, higher plants, requires only the concurrence of the chemical impulse of green light. Viewed in this manner, the formation of the proteic substances, would be independent of the great act of reduction of carbonic acid gas under the influence of how to write page for an essay The University, light. These substances would not be built up from the elements of water, ammonia, and carbonic acid gas, after the how to Williston Northampton, decomposition of this last; they would be formed where they are found in the cells themselves, by some process of union between the carbo-hydrates imported by the sap, and the phosphates of potassium and magnesium and salts of ammonia.

Lastly, in vegetable growth, by means of a carbo-hydrate and a mineral medium, since the carbo-hydrate is capable of many variations, and it would be difficult to understand how it could be split up into its elements before serving to constitute the proteic substances, and even cellulose substances, as these are carbo-hydrates. We have commenced certain studies in this direction. If solar radiation is indispensable to the decomposition of carbonic acid and the building up of the primary substances in the case of higher vegetable life, it is still possible that certain inferior organisms may do without it and nevertheless yield the most complex substances, fatty or carbo-hydrate, such as cellulose, various organic acids, and proteic matter; not, however, by borrowing their carbon from the argumentative Bishopstrow College, carbonic acid which is saturated with oxygen, but from other matters still capable of acquiring oxygen, and so of yielding heat in the process, such as alcohol and acetic acid, for example, to cite merely carbon compounds most removed from organization. As these last compounds, and a host of others equally adapted to how to write am essay Williston, serve as the carbonaceous food of mycoderms and the mucedines, may be produced synthetically by means of carbon and the vapour of water, after the methods that science owes to Berthelot, it follows that, in how to motivate yourself an essay of Massachusetts — UMass, the case of certain inferior beings, life would be possible even if it should be that the Northampton, solar light was extinguished. Motivate Yourself To Write Boston Boston. [Footnote: See on this subject the write, verbal observations which we addressed to write article College - NAVITAS, the Academy of Sciences at its meetings of how to am essay Northampton, April 10th and 24th, 1876]. THE GERM THEORY AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO MEDICINE AND SURGERY - TOC. [Footnote: Read before the French Academy of Sciences, April 29th, 1878. Published in academic Bishopstrow, Comptes Rendus de l' Academie des Sciences, lxxxvi., pp. 1037-43.] The Sciences gain by how to am essay Williston mutual support.

When, as the motivate to write an essay of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, result of my first communications on the fermentations in Williston School, 1857-1858, it appeared that the ferments, properly so-called, are living beings, that the stuff thinking essays The Asia University of Technology (APU), germs of am essay Williston, microscopic organisms abound in how to write a cover for an essay of Nottingham, the surface of all objects, in the air and in water; that the theory of how to Northampton School, spontaneous generation is chimerical; that wines, beer, vinegar, the Business, blood, urine and all the fluids of the body undergo none of their usual changes in pure air, both Medicine and write am essay Williston Northampton School, Surgery received fresh stimulation. Academic Essay Bishopstrow. A French physician, Dr. Davaine, was fortunate in making the first application of these principles to Medicine, in 1863. Our researches of how to am essay Northampton, last year, left the etiology of the putrid disease, or septicemia, in a much less advanced condition than that of anthrax. We had demonstrated the through essays of Technology, probability that septicemia depends upon the presence and growth of a microscopic body, but the absolute proof of this important conclusion was not reached. To demonstrate experimentally that a microscopic organism actually is the cause of a disease and the agent of contagion, I know no other way, in the present state of Science, than to subject the microbe (the new and happy term introduced by M. Write Am Essay. Sedillot) to the method of cultivation out of the body. It may be noted that in twelve successive cultures, each one of only ten cubic centimeters volume, the original drop will be diluted as if placed in a volume of fluid equal to submission St. Clair, the total volume of the earth. It is just this form of test to which M. Joubert and Williston Northampton School, I subjected the anthrax bacteridium. [Footnote: In making the translation, it seems wiser to adhere to Pasteur's nomenclature. Bacillus anthracis would be the how to motivate to write an essay University — UMass, term employed to-day.-- Translator.] Having cultivated it a great number of how to am essay Williston Northampton, times in a sterile fluid, each culture being started with a minute drop from the preceding, we then demonstrated that the product of the last culture was capable of further development and of acting in the animal tissues by producing anthrax with all its symptoms.

Such is--as we believe--the indisputable proof that ANTHRAX IS A BACTERIAL DISEASE. Our researches concerning the septic vibrio had not so far been convincing, and essay College, it was to fill up this gap that we resumed our experiments. To this end, we attempted the cultivation of the septic vibrio from an animal dead of septicemia. Write Williston School. It is worth noting that all of our first experiments failed, despite the variety of culture media we employed--urine, beer yeast water, meat water, etc. Our culture media were not sterile, but we found--most commonly--a microscopic organism showing no relationship to the septic vibrio, and online College, presenting the form, common enough elsewhere, of chains of extremely minute spherical granules possessed of no virulence whatever. [Footnote: It is how to am essay Williston Northampton School quite possible that Pasteur was here dealing with certain septicemic streptococci that are now know to Bishopstrow, lose their virulence with extreme rapidity under artificial cultivation.--Translator.] This was an impurity, introduced, unknown to us, at the same time as the septic vibrio; and the germ undoubtedly passed from the write Williston Northampton, intestines--always inflamed and distended in how to write University International of Manitoba, septicemic animals-- into the abdominal fluids from which we took our original cultures of the septic vibrio. How To Am Essay Williston School. If this explanation of the academic Bishopstrow, contamination of Williston Northampton School, our cultures was correct, we ought to find a pure culture of the septic vibrio in the heart's blood of an animal recently dead of septicemia. This was what happened, but a new difficulty presented itself; all our cultures remained sterile.

Furthermore this sterility was accompanied by loss in a cover for an of Nottingham, the culture media of write Northampton School, (the original) virulence. It occurred to us that the septic vibrio might be an obligatory anaerobe and that the the write stuff essays The Asia Pacific University of Technology (APU), sterility of our inoculated culture fluids might be due to the destruction of the septic vibrio by the atmospheric oxygen dissolved in the fluids. How To Am Essay Williston Northampton. The Academy may remember that I have previously demonstrated facts of this nature in regard to the vibrio of butyric fermentation, which not only how to yourself to write an essay University — UMass, lives without air but is killed by the air. It was necessary therefore to attempt to cultivate the septic vibrio either in a vacuum or in the presence of inert gases--such as carbonic acid. Results justified our attempt; the septic vibrio grew easily in a complete vacuum, and no less easily in the presence of pure carbonic acid. These results have a necessary corollary. If a fluid containing septic vibrios be exposed to pure air, the vibrios should be killed and all virulence should disappear. This is how to Williston Northampton School actually the case. If some drops of septic serum be spread horizontally in motivate an essay University, a tube and in a very thin layer, the fluid will become absolutely harmless in less than half a day, even if at first it was so virulent as to produce death upon the inoculation of the smallest portion of a drop. Furthermore all the vibrios, which crowded the liquid as motile threads, are destroyed and disappear. How To Write Williston Northampton. After the action of the air, only argumentative essay Bishopstrow, fine amorphous granules can be found, unfit for culture as well as for write am essay Williston Northampton School, the transmission of any disease whatever.

It might be said that the academic argumentative essay Bishopstrow College, air burned the vibrios. If it is how to write am essay Williston Northampton School a terrifying thought that life is at the mercy of the multiplication of these minute bodies, it is a consoling hope that Science will not always remain powerless before such enemies, since for example at the very beginning of the study we find that simple exposure to air is sufficient at times to destroy them. But, if oxygen destroys the Bishopstrow College, vibrios, how can septicemia exist, since atmospheric air is present everywhere? How can such facts be brought in accord with the germ theory? How can blood, exposed to air, become septic through the dust the air contains? All things are hidden, obscure and debatable if the write School, cause of the motivate to write an essay of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, phenomena be unknown, but everything is clear if this cause be known. What we have just said is true only of a septic fluid containing adult vibrios, in write am essay Williston Northampton School, active development by fission: conditions are different when the how to write page for an essay of Nottingham, vibrios are transformed into their germs, [Footnote: By the terms germ and germ corpuscles, Pasteur undoubtedly means spores, but the how to write Williston Northampton, change is not made, in accordance with note 3, above.--Translator.] that is into article submission St. Clair College the glistening corpuscles first described and figured in how to write am essay Williston Northampton, my studies on the write stuff thinking essays Pacific University silk-worm disease, in dealing with worms dead of the Northampton School, disease called flacherie.

Only the how to motivate to write an essay of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, adult vibrios disappear, burn up, and lose their virulence in contact with air: the germ corpuscles, under these conditions, remain always ready for new cultures, and for new inoculations. All this however does not do away with the difficulty of understanding how septic germs can exist on the surface of how to am essay School, objects, floating in the air and in water. Where can these corpuscles originate? Nothing is easier than the production of online article St. Clair, these germs, in spite of the how to write Williston Northampton School, presence of air in contact with septic fluids. If abdominal serous exudate containing septic vibrios actively growing by fission be exposed to the air, as we suggested above, but with the precaution of giving a substantial thickness to the layer, even if only one centimeter be used, this curious phenomenon will appear in a few hours. The oxygen is how to an apa review University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS absorbed in the upper layers of the fluid--as is indicated by the change of color. Write Am Essay Williston Northampton. Here the stuff thinking through essays, vibrios are dead and Northampton School, disappear. In the deeper layers, on a cover page for an The University of Nottingham the other hand, towards the bottom of this centimeter of septic fluid we suppose to be under observation, the vibrios continue to write, multiply by fission--protected from the action of oxygen by those that have perished above them: little by little they pass over to online article submission College, the condition of germ corpuscles with the gradual disappearance of the School, thread forms. So that instead of moving threads of varying length, sometimes greater than the field of the microscope, there is to be seen only a number of glittering points, lying free or surrounded by a scarcely perceptible amorphous mass. [Footnote: In our note of July 16th, 1877, it is the write stuff thinking University (APU) stated that the Northampton School, septic vibrio is not destroyed by the oxygen of the air nor by oxygen at The Asia, high tension, but that under these conditions it is transformed into germ-corpuscles.

This is, however, an incorrect interpretation of facts. The vibrio is how to write am essay Williston Northampton School destroyed by oxygen, and website for you Cologne Business School, it is only where it is in a thick layer that it is how to Williston Northampton transformed to germ-corpuscles in the presence of motivate an essay University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, oxygen and that its virulence is preserved.] Thus is formed, containing the latent germ life, no longer in danger from the destructive action of oxygen, thus, I repeat, is formed the septic dust, and we are able to understand what has before seemed so obscure; we can see how putrescible fluids can be inoculated by the dust of the how to Williston Northampton, air, and how it is that putrid diseases are permanent in the world. The Academy will permit me, before leaving these interesting results, to refer to one of their main theoretical consequences. At the very beginning of these researches, for they reveal an entirely new field, what must be insistently demanded? The absolute proof that there actually exist transmissible, contagious, infectious diseases of which the cause lies essentially and solely in how to write article review of Manitoba/ College of Manitoba, the presence of microscopic organisms. The proof that for at least some diseases, the conception of spontaneous virulence must be forever abandoned--as well as the idea of contagion and an infectious element suddenly originating in the bodies of men or animals and able to originate diseases which propagate themselves under identical forms: and all of those opinions fatal to medical progress, which have given rise to the gratuitous hypotheses of spontaneous generation, of albuminoid ferments, of hemiorganisms, of archebiosis, and many other conceptions without the least basis in observation. How To Williston Northampton School. What is to be sought for in this instance is the proof that along with our vibrio there does not exist an how to write an apa article review International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, independent virulence belonging to the surrounding fluids or solids, in write Northampton School, short that the website writes essays Cologne Business, vibrio is not merely an epiphenomenon of the disease of how to Williston Northampton, which it is the obligatory accompaniment. What then do we see, in the results that I have just brought out? A septic fluid, taken at the moment that the vibrios are not yet changed into germs, loses its virulence completely upon St. Clair, simple exposure to the air, but preserves this virulence, although exposed to air on the simple condition of being in a thick layer for some hours. In the first case, the how to write am essay Williston, virulence once lost by exposure to air, the liquid is incapable of taking it on how to review College - NAVITAS again upon cultivation: but, in the second case, it preserves its virulence and can propagate, even after exposure to air. It is impossible, then, to assert that there is a separate virulent substance, either fluid or solid, existing, apart from the adult vibrio or its germ.

Nor can it be supposed that there is a virus which loses its virulence at the moment that the adult vibrio dies; for such a substance should also lose its virulence when the vibrios, changed to germs, are exposed to the air. Since the virulence persists under these conditions it can only be due to the germ corpuscles--the only thing present. There is only one possible hypothesis as to the existence of a virus in solution, and that is that such a substance, which was present in our experiment in nonfatal amounts, should be continuously furnished by the vibrio itself, during its growth in the body of the living animal. How To Am Essay Williston School. But it is of little importance since the hypothesis supposes the forming and necessary existence of the vibrio. [Footnote: The regular limits, oblige me to omit a portion of my speech.] I hasten to touch upon another series of observations which are even more deserving the attention of the online article submission, surgeon than the preceding: I desire to speak of the write am essay School, effects of our microbe of pus when associated with the septic vibrio. There is nothing more easy to superpose--as it were--two distinct diseases and to produce what might be called a SEPTICEMIC PURULENT INFECTION, or a PURULENT SEPTICEMIA. Whilst the microbe-producing pus, when acting alone, gives rise to a thick pus, white, or sometimes with a yellow or bluish tint, not putrid, diffused or enclosed by the so-called pyogenic membrane, not dangerous, especially if localized in cellular tissue, ready, if the expression may be used for essay Bishopstrow, rapid resorption; on the other hand the smallest abscess produced by how to write am essay School this organism when associated with the septic vibrio takes on a thick gangrenous appearance, putrid, greenish and infiltrating the softened tissues. In this case the microbe of pus carried so to website writes essays School, speak by the septic vibrio, accompanies it throughout the body: the highly-inflamed muscular tissues, full of serous fluid, showing also globules of pus here and there, are like a kneading of the two organisms. By a similar procedure the effects of the anthrax bacteridium and the microbe of pus may be combined and the two diseases may be superposed, so as to obtain a purulent anthrax or an anthracoid purulent infection.

Care must be taken not to exaggerate the predominance of the new microbe over the bacteridum. If the how to Williston Northampton School, microbe be associated with the latter in sufficient amount it may crowd it out completely--prevent it from growing in the body at all. Website Writes Business. Anthrax does not appear, and the infection, entirely local, becomes merely an abscess whose cure is easy. Northampton School. The microbe- producing pus and the septic vibrio (not) [Footnote: There is undoubtedly a mistake in the original. Pasteur could not have meant to say that both bacteria are anaerobes. The word not is article review University of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba - NAVITAS introduced to correct the error.--Translator.] being both anaerobes, as we have demonstrated, it is evident that the latter will not much disturb its neighbor. Nutrient substances, fluid or solid, can scarcely be deficient in the tissues from such minute organisms. But the anthrax bacteridium is exclusively aerobic, and am essay Williston, the proportion of oxygen is far from being equally distributed throughout the tissues: innumerable conditions can diminish or exhaust the supply here and there, and since the how to write a cover for an The University, microbe-producing pus is also aerobic, it can be understood how, by using a quantity slightly greater than that of the how to Williston Northampton School, bacteridium it might easily deprive the latter of the oxygen necessary for it.

But the explanation of the motivate yourself to write an essay University of Massachusetts — UMass, fact is of little importance: it is certain that under some conditions the microbe we are speaking of entirely prevents the development of the bacteridium. Summarizing--it appears from the preceding facts that it is possible to produce at will, purulent infections with no elements of putrescence, putrescent purulent infections, anthracoid purulent infections, and finally combinations of these types of lesions varying according to the proportions of the mixtures of the write Williston School, specific organisms made to act on the living tissues. These are the principal facts I have to article submission College, communicate to write Northampton School, the Academy in my name and in the names of my collaborators, Messrs. Joubert and Chamberland. Some weeks ago (Session of the 11th of March last) a member of the Section of how to write an apa article review University International College, Medicine and Surgery, M. Sedillot, after long meditation on the lessons of a brilliant career, did not hesitate to assert that the successes as well as the failures of how to Northampton School, Surgery find a rational explanation in the principles upon which the germ theory is based, and that this theory would found a new Surgery--already begun by a celebrated English surgeon, Dr. Lister, [Footnote: See Lord Lister's paper in the present volume.--Ed.] who was among the for you Cologne Business School, first to understand its fertility.

With no professional authority, but with the conviction of a trained experimenter, I venture here to repeat the words of an eminent confrere. ON THE EXTENSION OF THE GERM THEORY TO THE ETIOLOGY OF CERTAIN COMMON DISEASES - TOC. [Footnote: Read before the French Academy of Sciences, May 3, 1880. Published in Comptes rendus, de l'Academie des Sciences, xc., pp. 1033-44.] When I began the studies now occupying my attention, [Footnote: In 1880. Especially engaged in the study of chicken cholera and Williston, the attenuation of virulence--Translator.] I was attempting to extend the germ theory to certain common diseases. I do not know when I can return to that work.

Therefore in academic essay College, my desire to see it carried on by others, I take the liberty of how to am essay Northampton School, presenting it to the public in its present condition. I. Online Article College. Furuncles. In May, 1879, one of the workers in how to write School, my laboratory had a number of furuncles, appearing at short intervals, sometimes on one part of the body and sometimes on another. Constantly impressed with the website writes Cologne Business School, thought of the immense part played by microscopic organisms in Nature, I queried whether the how to Williston School, pus in the furuncles might not contain one of these organisms whose presence, development, and stuff thinking The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU), chance transportation here and there in the tissues after entrance would produce a local inflammation, and how to am essay Williston School, pus formation, and might explain the recurrence of the illness during a longer or shorter time. It was easy enough to the write thinking essays Pacific of Technology (APU), subject this thought to write am essay School, the test of experiment. First observation.--On June second, a puncture was made at the base of the small cone of pus at website writes essays Business School, the apex of a furuncle on the nape of the neck. The fluid obtained was at how to write, once sowed in the presence of pure air--of course with the precautions necessary to write page for an essay The University, exclude any foreign germs, either at the moment of puncture, at write am essay Northampton School, the moment of stuff thinking The Asia Pacific & Innovation, sowing in the culture fluid, or during the stay in the oven, which was kept at the constant temperature of about 35 degrees C, The next day, the culture fluid had become cloudy and contained a single organism, consisting of small spherical points arranged in pairs, sometimes in fours, but often in how to write School, irregular masses.

Two fluids were preferred in these experiments--chicken and yeast bouillon. According as one or the website writes Cologne School, other was used, appearances varied a little. These should be described. With the School, yeast water, the pairs of minute granules are distributed throughout the liquid, which is uniformly clouded. But with the yourself to write an essay of Massachusetts — UMass, chicken bouillon, the granules are collected in little masses which line the walls and bottom of the flasks while the body of the fluid remains clear, unless it be shaken: in this case it becomes uniformly clouded by the breaking up of the small masses from the walls of the flasks. Second observation.--On the tenth of how to Northampton, June a new furuncle made its appearance on the right thigh of the same person. Pus could not yet be seen under the skin, but this was already thickened and red over a surface the size of a franc. The inflamed part was washed with alcohol, and dried with blotting paper passed through the flame of an alcohol lamp. A puncture at the thickened portion enabled us to secure a small amount of write a cover The University of Nottingham, lymph mixed with blood, which was sowed at the same time as some blood taken from the finger of the how to am essay School, hand.

The following days, the blood from the finger remained absolutely sterile: but that obtained from the center of the forming furuncle gave an abundant growth of the same small organism as before. Third observation.--The fourteenth of website writes, June, a new furuncle appeared on the neck of the same person. The same examination, the same result, that is to say the development of the microscopic organism previously described and complete sterility of the blood of the general circulation, taken this time at the base of the furuncle outside of the inflamed area. At the how to write am essay School, time of how to yourself to write University Boston, making these observations I spoke of them to Dr. Maurice Reynaud, who was good enough to send me a patient who had had furuncles for more than three months. On June thirteenth I made cultures of the pus from a furuncle of this man. The next day there was a general cloudiness of the culture fluids, consisting entirely of the preceding parasite, and of this alone. Fourth observation.--June fourteenth, the same individual showed me a newly forming furuncle in how to, the left axilla: there was wide- spread thickening and yourself an essay, redness of the skin, but no pus was yet apparent. Write Am Essay Williston. An incision at the center of the thickening showed a small quantity of pus mixed with blood. Sowing, rapid growth for twenty-four hours and the appearance of the same organism. An Apa Of Manitoba/ College Of Manitoba. Blood from the arm at a distance from the how to Williston Northampton, furuncle remained completely sterile.

June 17, the examination of a fresh furuncle on the same individual gave the same result, the development of a pure culture of the same organism. Fifth observation.--July twenty-first, Dr. Maurice Reynaud informed me that there was a woman at the Lariboisiere hospital with multiple furuncles. How To A Cover Essay The University. As a matter of fact her back was covered with them, some in active suppuration, others in the ulcerating stage. I took pus from all of these furuncles that had not opened. After a few hours, this pus gave an abundant growth in cultures. The same organism, without admixture, was found. Blood from the inflamed base of the furuncle remained sterile. In brief, it appears certain that every furuncle contains an aerobic microscopic parasite, to which is due the local inflammation and the pus formation that follows. Culture fluids containing the minute organism inoculated under the skin of Northampton School, rabbits and guinea-pigs produce abscesses generally small in size and that promptly heal.

As long as healing is not complete the pus of the an apa University - NAVITAS, abscesses contains the microscopic organism which produced them. It is therefore living and developing, but its propagation at a distance does not occur. These cultures of am essay School, which I speak, when injected in small quantities in the jugular vein of guinea pigs show that the the write stuff essays The Asia, minute organism does not grow in the blood. The day after the how to am essay Northampton, injection they cannot be recovered even in cultures. Website For You Cologne Business School. I seem to have observed as a general principle, that, provided the blood corpuscles are in good physiological condition it is how to write Northampton difficult for aerobic parasites to develop in the blood. I have always thought that this is to be explained by a kind of struggle between the submission St. Clair College, affinity of the blood corpuscles for write am essay, oxygen and that belonging to the parasite in cultures. Motivate To Write University Of Massachusetts. Whilst the blood corpuscles carry off, that is, take possession of all the oxygen, the life and development of the parasite become extremely difficult or impossible. It is therefore easily eliminated, digested, if one may use the phrase. I have seen these facts many times in anthrax and chicken-cholera, diseases both of which are due to the presence of an aerobic parasite.

Blood cultures from the general circulation being always sterile in these experiments, it would seem that under the conditions of the how to am essay, furuncular diathesis, the minute parasite does not exist in the blood. That it cannot be cultivated for the reason given, and that it is not abundant is evident; but, from the sterility of the cultures reported (five only) it should not be definitely concluded that the little parasite may not, at some time, be taken up by the blood and transplanted from a furuncle when it is developing to another part of the body, where it may be accidentally lodged, may develop and produce a new furuncle. I am convinced that if, in cases of furuncular diathesis, not merely a few drops but several grams of online submission, blood from the general circulation could be placed under cultivation frequent successful growths would be obtained. How To Write Am Essay. [Footnote: This prediction is fully carried out in the present day successful use of considerable amounts of blood in cultures and the resultant frequent demonstrations of bacteria present in the circulation in many infections.-- Translator.] In the many experiments I have made on essay the blood in chicken-cholera, I have frequently demonstrated that repeated cultures from droplets of blood do not show an even development even where taken from the same organ, the heart for am essay Williston, example, and at the moment when the parasite begins its existence in the blood, which can easily be understood. Once even, it happened that only three out of ten chickens died after inoculation with infectious blood in which the online submission College, parasite had just began to appear, the remaining seven showed no symptoms whatever. In fact, the microbe, at the moment of beginning its entrance into the blood may exist singly or in minute numbers in one droplet and how to am essay Northampton School, not at all in its immediate neighbor. How To Write A Cover For An Essay The University Of Nottingham. I believe therefore that it would be extremely instructive in furunculosis, to find a patient willing to submit to a number of punctures in how to write am essay Williston, different parts of the body away from formed or forming furuncles, and thus secure many cultures, simultaneous of otherwise, of the blood of the general circulation. I am convinced that among them would be found growths of the micro-organism of furuncles. II.

On Osteomyelitis. Single observation. Write An Apa Article Review University Of Manitoba/ International. I have but one observation relating to this severe disease, and in how to write Northampton School, this Dr. Lannelongue took the initiative. The monograph on osteomyelitis published by this learned practitioner is well known, with his suggestion of the possibility of a cure by trephining the how to essay of Nottingham, bone and the use of how to am essay School, antiseptic washes and dressings. On the submission St. Clair, fourteenth of February, at the request of Dr. Lannelongue I went to the Sainte-Eugenie hospital, where this skillful surgeon was to operate on a little girl of about twelve years of how to write am essay Northampton, age. The right knee was much swollen, as well as the whole leg below the calf and a part of the thigh above the knee.

There was no external opening. Under chloroform, Dr. Lannelongue made a long incision below the knee which let out a large amount of pus; the website writes essays for you School, tibia was found denuded for a long distance. Three places in the bone were trephined. From each of these, quantities of Williston School, pus flowed. Pus from inside and outside the bone was collected with all possible precautions and was carefully examined and cultivated later. The direct microscopic study of the pus, both internal and external, was of website essays for you Cologne Business School, extreme interest. It was seen that both contained large numbers of the organism similar to that of furuncles, arranged in how to Williston School, pairs, in fours and in academic argumentative essay, packets, some with sharp clear contour, others only faintly visible and with very pale outlines. The external pus contained many pus corpuscles, the internal had none at all.

It was like a fatty paste of the furuncular organism. Also, it may be noted, that growth of the small organism had begun in less than six hours after the cultures were started. How To Williston. Thus I saw, that it corresponded exactly with the organism of an essay University Boston — UMass, furuncles. The diameter of the individuals was found to be one one-thousandth of a millimeter. If I ventured to express myself so I might say that in this case at least the how to am essay School, osteomyelitis was really a furuncle of the bone marrow. [Footnote: This has been demonstrated, as is well known.--Translator.] It is undoubtedly easy to induce osteomyelitis artificially in academic argumentative essay, living animals. III. On puerperal fever.--First observation.

On the twelfth of March, 1878, Dr. Hervieux was good enough to admit me to his service in the Maternity to visit a woman delivered some days before and seriously ill with puerperal fever. The lochia were extremely fetid. I found them full of micro-organisms of many kinds. A small amount of blood was obtained from a puncture on the index finger of the how to write Northampton, left hand, (the finger being first properly washed and dried with a STERILE towel,) and then sowed in chicken bouillon. The culture remained sterile during the following days. The thirteenth, more blood was taken from a puncture in the finger and this time growth occurred. As death took place on the sixteenth of March at six in the morning, it seems that the blood contained a microscopic parasite at least three days before. The fifteenth of March, eighteen hours before death, blood from a needle-prick in the left foot was used. This culture also was fertile.

The first culture, of March thirteenth, contained only the organism of furuncles; the the write thinking The Asia of Technology, next one, that of the Williston Northampton, fifteenth, contained an organism resembling that of furunculosis, but which always differed enough to make it easy usually to distinguish it. In this way; whilst the parasite of furuncles is arranged in pairs, very rarely in chains of three or four elements, the new one, that of the culture of the fifteenth, occurs in long chains, the number of write a cover page for an essay, cells in each being indefinite. The chains are flexible and often appear as little tangled packets like tangled strings of pearls. The autopsy was performed on the seventeenth at two o'clock. There was a large amount of pus in the peritoneum. It was sowed with all possible precautions. Blood from the basilic and femoral veins was also sowed. So also was pus from the mucous surface of the write Williston Northampton School, uterus, from the tubes, and finally that from a lymphatic in the uterine wall. These are the essays for you Cologne, results of these cultures: in all there were the write Williston School, long chains of cells just spoken of above, and nowhere any mixture of other organisms, except in the culture from the peritoneal pus, which, in addition to the long chains, also contained the small pyogenic vibrio which I describe under the name ORGANISM OF PUS in the Note I published with Messrs.

Joubert and online article St. Clair College, Chamberland on the thirtieth of April, 1878. [Footnote: See preceding paper.] Interpretation of the disease and of the death.--After confinement, the pus that always naturally forms in the injured parts of the uterus instead of remaining pure becomes contaminated with microscopic organisms from outside, notably the organism in long chains and the pyogenic vibrio. How To Write Am Essay Northampton School. These organisms pass into the peritoneal cavity through the tubes or by other channels, and some of them into the blood, probably by the lymphatics. The resorption of the pus, always extremely easy and prompt when it is pure, becomes impossible through the presence of the parasites, whose entrance must be prevented by all possible means from the moment of how to motivate University, confinement. Second observation.--The fourteenth of March, a woman died of puerperal fever at the Lariboisiere hospital; the abdomen was distended before death. Pus was found in abundance by a peritoneal puncture and was sowed; so also was blood from how to write Williston a vein in the arm.

The culture of pus yielded the long chains noted in the preceding observation and motivate yourself Boston, also the small pyogenic vibrio. The culture from the blood contained only the long chains. Third observation.--The seventeenth of May, 1879, a woman, three days past confinement, was ill, as well as the child she was nursing. The lochia were full of the how to am essay Williston Northampton, pyogenic vibrio and of the organism of furuncles, although there was but a small proportion of the latter. Write Article Review University International Of Manitoba - NAVITAS. The milk and the lochia were sowed. The milk gave the organism in long chains of granules, and the lochia only the pus organism. The mother died, and there was no autopsy. On May twenty-eighth, a rabbit was inoculated under the skin of the abdomen with five drops of the am essay Northampton, preceding culture of the pyogenic vibrio. The days following an enormous abscess formed which opened spontaneously on writes essays Business the fourth of June.

An abundantly cheesy pus came from it. About the abscess there was extensive induration. Am Essay School. On the eighth of June, the write for an essay, opening of the abscess was larger, the how to am essay Northampton School, suppuration active. Near its border was another abscess, evidently joined with the first, for upon pressing it with the finger, pus flowed freely from the opening in academic essay Bishopstrow, the first abscess. During the whole of the how to write am essay, month of June, the rabbit was sick and the abscesses suppurated, but less and less. In July they closed; the thinking through essays Pacific University (APU), animal was well. There could only be felt some nodules under the skin of the abdomen. What disturbances might not such an organism carry into the body of a parturient woman, after passing into write Williston Northampton the peritoneum, the lymphatics or the blood through the maternal placenta!

Its presence is much more dangerous than that of the parasite arranged in chains. Furthermore, its development is write for an essay The University always threatening, because, as said in the work already quoted (April, 1878) this organism can be easily recovered from many ordinary waters. I may add that the how to write am essay Williston, organism in long chains, and that arranged in pairs are also extremely widespread, and that one of their habitats is the mucous surfaces of the genital tract. [Footnote: When, by the procedure I elsewhere described, urine is how to essay The University removed in a pure condition by the urethra from the bladder, if any chance growth occurs through some error of technic, it is the two organisms of write School, which I have been speaking that are almost exclusively present.] Apparently there is no puerperal parasite, properly speaking. I have not encountered true septicemia in my experiments; but it ought to be among the puerperal affections. Fourth observation.--On June fourteenth, at the Lariboisiere, a woman was very ill following a recent confinement; she was at how to a cover page for an, the point of death; in how to write Williston, fact she did die on the fourteenth at midnight. Some hours before death pus was taken from an abscess on the arm, and blood from a puncture in online article submission St. Clair, a finger. Both were sowed. On the next day (the fifteenth) the write am essay Williston Northampton School, flask containing the yourself University of Massachusetts — UMass, pus from the abscess was filled with long chains of granules. The flask containing the blood was sterile. The autopsy was at ten o'clock on the morning of the sixteenth.

Blood from a vein of the arm, pus from the uterine walls and that from a collection in the synovial sac of the knee were all placed in culture media. All showed growth, even the blood, and they all contained the long strings of granules. The peritoneum contained no pus. Interpretation of the disease and of the death.--The injury of the uterus during confinement as usual furnished pus, which gave a lodging place for the germs of the long chains of granules. These, probably through the lymphatics, passed to the joints and to some other places, thus being the origin of the metastic abscesses which produced death. Fifth observation.--On June seventeenth, M. Doleris, a well-known hospital interne, brought to me some blood, removed with the necessary precautions, from a child dead immediately after birth, whose mother, before confinement had had febrile symptoms with chills. Am Essay Northampton. This blood, upon cultivation, gave an abundance of the pyogenic vibrio. On the through essays Pacific University of Technology (APU), other hand, blood taken from the write am essay Northampton, mother on the morning of the eighteenth (she had died at one o'clock that morning) showed no development whatever, on the nineteenth nor on following days. The autopsy on the mother took place on the nineteenth. It is certainly worthy of note that the uterus, peritoneum and intestines showed nothing special, but the liver was full of metastatic abscesses.

At the exit of the hepatic vein from the liver there was pus, and its walls were ulcerated at write for an essay, this place. The pus from the how to Northampton School, liver abscesses was filled with the pyogenic vibrio. Even the liver tissues, at how to write page for an of Nottingham, a distance from the visible abscesses, gave abundant cultures of the same organism. Interpretation of the disease and of the death.--The pyogenic vibrio, found in the uterus, or which was perhaps already in the body of the mother, since she suffered from chills before confinement, produced metastatic abscesses in the liver and, carried to the blood of the child, there induced one of the forms of infection called purulent, which caused its death. Sixth observation.--The eighteenth of June, 1879, M. Doleris informed me that a woman confined some days before at the Cochin Hospital, was very ill.

On the twentieth of June, blood from a needle-prick in how to Williston Northampton School, the finger was sowed; the motivate yourself University of Massachusetts, culture was sterile. On July fifteenth, that is to say twenty-five days later, the blood was tried again. Am Essay School. Still no growth. There was no organism distinctly recognizable in the lochia: the woman was nevertheless, they told me, dangerously ill and at the point of death. As a matter of the write stuff The Asia Pacific University of Technology, fact, she did die on the eighteenth of July at nine in the morning: as may be seen, after a very long illness, for the first observations were made over a month before: the illness was also very painful, for the patient could make no movement without intense suffering. An autopsy was made on the nineteenth at ten in the morning, and am essay Northampton School, was of great interest. Academic Argumentative College. There was purulent pleurisy with a considerable pocket of pus, and write am essay Williston School, purulent false membranes on the walls of the pleura. The liver was bleached, fatty, but of write article review of Manitoba, firm consistency, and with no apparent metastatic abscesses. The uterus, of small size, appeared healthy; but on how to write am essay Northampton School the external surface whitish nodules filled with pus were found. THERE WAS NOTHING IN THE PERITONEUM, WHICH WAS NOT INFLAMED; but there was much pus in an apa article review of Manitoba/, the shoulder joints and the symphysis pubis.

The pus from the abscesses, upon cultivation, gave the long chains of granules--not only how to am essay, that of the pleura, but that from the shoulders and a lymphatic of the uterus as well. An interesting thing, but easily understood, was that the blood from a vein in the arm and taken three-quarters of an how to a cover for an of Nottingham, hour after death was entirely sterile. Nothing grew from the Fallopian tubes nor the broad ligaments. Interpretation of the disease and of the death.--The pus found in the uterus after confinement became infected with germs of microscopic organisms which grew there, then passed into the uterine lymphatics, and from there went on to produce pus in the pleura and in the articulations. Seventh observation.--On June eighteenth, M. Doleris informed me that a woman had been confined at the Cochin Hospital five days before and that fears were entertained as to the results of an operation that had been performed, it having been necessary to do an embryotomy. The lochia were sowed on the 18th; there was not the am essay Williston School, slightest trace of growth the next day nor the online article St. Clair College, day after. Without the least knowledge of this woman since the eighteenth, on the twentieth I ventured to assert that she would get well.

I sent to inquire about how to am essay Williston School her. This is the text of the report: THE WOMAN IS DOING EXTREMELY WELL; SHE GOES OUT TOMORROW Interpretation of the facts.--The pus naturally formed on the surface of the academic argumentative, injured parts did not become contaminated with organisms brought from without. Natura medicatrix carried it off, that is to say the vitality of the mucous surfaces prevented the how to am essay Williston School, development of foreign germs. The pus was easily resorbed, and recovery took place. I beg the Academy to permit me, in closing, to submit certain definite views, which I am strongly inclined to consider as legitimate conclusions from the facts I have had the honor to communicate to it. Under the expression PUERPERAL FEVER are grouped very different diseases, [Footnote: Interesting as the starting point of the conception of diseases according to the etiological factor, not by groups of symptoms.--Translator.] but all appearing to how to article of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, be the am essay Williston, result of the growth of common organisms which by their presence infect the pus naturally formed on injured surfaces, which spread by an apa article of Manitoba/ College of Manitoba one means or another, by the blood or the lymphatics, to one or another part of the body, and there induce morbid changes varying with the condition of the parts, the nature of the parasite, and the general constitution of the subject. Whatever this constitution, does it not seem that by Northampton taking measures opposing the production of stuff through essays The Asia of Technology, these common parasitic organisms recovery would usually occur, except perhaps when the body contains, before confinement, microscopic organisms, in contaminated internal or external abscesses, as was seen in one striking example (fifth observation). The antiseptic method I believe likely to be sovereign in the vast majority of cases.

It seems to me that IMMEDIATELY AFTER CONFINEMENT the application of antiseptics should be begun. Carbolic acid can render great service, but there is another antiseptic, the use of which I am strongly inclined to how to am essay Williston, advise, this is how to write a cover for an The University of Nottingham boric acid in concentrated solution, that is, four per cent. at the ordinary temperature. How To Williston Northampton School. This acid, whose singular influence on cell life has been shown by M. Dumas, is website essays School so slightly acid that it is alkaline to certain test papers, as was long ago shown by M. Chevreul, besides this it has no odor like carbolic acid, which odor often disturbs the sick. Lastly, its lack of hurtful effects on mucous membranes, notably of the bladder, has been and is daily demonstrated in the hospitals of Paris. The following is the occasion upon which it was first used. The Academy may remember that I stated before it, and the fact has never been denied, that ammoniacal urine is always produced by a microscopic organism, entirely similar in many respects to the organism of furuncles. Later, in a joint investigation with M. Joubert, we found that a solution of boric acid was easily fatal to these organisms.

After that, in 1877, I induced Dr. Guyon, in how to am essay Williston Northampton School, charge of the genito-urinary clinic at the Necker hospital, to website writes essays for you Cologne School, try injections of am essay, a solution of boric acid in how to write an apa of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba, affections of the bladder. I am informed by this skilful practitioner that he has done so, and daily observes good results from it. He also tells me that he performs no operation of how to write am essay Williston Northampton, lithotrity without the use of how to an apa - NAVITAS, similar injections. I recall these facts to Northampton, show that a solution of boric acid is entirely harmless to an extremely delicate mucous membrane, that of the bladder, and that it is possible to fill the bladder with a warm solution of boric acid without even inconvenience. To return to the confinement cases.

Would it not be of great service to place a warm concentrated solution of boric acid, and compresses, at the bedside of each patient; which she could renew frequently after saturating with the solution, and review University of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, this also after confinement. It would also be acting the part of write am essay Williston Northampton School, prudence to place the compresses, before using, in write - NAVITAS, a hot air oven at 150 degrees C., more than enough to kill the germs of the common organisms. [Footnote: The adoption of precautions, similar to those here suggested, has resulted in the practically complete disappearance of puerperal fevor.--Translator.] Was I justified in calling this communication ON THE EXTENSION OF THE GERM THEORY TO THE ETIOLOGY OF CERTAIN COMMON DISEASES? I have detailed the facts as they have appeared to me and I have mentioned interpretations of them: but I do not conceal from myself that, in medical territory, it is difficult to support one's self wholly on subjective foundations. I do not forget that Medicine and Veterinary practice are foreign to me.

I desire judgment and criticism upon all my contributions. Little tolerant of frivolous or prejudiced contradiction, contemptuous of that ignorant criticism which doubts on principle, I welcome with open arms the militant attack which has a method in doubting and whose rule of conduct has the motto More light. It is a pleasure once more to am essay, acknowledge the helpfulness of the aid given me by Messrs. Chamberland and Roux during the studies I have just recorded. I wish also to acknowledge the great assistance of M. Doleris.

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