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How to write titles of books in essays IMG Academy

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IF IT S A TITLE OF SOMETHING, WHAT DO I DO TO IT

Answering Problem Questions in Law. Please log in to how to titles add your comment. The Write Stuff Thinking & Innovation! Transcript of Answering Problem Questions in Law. This prezi looks at how to go about. answering problem questions. These are my views. Mine. Your own tutor. or lecturer may have their own views on.

how to approach problem questions. What. you should do is use this prezi to guide you. and titles of books IMG Academy then check if your tutor/lecturer differs. in what they expect to see by stuff essays (APU) way of how to titles in essays IMG Academy problem. Problem questions ask you to apply your knowledge. Essay Braemar College! of the how to write titles law to a given factual scenario. The Write Stuff Thinking Through Essays The Asia University Of Technology (APU)! As the name. suggests, they get you to question problems. Problem questions (or PQs to the cool kids) are frequently based on areas where there are uncertainties about the of books IMG Academy law. What this means, then, is that there are rarely right answers to PQs. Instead, there are arguments which. suggest one view and other arguments which suggest. an alternate view. Your job is to highlight what those. This prezi has some tips for you on. how to structure your thinking and. Braemar College! answers for PQS. The two key things to remember are: (i) apply the correct law (legislation and cases) to the relevant facts of the PQ.

(ii) use the law to ARGUE your case. In any PQ, you start with the facts. Let#39;s look at an example: Bill is one of three directors in Fun Law Ltd, a company set up to promote the fun in law. Jane is one of four shareholders in Fun Law Ltd. Write Of Books In Essays! Steven Vaughan, Birmingham Law School.

When you get the facts of a PQ, read them. Then re-read then. Then pick up a pen. First thing, identify the writing news relevant parties. Remember that names. may indicate parties with rights or liabilities that may need to be discussed. Bill is one of three directors in Fun Law Ltd, a company set up to promote the fun in law. Write Titles In Essays! Jane is one of four shareholders in Fun Law Ltd. Bill and Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Jane are obviously parties. What about the other shareholders?

What about Fun Law Ltd itself? The point here is simple: not every party will be named in a PQ. Some may simply be referred to by title (e.g. another shareholder) or otherwise mentioned (Cerys is mother to six children, including. Ok, so you#39;ve read the PQ (at least twice) and you#39;ve identified. the how to of books relevant parties. What next? Now look for relationships between those parties. Some of these. will be legally relevant and relevant for your PQ; others won#39;t. But it#39;s a good thinking exercise to identify all of them.

Let#39;s take another example to look at writing news article School relationships in write of books PQs. Bill is driving his car in wet weather. Jane, a 10 year old child with learning. difficulties steps out in front of the car. News Article! Bill tries to brake, but can#39;t stop. the car in time. Jane is seriously injured. How To Titles Of Books In Essays! What parties and relationships can you see here? Once you#39;ve identified the parties and the various relationships, you. will need to decide on the relevant applicable laws. Some PQs require you to look at one discrete body of law. Others. require consideration of news Oswestry School multiple bodies of law.

Here, the skill you need to learn is to be able to identify what is. required of you by way of answer to the PQ. Sometimes it will be obvious, Advise Sarah in write titles of books relation to a possible nuisance. claim against Anna. On other occasions, it will be more vague: Discuss or. Before you put pen to a comparison and contrast essay Trent University paper, be clear on what you have to do: on which areas. of law you are being asked to discuss. By this stage, you have identified the relevant parties and worked out the relationships between them. What next? Issue Spotting: Not every relationship that you have identified will be legally relevant. Some will. Some won#39;t.

To issue spot means to how to write in essays make a decision about the article School relevance of the relationships you have identified. A good chunk of what you are asking yourself inside your head is: Can X bring a claim against how to write of books in essays, Y? And, if yes, is that claim the examination Blue Mountains International Hotel School sort of the claim that the PQ is asking you to discuss. And, linked to this, if there is a claim, what defences might be open to how to of books the defendant? But your PQ might not be wholly about claims. Your PQ might be getting you to advise a party on how the law would apply to them. In that case, that#39;s the essay issue. Some PQs will only have one issue that requires spotting. Can A claim against B? Advise A on B. Others will have multiple issues: Can A claim against B, C and D? Can X claim against Y? Can Y claim against Z? Advise A on B, C and D. etc. By identifying parties and by identifying relationships from the facts, you make the likelihood of spotting all the. How To Write Of Books IMG Academy! relevant issues that much greater. Failure to spot an issue on which you are required to advise will likely mean losing marks.

Given. this, spend a good amount of time being sure of the thinking through essays The Asia Pacific facts and being sure that you have identified. the relevant parties, the relationships between them and what issues are at play. On the facts, don#39;t make stuff up. Don#39;t invent facts you are not told. One of. the key skills for a PQ is being able to identify. missing data: facts which you are not told, but. which would be relevant to the determinaton of. the legal issues/claims. Similarly, don#39;t question the facts.

If you are told, for example, that The doctor was negligent during surgery. , then don#39;t say. We don#39;t know if the doctor was negligent. To be negligent. You. will be told facts for a reason. Don#39;t waste time questioning them. Finally, on this issue, don#39;t consider alternatives unless you. have been specifically told to do so. So, if you are told The doctor. was negligent. don#39;t inlcude, as part of your answer Had the doctor. not been negligent. unless the question asks of you Consider the. situation in which the doctor had not been negligent Let#39;s talk about structure. You may have heard in the past about the IRAC or CLEO methods for answering PQs. Both are essentially the same. and are designed to give you a way of thinking about and structuring your approach.

The IRAC method stands for: Issue - Rule - Application - Conclusion. With IRAQ, identify the relevant issue, decide on the law which is how to write of books IMG Academy relevant to that issue, apply the law to the particular facts and write a comparison essay then conclude (which will commonly require the giving of advice to a particular party) The following structure is titles of books in essays what I like to see by stuff thinking The Asia Pacific & Innovation (APU) way of of books translating of the IRAC method into argumentative persuasive essay Les Roches International a written answer. But, as I said before. this is just my PERSONAL PREFERENCE on structure. Introductions to PQs are not the same as introductions. to essays. Don#39;t start off by how to titles in essays saying This PQ raises many varied. and complex issues in relation to the law of [X] (which would be poor even for. an essay question). Instead, simply signal to the reader that you have identified. the relevant issues. How To Write Introduction Paragraph Essay Wrekin! For example, There are three possible claims here. A against. B under the law of X in relation to Y; C against D under the law of [etc etc].

The Body of the Answer. Titles Of Books IMG Academy! As for the body of your answer to the PQ, you can do this in one of two main ways. Argumentative International School Management! You can either. state all of the laws relevant to the issues you have identified and then apply those laws to the. relevant facts. Or you can integrate the write titles of books in essays IMG Academy two: that is, state and apply the essay Trent University law at the same time. You will need to check which of these your tutor/lecturer prefers.

Whatever you do, be methodical. Don#39;t mix up different issues or different bits of law. And don#39;t. jump between different claimants or different claims. Whichever approach you take, make it such that the reader has a clear understanding of what you are discussing and to what that discussion refers. An easy way of making your answer clear is to use headings: A#39;s claim against B Case Law on Contaminatled Land etc. Let#39;s talk about authority. All too frequently, students made assertions without back up. Manufactuers owe a duty of care. Articles of association can be. amended by special resolution.

The Only Way is Essex is the. best thing on tv. Every time you make an assertion, have back up. Have authority which supports and/or is the basis. for the assertion you are making. So, instead of simply asserting that Articles of. association can be amended by special resolution give the authority: hence, either Section 21 of the Companies Act 2006 details that articles of association. or Articles of association can be amended by special resolution (s21, CA#39;06) To sum up, for every assertion that you give, try and have some authority for it. This will make your answer fuller. Titles In Essays! And more accurate. And thereby you will get better. Argumentative Persuasive International Management! Let#39;s talk about depth of knowledge of the law. What is how to write of books in essays required or expected of you during your module/course is different to (a) what you will be capable of remembering for an exam and. (b) what you are physically capable of writing in. the time allotted for that exam.

With case law, you need to know case name, brief case. facts and the key principles of law decided/discussed. Please don#39;t repeat case facts at great length. You can rest. assured I have read them and know what they say. Mountains Hotel School! Case. facts are, however, relevant where you want to compare or. Titles In Essays IMG Academy! contrast a case to the fact pattern in the PQ. Just don#39;t. spend 1/2 a page writng out the facts of case X or Y. Case name, brief facts, legal principles. This is the minimum. It may also be helpful to how to a good paragraph essay Wrekin try to remember the date of the case, the in essays IMG Academy court in which the case was heard and what individual judges said (if there is more than one judgment) With statute, what you need to news article Oswestry know may depend on whether or. not you are allowed to use a statute book in the exam. Even. Titles Of Books IMG Academy! where you are permitted to take in a statute book, do you really. want to spend all of your time leafing through its pages?

Having key. bits of the key statutory provisions in your head is a probably a good. idea in any event. Applying the the write stuff The Asia of Technology Law. Simply knowing what law is relevant to a given fact pattern is not enough for a PQ. You have to be able to APPLY that law to the facts. What this means is that you have to take the write titles of books law and see what the result would be. if a judge were asked to how to write a comparison and contrast essay University apply that law to the particular problem. What is there in. the particular problem that fits with/looks like previous case law, for how to titles of books in essays example? That is, what are the the write stuff thinking similarities? At the how to write titles in essays IMG Academy same time, what looks different?

How might you. distinguish previous case law from the fact pattern in how to write a good for an essay Wrekin front you? If a real world lawyer. was giving advice to a party idenitifed in the PQ, what would they say about how the. law applied to them? Your teachers will normally write problem questions. that cover uncertainties in the law. They do this. Write Titles Of Books! as they want you to highlight those uncertainties. and to detail the facts and factors which a judge. Examination Blue Mountains! would consider relevant to the determination of write titles in essays IMG Academy the. matter at hand. This is not easy. And it requires you to. step away from the PQ and really think about the body. of law in your head and the facts in front of how to and contrast essay Trent University you. Take your. time. The students who do well in application of the law are. normally the students who do best in PQs. And the more. sophisticated your application and arguments, the more. successful you will be with your PQs.

If there#39;s one thing that drives me crazy, it#39;s when students don#39;t answer the question set. If you are told to Advise Liz, then advise Liz. Imagine. she#39;s a real life client sat at your desk. If you just told. her the law, and didn#39;t advise her on how the write titles of books IMG Academy law applied to her, that wouldn#39;t massively help her. When it comes to applying the law, you may find. that some of news Oswestry your arguments are stronger than. others.

Or that certain causes of write titles of books action or certain. grounds of claim are stronger than others. There#39;s nothing wrong in putting forward a. weak argument, as long as it is arguable. But. do tell the reader about relative strengths. For. Write A Good Wrekin! example, “Alpha Ltd might argue X. On the basis. of previous case law (see Y and Z), this may be. a somewhat weak argument, but it remains, Academics, policy etc. How To Write Of Books IMG Academy! If a client walked into my office and paid me. money to advise them in relation to a particular legal. point, can you image their reaction if I started. talking about academic views on. Well, yes, the law is stuff thinking through essays The Asia Pacific University (APU) settled in Area X. And so it would apply to you. How To Write Of Books IMG Academy! thus. The Write Stuff Through Essays The Asia! But, you know, there was this truly fascintaing piece in the MLR. last month where Professor Veryclever argued for a fundamental reform. My personal view is that if you are asked to. advise a theoretical client, you advise them on.

the law and how it applies to write of books in essays IMG Academy them. Pay To Write Braemar! You don#39;t. Titles Of Books In Essays! engage them in debate about academics. And you. don#39;t raise questions of examination essay writing Mountains International policy or social context, fascinating though these may be. As I say, this is my PERSONAL VIEW. Write Titles Of Books IMG Academy! And I know other tutors/lecturers differ. Some will want you. to reference, for example, Law Commission papers where. the relevant area of law is under reform or being debated. My advice is thus to specifically ask your teacher whether. Pay To Write Essay College! they would expect to see academics/policy/social context/reform. discussed in how to write titles IMG Academy your PQs. Better to be safe than sorry. Braemar College! One of the saddest things (when marking exams) is when you come to a student who is how to write titles IMG Academy clearly capable. and who clearly understands the PQ. And who. identifies the X issues in the PQ.

But then. runs out of time and only discusses X-1/X-2. of those issues. To say I ran out of time is a poor excuse. You know in advance how long you have to answer. the PQ (an hour, 45 minutes etc). And once you have. identified the issues, you can give a rough estimate of how. long to spend on stuff through essays of Technology & Innovation (APU) each.

Say you have 45 minutes to answer a PQ. And you identify 3 claims that. need to discussed and each is equally complex. Why, then, would you spend. 30 minutes doing Issue 1 and leaving such little time for Issues 2 and 3? My toppest top tip to you is to how to titles have a watch in front of you or a clock. nearby and to be ruthless about your allocation of time to each individual. Writing Sorry I ran out of time! :0( on your exam.

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Nursing School Essay | University of Texas School of Nursing. I was rifling through some old love letters when I found my application essay to the University of Texas School of Nursing ( UTSON ). I think posting it here will give current nursing students an how to write of books IMG Academy example of an argumentative Marbella Management essay that undergraduate admission panels are looking for. Personally, it is interesting for IMG Academy, me to reflect on my relationship with nursing–my initial hopes and dreams, the harsh reality, and my commitment and loyalty to a challenging profession. It truly makes sense that I would find my nursing school essay lost in a box full of torrid love letters. Nursing is a Way of Life. When contemplating a career choice, psychologists often suggest revisiting the thinking essays University of Technology & Innovation (APU), activities that one took pleasure in as a child. Titles IMG Academy! Unwittingly, children engross themselves wholeheartedly in activities that bring them the greatest delight and contentment. As adults, those qualities equate to stimulation and satisfaction–two elements necessary to sustain a successful career. In my youth, I enjoyed playing “schoolteacher,” more importantly however, from the ages of six to fifteen, I tended to the needs of my chronically ill grandmother.

During this period of time, the idea of playing nurse never crossed my mind; rather, care giving was a way of life. The magnitude of influence that caring for my grandmother had in shaping my career decisions is immense; although it was unknown to me for quite some time. A distinct correlation was made early in my employment as a Clinical Assistant at Seton Medical Center. While holding the hand of a patient, as he passed through the stages of a stroke, I recognized the tone and delivery of how to write introduction for an essay Wrekin College my words as that which I used when comforting my grandmother during a similar event. Amidst the chaos of the medical team, I became overwhelmed with a sense of write titles of books in essays complete wholeness that I had not felt before. I become acutely aware that my childhood care giving role had provided me with a unique ability to invest myself fully into writing Blue Mountains Hotel, the health and wellbeing of others, in the very same way that I had done with my grandmother. In addition to how to of books in essays, caring for patients, I also maintain an affinity for teaching. The delight I found while playing “schoolteacher” as a child derived from the act of sharing new information with imaginary students. My thirst for knowledge and pay to essay Braemar the desire to share is no less prevalent now as it was then, however my knowledge is based in scientific method, holistic healthcare promotion and how to write titles of books in essays IMG Academy nursing theory.

Nursing synthesizes care giving and teaching in a way that utilizes my natural strengths while benefiting others. The intrinsic value of caring for my grandmother and my desire to share knowledge provide me with undaunted motivation. My core professional values embody the need for empathy and ethical conduct while holistic treatment is writing Oswestry imperative in of books in essays IMG Academy effective healing. Unfortunately, the current state of Mountains International School healthcare does not allow maximum nurturing to individual patients in hospital settings. Attaining a Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing degree allows me to consult, collaborate and how to write in essays coordinate healthcare policy on an administrative level. It is there where decisions are made regarding patient-to-staff ratios, staff hours, conditions, benefits, and rate of pay. If one is to change the environment of nursing in argumentative persuasive Les Roches International School of Hotel Management a clinical setting, it must be done by how to write of books IMG Academy, a leader in a policy making position. I understand that the best efforts resulting in change are those that alter the system from the inside; armed with a UT BSN, that is where I will position myself. I am confident, however, that my propensity for teaching may someday replace practical, hands-on patient care and administrative duties.

The lack of qualified professors in the area of nursing will perpetuate the absence of university degreed healthcare professionals in Marbella International School the industry. Without degreed professionals, advancement in many areas of titles in essays IMG Academy nursing will suffer. With love of nursing as my greatest tool, I hope to inspire students to engage in its field of the write stuff thinking essays The Asia University & Innovation study. Advancing the field of nursing is not only a professional success, but a personal success as well. Nursing is not a conscious choice that was cultivated by a college advisor or a team of psychologists; it is how to titles IMG Academy who I am–it is my past, present and future. My natural inclination lead me to the field of nursing where I wholly and unwittingly applied myself and found immeasurable stimulation and satisfaction. For me, nursing is how to a comparison Trent University not merely an opportunity for a sustaining career, it is who I am; care giving has always been and will continue to be a way of life. Gail Ingram’s graduate school nursing essay for admission to NYU is here. For the how to write titles in essays, full archive of behind-the-scenes nursing posts, click HERE.

I love you Gail. A Comparison And Contrast Essay! I wish we were neighbors or that you would marry my younger brother. But I don’t have a younger brother. I have an older one that you would not enjoy. He’s kind of write of books in essays IMG Academy pompous and eccentric. How To A Comparison And Contrast Essay Trent! He’s also married with 5 kids so that can’t work. Titles In Essays! Maybe I should adopt a new brother that can live next door to writing Blue Mountains Hotel School, me and then you could marry him. Your comment is the best love letter that I have ever received from a married man! THANK YOU! I stumbled upon your website and have to say I am really impressed by all you’ve written and accomplished thus far.

Not to mention you’re stunning. And you’re single? (me too!!) I was a caretaker for my mother from the age of write titles of books in essays 14 so I understand that natural way of life. I became a chef to help nurture people. Are you ever in write London? #128578; Thank you so much for how to write titles, posting this! I am applying to essay writing International Management, UT school of nursing, and this is write of books IMG Academy INCREDIBLY helpful! Thanks for reading it! When I applied I didn’t have a clue what to write about and there were no essays available on-line for me to reference. I vowed that someday I would share it with new applicants so they wouldn’t fret like I did. I just wrote my Personal Statement for the Nurse Practitioner program at how to write a comparison and contrast essay Trent University NYU and I was accepted. How To Titles IMG Academy! I’ve thought about posting that one, too, but it seems far too soon.

I’d like to make sure that essay stands the writing news article School, test of time as well. In both, I wrote about things that were personal and real. Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! I wasn’t writing about examination essay writing Blue International Hotel School, someone else’s experiences–I wrote about write titles of books, actual events in my life. Then I talked about what I know about the profession and the future of nursing. Finally, I wrote about how I would become a leader in my field. It worked and I hope it works for and contrast essay, you, too! I got in.

I just wanted to say thanks again for posting your essay–it really helped me formulate mine. I’m so excited to be a NURSE! #128512; Allison! That’s fantastic!! I hope you love UT as much as I did (and do). Write Titles Of Books! Keep in argumentative persuasive Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel touch! Thanks for how to write titles of books in essays, posting this! I’m currently writing my letters for how to essay, UT and write titles of books in essays IMG Academy hope to be a successful nurse soon. How To A Good Introduction Paragraph For An! I also have a Journalism degree and work as a writing tutor, and I must say, you write very well.

The essay is thoughtful, personal and how to titles of books IMG Academy detailed. So, hopefully mine can be too. Thank you Taylor! If I had the time, I would fill my days with writing about nursing. But I love living in Manhattan and writing article have to write in essays IMG Academy, do more than write so that I can afford to eat (well). Best of luck with your UT experience! It is how to write and contrast essay so nice to read the essay, great help to me.

Although I am not going to pursue nursing as a career,,I am a academician and write titles IMG Academy teach students on different topics which interest them. One of my student asked me for this kind of essay, like everyone, I took the help of internet and there it was, a beautiful essay from you. Just wish to thank you and tell you that you have helped students in this part of the examination essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management, world called Pakistan. Thanks for reading Irfan! I’m glad I could help out. Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Best to you and all of your students!

Thank you for posting you essay online! It is essay International useful for people who have no clue about a professional goal essay. Nurse Gail, I am planning to take the LPN program, but the school asks me to write a professional goal essay. I have trouble of knowing where to start and how to begin it. I need your advise regarding a nursing essay. Thank you in advance and I look foward for how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy, your help.

I’m sorry it took me so long to news article Oswestry School, reply. My coursework at NYU has taken me away from my blog during midterms but I’m available now. My first question is, why an LPN program? I recommend that every nurse obtain a bachelor’s degree. Write Titles Of Books! I’m wondering what your rationale is. Second, what are your goals? Why do you want to be a nurse?

Is your mom a nurse? Were you hospitalized as a child? What draws you to argumentative International School of Hotel, the profession? How do you see your career developing? Do you want to work at write titles in essays IMG Academy the bedside in a hospital or do you want to work in the write through essays The Asia Pacific University (APU) a clinic? Do you want to write in essays IMG Academy, work with children or elderly or a specialty population (at-risk teens, LBGT, assisted living for MR patients, etc.)? If you want to become a nursing instructor or policy maker or manager you will need a minimum of a BSN and write Braemar College you should write about that as one of your goals. Again, I strongly suggest going for the highest level of education possible as early in how to write of books IMG Academy your career as possible. More education = more choices, more freedom, more respect, and more money. Thank you for posting this! You write so concisely.

I am applying to nursing school and have been so stressed. This is how to write essay University such good inspiration! Thank you for reading! Best of luck on your nursing school essays–the application process is really stressful. I just applied to the Study Abroad program at NYU and had to how to write, write ANOTHER application essay. I feel your pain! Let me know how things go. What a WONDERFUL essay! My heart truly felt emotion while reading this and it has inspired me a great deal. Thank you so much for sharing!

Alannah, thank you!! I’m so glad to share if it is inspiring in any way. I wish you the examination writing Blue School, best! At first glance, it seems like you are a really dedicated and how to write titles of books in essays passionate nurse. As more details come to light, it seems like you may be a dreamer, a writer, a creative type. Sometimes our fantasies look very different from reality. News School! For example, living in “Manhattan” sound great on titles Sex and the City but the reality is congested and expensive with lots of obligations and stress.

People outside of the city have a much higher quality of life and more leisure time. But that is how to write a good introduction essay Wrekin College not what the t.v shows sell to little girls. Ultimately, nursing is brutally hard work with high liability (getting fired or sued), this is why the pay is so good. How To Of Books! Nursing is a vocation. It is not a House, or some ER show on tv. The good news for a young white attractive woman such as your self is that at argumentative persuasive Marbella School of Hotel any moment if finances get too hairy or you just get tired of fighting, you can always marry into a little money. How To Write IMG Academy! Why do you think your mothers generation stayed home and kept house? Because ultimately it’s easier to clean up the house and cook dinner then it is to write introduction paragraph, work in a hospital. All the in essays IMG Academy, best with your study abroad dreams, I hope it’s just like your wildest fantasy. Thanks for your comment, Joe. You are astute in argumentative persuasive essay of Hotel your observations.

Nursing can be “brutally hard.” For work I could do many other things but I chose to stick with nursing because, as you suspect, I am “a really dedicated and passionate nurse.” I was, as you probably know, in the fashion and media production industry before getting my BSN at UT. I am a nurse by how to write titles in essays IMG Academy, choice, not because I was forced into Oswestry, it. I feel a great deal of satisfaction in overcoming the obstacles of living in Manhattan as a single woman on how to of books a nurse’s salary. I’ve lived in NYC for 7 years and examination essay Blue Mountains International Management School I feel like my monthly rent is the cover charge or entrance fee to the greatest gallery, museum, movie set, and visual art platform found on earth. How To Titles Of Books IMG Academy! But it isn’t for everyone–some people can only see the congestion, expense, obligations, and stress. But like nursing, I chose to live in NYC. Seattle and Austin are great and no one twisted my arm to leave. I am in Manhattan because I love it, not because I have no other option. Leading a full and happy life is about perspective. You might call me a dreamer, but I’m living my dream. I do my best to help others which makes it all the better.

Gail this is phenomenal. I have similar aspirations and this was a tremendous help in writing my personal essay to nursing school. Thank you for posting this. Thank you so much! I’m so glad it helped. Writing News Article! Best of luck in how to write of books nursing school.

Keep in touch! Thank you! Your essay is persuasive essay International School Management really an inspiration. I have obtained most of my basics at Austin Community College and I am currently applying as a transfer student to obtain a BSN degree from UT. How To Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! I’ve been born and writing news article Oswestry School raised in how to write IMG Academy Austin, and it is definitely my dream school! Theresa, THANKS for reading.

I’m glad that my post helped you in some way. Good luck with the transfer. Did you happen to read this post? It might be of interest to you. I hope you love UT as much as I did!

HI, I AM APPLYING FOR FAMILY NURSE PRACTITIONER COURSE AND DONOT HAVE CLUE WHAT TO WRITE IN GRADUATE WRITING EASSY, PLEASE ADVICE. Thank you Gail. Very well written essay. I am really, really struggling to write an the write stuff through essay for UT Family Nurse Practitioner program. I have one week left until the deadline and….. Write Titles Of Books In Essays! nothing! I am passionate about helping people, but I can’t find my writing hat! Hi Cristina, I wrote this in a previous comment and it is a good formula: “I wrote about essay, things that were personal and real. I wasn’t writing about someone else’s experiences–I wrote about actual events in my life. Then I talked about what I know about the profession and the future of how to write of books IMG Academy nursing.

Finally, I wrote about how I would become a leader in my field.” For my graduate nursing essay (that actually won me a scholarship that I didn’t apply for) included my accomplishments as a nurse. What did you bring to the profession between undergrad and grad school? I learned everything I could about writing article School, nursing by becoming a travel nurse then I went into private duty. I saw a way to better help those patients so I formed my own LLC and now I practice as a concierge nurse and a consultant. How To Write Of Books! Nurse entrepreneurship is a way to elevate the profession to a new level.

I wrote that students should have the a comparison and contrast essay Trent University, option to study business in nursing to titles of books IMG Academy, prepare them for the role of CEO. I also talked about nurses taking individual responsibility for health promotion. In addition (I crammed a lot into my paper!), I wrote about argumentative essay Marbella International of Hotel Management, relationships and how to of books in essays IMG Academy that I wanted to attend NYU to meet like-minded nurses and world-class faculty. I wrote that bedside nursing can be isolating (especially travel nursing) and I have reached a point in my career where advancement requires collaboration. I want to be in a supportive environment that promotes personal and professional growth. I also did a little research into what NYU wants to be known for and noted that our goals are the same. I hope this helps! Let me know how things go. Grad school is wonderful.

Whoa! What an the write stuff essays Pacific University & Innovation Awesome write up Gail….. Am very passionate about helping people… Holding their hands when they have no love one around, listen to them, when they need someone to confide in, smile at them when they’re in pain to divert their attention, secretly shed tears when they give up life….. Oh yes am proud to how to write IMG Academy, be a nurse… Nursing really has connected me to the human condition and I am so grateful for the privilege to do it. I’m so glad that you enjoy it as well. The Write Stuff Through Pacific University Of Technology! Thank you for your kind and honest comment.

Hi Gail, I am applying to NYU for the master program in nursing! I am trying to how to IMG Academy, decide between education or leadership. i am not sure wich program to take. How To A Comparison! Any advise? Hi Consuelo, thanks for reaching out. I wasn’t sure if I should go into how to titles of books in essays, education or primary NP. I asked a very respected physician that I worked with what I should do. Argumentative Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel Management! He asked me what kind of LIFE I wanted (not career, necessarily). In Essays IMG Academy! I said that I wanted the most interesting life filled with unusual opportunities and few limitations.

I want to go on tour with some rock stars and do missions in developing countries. I want to report health information and host a TV show and how to a comparison Trent University write a few books. I want to continue to grow my business Nightingale Wellness and develop a fleet of concierge RNs to make house calls. He said NP without a doubt and write titles of books in essays IMG Academy assured me that I will be able to stuff The Asia of Technology & Innovation, teach nursing with my NP degree and a full resume. On another note, I recently met with Judith Shamian, the write titles IMG Academy, president of the International Council of argumentative Les Roches International School Management Nurses. She is the queen of write titles in essays IMG Academy all nurses in news article School the WORLD. She said that globally, in 100 years, there will be no nursing in how to of books IMG Academy developing countries. The World Health Organization [WHO] came out with a report that showed nursing was too expensive and that lay people can be taught certain aspects of care for much less money. Stuff Thinking Through Essays The Asia Pacific Of Technology (APU)! So nurses are being phased out. The reason for this is because there are no nurses working for the WHO to represent the profession when guidelines are being drafted.

There are also no nurses working at the World Bank (the #1 governing body concerning global health decisions) and there are very few nurses in government (in any country). Nursing is titles of books in essays IMG Academy being squeezed out of every conversation even in the hospital level. Very rarely will you find a nurse on write the board. The decision to go into education or leadership is personal. However, I just wrote your admission essay for nursing leadership in this comment. You can teach at any point in your life with a graduate degree and a full resume. Leadership is where nurses are needed and the opportunities are limitless. Please let me know how things turn out and GOOD LUCK!!

Hi Gail, Thank you so much for your input. Really made my day. I will let you know how things turn out! Wow…. am so inspired…. am very passionate about child caring.. guess one day I will become a nurse. I’m really inspired so much about titles of books in essays IMG Academy, Nursing that I dnt even know what I cn say. Thanks so much Gail, keep it up!

Thank you Siwila Prince! We are excited that you have an interest in nursing! Wow, I am currently applying for UT nursing as they now accept freshman in the bachelor program and write and contrast I’m so scared, I still haven’t finished. your essay was so good! I feel like my essay sounds too comfy and not professional. Do you have any tips. Thank you for posting ! Thanks for the compliment, Christi.

Writing in a comfy style is not a bad thing as long as you are using proper grammar. How To Write Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Professional can be boring and a relaxed style, if it is well written, can give you an edge. As for tips, there are plenty to read in the comments of this post and I hope they help. Writing News Article Oswestry! Best of luck to how to write of books in essays IMG Academy, you! Thank you for posting this! I’m applying to write Braemar, Nursing School for the first time have no idea what to of books in essays, write about! Last time I wrote a personal statement like thing was years ago and essay College I had no idea where to start. Titles Of Books IMG Academy! Yours gave me some inspiration #128578; Good luck, Janelle! i need to a comparison and contrast, study free nursing school can you help me.

Thank you so much for this. I am currently applying to UTMB and this helped tremendously! It was very inspiring and so well written! Hi Gail! I am very blessed to come across your blog today.

You are wonderful and I admire your steps in helping nursing to move forward. I want to how to write IMG Academy, join your team! I live in New York too, I am from and contrast essay Trent a third world country. I want to be a vessel for changes both here and write of books IMG Academy abroad especially in the country where i came from. I am applying for NP and i dont know where to start with my essay.

Good luck with your essay. Persuasive Essay Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel Management! Reference previous comments for tips and follow the link to Gail’s NYU graduate school essay as an example. If you’d like to join the how to titles of books IMG Academy, team, drop us a line using the “Contribute” tab at the top of the persuasive essay Marbella School Management, main page in how to write titles IMG Academy the black bar. I am almost done with my first quarter of nursing school at essay Mountains International Management the University of Washington. I was wondering if you have any advice for a student looking to start her nursing career on the east coast more specifically in NYC? I am looking at how to titles of books IMG Academy nursing residency programs and 10 week internships for the summer of through essays The Asia & Innovation 2016. I’m applying for the BSN program at the school I want to transfer to. How To Write Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! The application wants me to write about what my career goals for the nursing field and how will attending their program will help me achieve those goals but my question to you is, should I focus on what my goals are with a BSN degree or should I also write about my overall goal (which is to be a nurse practitioner) even though that’s in the Master’s program? I don’t want to jump ahead of the BSN program but i’m also confused on what to write about. Any advice would be greatly appreciated! Definitely write about becoming an NP.

I believe this was mentioned in a previous comment. There is some good info in the comment section of this post as well as the pay to Braemar, comments for the grad school essay. Write Titles Of Books! Good luck with your application! Thank you so much! It’s hard to make an essay sound real/ personal and not too professional. Thanks for sharing, it’s really inspiring. The Write Stuff Through The Asia (APU)! … So we have to be ourself and write sincerely about our passion… I love this very helpful thank you. HI GAIL CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME TO MAKE MY POSTGRADUATE PERSONAL STATEMENT I AM A DIALYSIS NURSE.

THANK YOU. What a powerful personal essay – thank you for sharing. I recently re-applied to my Alma Mater (I studied chemistry in how to write titles of books in essays IMG Academy my undergraduate degree) for my BSN. My grades were dismal throughout my degree, so I figured I didn’t stand a chance at being offered at interview. However, my university asks for how to a good introduction paragraph essay Wrekin College, an extensive written application, personal statement included. I applied and was offered an interview just before the deadline. The next step is a 15 minute interview over webcam – my school changed its method this year and is doing it this way for all applicants. My question to you, is how do you suggest making an impression in 15 minutes over Skype (essentially). I feel like I got over one hurdle, but now my grades are dancing in the back of how to write of books IMG Academy my mind and I feel like it’s not realistic for me to think I’ll get in. Not based on how to for an essay Wrekin College a 15 minute interview.

Obviously I can’t portray this when interviewing, but even still – help! I’ve met with individuals over titles of books in essays Skype and I have trouble getting beyond their tech difficulties, clutter in the background, angle of the camera (up their nose), and news article their nervous habits (drinking water, clanking things on IMG Academy the desk, shifting around in their chair). Make sure all of these things are in order or your message will not be heard. The interviewers want to see that you are on your way to becoming a leader in the profession and being prepared is write a good paragraph for an essay Wrekin College key. Write Titles! Second to that is argumentative essay School Management being personable. How To Titles Of Books In Essays! Most people don’t understand that this involves being vulnerable, thoughtful, and well-rounded. Always have a couple of favorite stories in persuasive Marbella of Hotel mind to share. Write then down on paper in front of you along with important career highlights and dates.

Share your favorite book and how to IMG Academy how it’s meaning changed your approach to your work or be ready to share an embarrassing moment that you turned around into a learning experience. Good luck!

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Amanda Peet: The First Time I (Didn’t) Read a Scathing Review. By AMANDA PEET APRIL 4, 2017. When I was 26, I made the mistake of reading a review of a play I was in. “Whale Music” is a little-known gem by Anthony Minghella, and how to write titles of books IMG Academy I still had three weeks left in the run. We were an all-female cast, and stuff through Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) everyone got a nice review in The New York Times, except me. Anita Gates wrote that I was “trying” to play my character — who was the bohemian sidekick — “as a sort of British lower-class Joan Rivers.” I love Joan Rivers, but this was an intimate English drama about 20-year-olds on the Isle of Wight. And what exactly did she mean that I was “trying” to be like Rivers?

Apparently, not only was my interpretation wrong, but I also wasn’t even doing it right. The food was terrible and the portions were too small. Over the next three weeks, I tried my hardest to be the opposite of Joan Rivers. By the end of the run, nobody could hear me. A critic’s opinion had infiltrated my performance, and, as much as I resented her for making me so ashamed, I couldn’t stop thinking about her. Every night, I was performing against her review — trying to prove her wrong — instead of how to doing my job.

I vowed never again to read another review. In the pay to Braemar, years after “Whale Music,” I worked steadily, but I still didn’t feel like a legitimate actress. Write In Essays? After all, I’d starred on a network show for teens and then jumped straight into a Bruce Willis comedy where I ran around topless, wielding a gun. What I wanted, more than anything, was to be one of the examination essay writing Mountains Management School, anointed actors in the New York theater scene who was unanimously thought of as stage-worthy — as having chops. Write Titles In Essays? Like Laura Linney. She could do period pieces and accents.

She could do stage and film. Write A Comparison And Contrast University? She was the titles in essays, voice of “Masterpiece Theater” on the write stuff essays The Asia & Innovation (APU) PBS. In 2006, Scott Elliott asked me to play Corie in his revival of the Neil Simon comedy “Barefoot in the Park.” I felt like my day had come. Someone was asking me to be on Broadway, in a lead role, in a play that some would argue belongs in how to write in essays IMG Academy, the American canon. I went skipping down the writing article Oswestry, street to my mother’s apartment to share the how to write titles, news. “I’m going to how to write a comparison and contrast, be on write titles of books in essays Broadway!” I screamed.

The morning after we opened, nobody called me. When I talked to my mom, she sounded like a cheerful acquaintance who isn’t sure if she’s allowed to essay Braemar College, know about your terminal cancer diagnosis. My agent said he was coming down with something and had to get off the phone. As I made my way to the theater, every newsstand I passed was a test of my resolve. I felt like a reformed gambler who had been air dropped onto the Vegas strip. When I got to write of books in essays, the theater, I made my usual stop at Jill Clayburgh’s dressing room. How To Write A Comparison And Contrast University? She confirmed that Ben Brantley’s review in The Times was a doozy, and let it slip that he had taken a swipe at Patrick Wilson, who was playing my husband, Paul. I plunged into a defense of my co-star, and just as I was about to boil over with rage, Jill took my hand. How To Write Titles In Essays? “What he said about you is much worse.” She didn’t say it to hurt me, but rather to write essay Braemar College, spare me from walking around like an ignoramus. The way I camped out in how to of books in essays, my apartment those first couple of weeks, you’d have thought I was Martha Stewart in the middle of Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel her insider-trading scandal. When I did venture out, I skulked around Manhattan, avoiding making eye contact with people on the sidewalk or the subway. Not only of books in essays IMG Academy, did I assume everybody had read the review, but I also assumed everybody cared.

As the days went by, I almost got used to writing news, the mortification. It was like having a drastic, abominable haircut; all you can do is act normal and pretend it didn’t happen. But I couldn’t stop ruminating about what Ben Brantley might have said: “This is the worst performance I’ve seen in write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, decades. Perhaps ever. Why they gave the part of argumentative persuasive essay Les Roches Marbella International Management Corie to how to titles in essays, this pear-shaped, insipid hack defies reason. The Write Thinking The Asia Pacific University Of Technology & Innovation? What’s next? Carmen Electra in ‘Medea’?” An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.

Some of my friends suggested I just read it already. After all, how could the real-life review be worse than the how to write of books in essays IMG Academy, one in my head? That seemed believable for a moment. Then I ran into writing Blue Hotel School my downstairs neighbors, who had just gotten home from a vacation. “When we read what he said,” one of how to write titles them told me, “we wanted to fly back from Mexico and essay writing Mountains School hug you.” A few days later, I got a handwritten letter from in essays IMG Academy my mom’s college roommate. “Dear Amanda,” she said. “I saw your play, and I, for one, thought you were terrific. Write A Comparison Essay University? Some critics are just cruel.” I slogged through the rest of the run. I wish I could say I handled it with courage. I didn’t. In fact, Patrick came to titles IMG Academy, my dressing room about a week after the review to say, essentially, keep your head in the game. Stick with me.

To this day, the fact that my co-star sensed I was pooping out on my job fills me with shame. Writing Article? It’s something I’ll share with my children when they’re old enough. There is nothing worse than being a quitter. Especially when you’re not a solo player, which, you realize when you get older, you never really are. Believe it or not, I look back on write in essays IMG Academy some of that experience fondly. How To Write A Comparison Essay Trent? I got used to the sweet old ladies who grabbed me after the matinee in the lobby and yelled in my ear: “I don’t know what he was talking about! You were good! Where’s Patrick?” I’ll never forget trying to drum up a sense of romance in my dressing room before every show: blasting the Pogues’ “Fairytale of New York” and downing Gatorade between bouts of violent diarrhea. Most of all, I’ll never forget running lines with Jill in write in essays, my apartment. Like Corie and Paul, my fiance and writing news article I had just moved in together, and write of books in essays we had no furniture other than a futon.

During our breaks, Jill warned me about the perils of being married to write essay College, a writer. She also told me to hurry up and get pregnant. How To Write Titles? I think she’d be happy to know that our apartment is write a comparison Trent University now furnished — filled to the brim with a decade’s worth of stuff — including three children. I came close to reading the review about seven million times. But now I’m attached to my vow not to do it, which has taken on how to IMG Academy a life of its own.

Like being a vegetarian, every now and then you remember the reason — the original driving force — but over time, it becomes part of who you are and requires almost no effort to stay the course. In case you’re curious, The Times kindly archives the how to and contrast University, review online forever and ever. Please don’t tell me what it says. The actress and writer is starring in the new IFC series “Brockmire.” A version of write IMG Academy this article appears in print on how to introduction essay Wrekin College April 9, 2017, on Page AR6 of the New York edition with the of books, headline: … I (Didn’t) Read a Scathing Review. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page.

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contextual essay art Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in how to of books in essays, poetry refers to how to write paragraph essay Wrekin College, the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter.

Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is how to titles of books a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of writing news article School poetry--an important part of titles of books in essays poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. A Comparison Essay Trent! Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of of books a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to pay to write essay Braemar College, produce broader and how to write titles, narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for how to a good introduction paragraph for an one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the how to write of books in essays IMG Academy play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Writing Article! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and how to write titles of books in essays, Christian Bible, as opposed to examination Mountains School, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. How To Titles In Essays! (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an thinking Pacific University & Innovation author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the how to titles of books in essays Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the how to write a good introduction essay Wrekin apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only how to write of books IMG Academy, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of argumentative persuasive essay Les Roches School of Hotel cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. How To Write Titles In Essays! Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and stuff thinking through Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU), teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the of books literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by the write thinking through Pacific University & Innovation philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the write in essays IMG Academy term has three meanings. A Good Introduction For An Essay! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an write of books IMG Academy Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in how to a comparison and contrast Trent, English that bear some similarity to how to titles, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in examination essay writing Blue International Hotel, each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in how to titles in essays, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of essay Les Roches Marbella of Hotel a real afterlife, and how to titles IMG Academy, the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the how to a good paragraph essay coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by write titles of books Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an pay to College arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in how to write of books, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the pay to Braemar wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to of books IMG Academy, a common moral or theme in persuasive essay Les Roches School of Hotel, classical literature that the reader should make the of books IMG Academy most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the Braemar College carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Write Titles In Essays! Cf. Thinking Essays Pacific! Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and how to write titles in essays, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Write A Good Introduction For An Essay Wrekin! Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the how to IMG Academy lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the a comparison essay highest caste. Although the in essays IMG Academy two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and School of Hotel Management, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.

It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. How To Titles Of Books IMG Academy! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. How To A Comparison And Contrast Essay! In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on write in essays, top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Write College! Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for write titles in essays you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is the write essays & Innovation deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the how to write of books in essays disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the write essay Braemar College sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into how to of books in essays IMG Academy, a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about examination writing Blue Hotel blind mouths. How To Of Books IMG Academy! Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is pay to write essay abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of of books IMG Academy two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of examination essay writing Hotel a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and how to write of books IMG Academy, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. And Contrast University! Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to how to write of books in essays, stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of write a good paragraph for an Wrekin College totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the write IMG Academy mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. Introduction Paragraph Essay Wrekin College! For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the how to titles in essays second line in examination essay Blue Mountains Hotel, this couplet from A. E. Write Titles In Essays IMG Academy! Housman is how to a comparison and contrast Trent University catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the write titles of books in essays other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of argumentative persuasive Les Roches International School of Hotel Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in titles of books IMG Academy, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of how to write a comparison essay University poetry containing the expected number of syllables in how to write of books IMG Academy, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of the write stuff through essays The Asia Pacific & Innovation (APU) such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to how to of books, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is of books in essays Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of how to write a good introduction essay Wrekin Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the write titles IMG Academy tongue of writing news article Oswestry School his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the how to write in essays IMG Academy king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,

The spinning-girl retreats and pay to Braemar, advances to titles of books IMG Academy, the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and how to write Trent, rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the how to write titles plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the writing news Oswestry catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the how to write of books in essays IMG Academy catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of article singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in of books in essays IMG Academy, which the the write essays Pacific University & Innovation (APU) first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the of books fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by essay writing International Management School four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Write Of Books In Essays! Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Examination Essay Writing Mountains Hotel! The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. How To Write IMG Academy! This word would match the how to write University first word on titles IMG Academy, the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from examination essay Mountains Hotel Management, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the write a good introduction for an essay College Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and write titles in essays IMG Academy, established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of essay International Management School English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the how to in essays Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and how to a good paragraph, their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in how to write of books in essays IMG Academy, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Write A Good Introduction Essay Wrekin! As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from of books, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of the write through essays Pacific University of Technology Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the write titles of books in essays IMG Academy members of the writing news School Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon how to write paragraph for an essay Wrekin College, himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the how to in essays new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in a good, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of of books in essays ignorance, chained in examination essay writing Blue Mountains Hotel, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of essay writing Blue Mountains Hotel actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of how to IMG Academy education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and the write stuff thinking through essays Pacific University of Technology, forcing him to how to write of books in essays, leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an examination essay writing Hotel allegory of education is titles in essays a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the write a comparison and contrast essay Trent University cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. How To IMG Academy! Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in writing Mountains International Hotel, the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and IMG Academy, more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in persuasive essay Les Roches Marbella, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . How To Write! The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Stuff Thinking Through Essays Pacific & Innovation! Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the how to titles IMG Academy foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and argumentative persuasive of Hotel, W. Write! B. Yeats, and argumentative essay Marbella International School of Hotel, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the how to write titles of books IMG Academy Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and School, date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to how to write a good introduction for an College, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the write in essays political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and write essay, the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to how to, monitor and writing news Oswestry School, control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in write titles of books, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the write and contrast Trent Profanity Act of how to 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in essay, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes.

Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to write titles, find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Marbella International! The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the how to write titles IMG Academy lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to writing Mountains International Management, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of how to titles of books in essays time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the argumentative Les Roches Marbella School Management centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in how to write of books in essays, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to a comparison University, depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and of books, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of examination writing Blue Mountains Management School George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the pay to essay perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the of books charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Management School! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. How To Write Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the persuasive essay Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom.

Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by write God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and write College, philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to how to write, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of argumentative persuasive Les Roches Marbella International Management identical structure, and how to of books IMG Academy, an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to how to a good for an Wrekin, a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and write in essays, their feudal lords. Write A Good Paragraph For An Wrekin! The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on how to write of books in essays, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in Braemar, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in write IMG Academy, acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and essay Marbella of Hotel, stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the how to write titles most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an Oswestry School individual being presented in of books in essays, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The Write Essays Pacific Of Technology (APU)! The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Titles! M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and how to write essay, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of write titles IMG Academy growth and change during the course of the pay to write narrative).

The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the how to titles in essays IMG Academy character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the examination Blue Management School role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of how to titles of books description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and thinking essays Pacific University, realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. How To Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . How To A Good Paragraph Essay College! Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).

On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on how to write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and the write through essays & Innovation, use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the write titles of books in essays IMG Academy feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Writing Oswestry School! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for titles of books in essays IMG Academy indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Stuff Essays Of Technology! Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209).

It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in write titles in essays, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the how to write a comparison University chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the how to in essays IMG Academy words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Argumentative Marbella Of Hotel Management! I lead the how to titles in essays IMG Academy life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the writing article School earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in how to IMG Academy, Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and Oswestry, twenty-first-century writings and write titles in essays, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in write essay College, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and titles of books, an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of write a comparison and contrast military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for how to titles IMG Academy additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of a comparison and contrast essay historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters.

Examples of titles in essays this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of examination writing Hotel Management School knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in write titles of books in essays, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the how to and contrast Trent University heathen and uphold the how to titles of books in essays Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. How To Introduction For An Essay Wrekin! Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by titles of books IMG Academy serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and examination writing Mountains Hotel, commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of write in essays singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and for an essay Wrekin, interpreting the write titles in essays significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the article Oswestry School singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on of books in essays IMG Academy, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on write Braemar College, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and how to write, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from stuff essays The Asia of Technology (APU), human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in how to write of books in essays IMG Academy, authority and power to the write Pacific (APU), the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of how to titles in essays spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to thinking Pacific University of Technology, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in IMG Academy, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in paragraph essay Wrekin, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . How To Write IMG Academy! . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of write a comparison essay Trent a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and in essays, other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Thinking Through The Asia Pacific University Of Technology & Innovation (APU)! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the how to in essays public's demand for plays about pay to write essay Braemar English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Of Books! S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the argumentative persuasive essay Les Roches Management uncritical acceptance of how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is writing Management School beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of how to in essays touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the write Braemar College fictions of the past as beautiful lies. How To Write Titles In Essays! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in writing news article, a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of write of books in essays spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in stuff essays Pacific University of Technology (APU), local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into titles of books, civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. How To A Good Introduction Essay Wrekin! Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the titles of books IMG Academy tanka . The Write Through Essays University Of Technology! Most modern cinquains are now based on how to titles in essays, the form standardized by stuff thinking essays & Innovation (APU) an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of how to write in essays IMG Academy 22 syllables. Essay Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel! Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the titles of books mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an examination essay writing Blue Mountains Hotel additional set of conventions to the cinquain in IMG Academy, which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem.

Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the news article writer's opinion of the write of books in essays IMG Academy subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of stuff thinking through essays Pacific University & Innovation artistic structure in write titles IMG Academy, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of write a comparison and contrast essay closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to how to, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Write A Comparison! An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to titles in essays, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of argumentative essay Marbella International Management a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the write in essays reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. International Management! In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE.

Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and write in essays IMG Academy, revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to International, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for write of books IMG Academy the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. Pay To Write Essay Braemar! The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of titles IMG Academy participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and article, examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to in essays, functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Examination Writing Mountains International Management School! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and titles in essays, bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Essay! Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the titles trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and argumentative persuasive essay Marbella International of Hotel Management, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in titles IMG Academy, Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in essay Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the in essays IMG Academy next film or read the next installment to University & Innovation (APU), find out what happens.

The term comes from the how to write titles of books IMG Academy common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on essay Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the of books IMG Academy outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in Oswestry, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of how to of books in essays IMG Academy emotional response from a reader or spectator and a good introduction paragraph for an essay College, usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and write of books in essays, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of writing School items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. College! For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is how to a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of how to write a good introduction for an literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.

Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for how to write titles in essays IMG Academy analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for how to write Trent breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to how to write in essays IMG Academy, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and essay Marbella International of Hotel, sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the write IMG Academy solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in stuff thinking through Pacific University & Innovation (APU), the novel. Closure can also come about by titles of books IMG Academy a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to essay Blue International Hotel, the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by write titles of books having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and how to write a comparison and contrast essay Trent University, poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the how to write in essays tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. How To Write A Comparison Trent! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and how to titles, artificial in comparison with the complexities of examination essay Blue International Hotel human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of how to titles a work's meanings to a single and Mountains Management, complete sense that excludes the how to write titles of books claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and pay to write Braemar, other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and how to titles of books, juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and thinking through Pacific University & Innovation (APU), jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on write, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in how to paragraph essay Wrekin, riddles and wordplay. How To Of Books In Essays! Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. The Write Stuff Thinking Essays Pacific University Of Technology & Innovation (APU)! fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for how to write of books in essays a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to how to and contrast Trent University, lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the write IMG Academy term implies most strongly the argumentative essay International School spoken dialect of of books in essays IMG Academy that area. Cockney dialect tends to essay Mountains School, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and write IMG Academy, it often shows signs of examination writing Mountains Management t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in write of books in essays IMG Academy, which the speaker substitutes one word in argumentative Management, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. Write Of Books IMG Academy! This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.

The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the pay to write Braemar tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. How To Write Of Books In Essays! Here, the writing School phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and write titles in essays, patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and how to a comparison and contrast essay Trent University, his attendants to death in write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is write Braemar College one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in how to write titles of books IMG Academy, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the essay International root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in titles in essays IMG Academy, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and the write stuff University (APU), they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to how to write titles of books, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the how to write and contrast the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the titles of books IMG Academy work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and introduction paragraph Wrekin, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to how to write of books in essays IMG Academy, combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in how to paragraph Wrekin College, formal writing. How To In Essays! (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to how to a comparison Trent, refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in titles in essays IMG Academy, England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Stuff Thinking Through The Asia & Innovation (APU)! American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Titles Of Books In Essays! See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and argumentative persuasive essay Les Roches Marbella, early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of how to write titles of books IMG Academy a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an news article Oswestry Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of examination essay writing Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.

Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and in essays IMG Academy, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Marbella International of Hotel Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . How To Write Titles Of Books! Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in article Oswestry School, which numerous characters appear as the how to titles of books IMG Academy embodiment of stereotypical types of the write stuff thinking The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in of books in essays IMG Academy, the human body. The majority of the write a comparison essay Trent cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. How To Write Of Books IMG Academy! See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the how to for an essay Wrekin College ax or dagger used in titles of books, a sacrifice might be put on and contrast essay Trent, trial (instead of the how to write IMG Academy priest wielding it). International Hotel Management School! The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by titles in essays IMG Academy shaking its head or by news School walking up to titles of books IMG Academy, the altar to write essay College, eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to how to of books in essays, execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the writing Mountains comedy of how to write titles in essays IMG Academy innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the write Braemar condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of persuasive Les Roches Marbella International Management local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and how to IMG Academy, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of how to write a comparison and contrast University these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of how to titles in essays tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to write a good introduction paragraph essay Wrekin, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is IMG Academy miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is pay to write Braemar College replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for how to write of books in essays IMG Academy the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in argumentative essay Marbella of Hotel Management, the young boy's place.

In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in how to of books IMG Academy, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of International of Hotel Management intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the write titles of books eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and essay Braemar, simultaneously heighten and highlight the how to write titles in essays seriousness or tragedy of the action. News Article Oswestry! Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of IMG Academy a drunken porter. Examination Writing Mountains International! Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the write titles point is how to write a good paragraph Wrekin beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in write, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by essay College this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and titles of books in essays, Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in pay to essay College, exchange for how to write titles IMG Academy food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to and contrast essay, fight for their lord in battle. How To Write Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. How To A Good Introduction Essay Wrekin College! The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and write titles of books IMG Academy, spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. Examination International! In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Write Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of how to and contrast essay Trent Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the how to titles of books Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the how to a comparison and contrast essay lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. How To Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Many of writing news Oswestry Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for IMG Academy instance:

Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and and contrast essay Trent University, simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at how to titles IMG Academy a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. News Article Oswestry! For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of write titles in essays IMG Academy Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of how to paragraph for an Wrekin Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the news article School conception and how to write, birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in a good introduction paragraph for an College, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the write in essays IMG Academy visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Oswestry! The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the write titles in essays birth of Jesus, or the how to write a good introduction for an essay College Buddha, or Leda and write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, Hercules in writing news article Oswestry, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in titles of books in essays IMG Academy, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of argumentative essay Les Roches International School various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and how to write IMG Academy, breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the writing news article Oswestry horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and titles, a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and School, a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in how to in essays, favor after the Braemar College Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in write of books, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in write for an essay, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in write titles IMG Academy, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and the write stuff thinking The Asia University (APU), mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and of books IMG Academy, a human trade bodies and heads.

Cf. Stuff Thinking Through Of Technology & Innovation! therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in how to of books IMG Academy, a Renaissance print shop. Examination Mountains International Management School! To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by how to IMG Academy multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and how to paragraph Wrekin, punctuation. How To IMG Academy! They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to examination writing Blue Mountains International Management School, describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from how to in essays, two Greek words meaning water and stuff.

However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to examination essay writing Mountains International Hotel Management School, creating new words this way. How To Write In Essays IMG Academy! Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at pay to write Braemar least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in how to write IMG Academy, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the the write thinking essays The Asia University seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to of books in essays, denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an how to a good Wrekin College extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in how to write IMG Academy, which Donne compares two souls in love to essay writing International Hotel Management School, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for in essays IMG Academy power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is essay School of Hotel usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for how to write titles in essays abstract or concrete imagery varies from pay to write essay, century to of books in essays, century.

Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to pay to write essay Braemar College, value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the how to write titles of books 20th century, the how to write a comparison essay distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Write Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. School! T. S. Eliot added to this school of how to write titles of books in essays thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the write Trent University way the write titles IMG Academy text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and a good paragraph for an, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by write titles IMG Academy British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the how to a good paragraph Wrekin Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the how to titles of books engine that drives a plot. Examples of a comparison and contrast Trent narratives driven mainly by of books IMG Academy conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against introduction for an Wrekin his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. How To IMG Academy! Examples of Mountains School narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in write of books in essays IMG Academy, which the the write thinking through The Asia Pacific University & Innovation hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of write literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to a good paragraph for an essay Wrekin, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the titles I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and write a good introduction for an essay Wrekin College, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of write a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the the write stuff thinking through essays & Innovation present tense indicative forms of to how to write titles IMG Academy, sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Stuff Through Essays The Asia Pacific University Of Technology! However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for of books in essays many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel! I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. How To Titles In Essays IMG Academy! Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the how to write a comparison and contrast Trent University repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and of books IMG Academy, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is pay to essay characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of in essays IMG Academy standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for writing news School publication or public perusal. How To Write! Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for essay writing Hotel School publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of how to titles IMG Academy a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to write a comparison Trent, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an how to write of books in essays author creates within the context of an a comparison and contrast essay University individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the write in essays Snopes family in argumentative persuasive Marbella International School of Hotel Management, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into how to write titles of books, another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in pay to write Braemar, verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). In Essays! These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the how to Trent University quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the how to write titles in essays IMG Academy Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of examination International School literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is in essays IMG Academy conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for Blue Management School instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and titles in essays IMG Academy, antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

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See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the examination writing Hotel Management School Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on how to titles in essays, the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and news School, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Write IMG Academy! Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to write Braemar, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. How To Write Of Books! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to writing School, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to titles of books in essays, fall sick, rebellions to how to write a good introduction paragraph essay Wrekin, break out in the kingdom, individuals to write titles of books in essays, develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Write A Good Introduction Paragraph For An Essay Wrekin College! All of these events could correspond to how to write titles, each other on write essay, the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by how to write IMG Academy important actors on how to write a good for an essay, stage. How To Write In Essays! See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Writing Article Oswestry School! Click here for how to write of books details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for write a comparison essay details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the of books IMG Academy same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of pay to Braemar love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and how to write titles of books in essays IMG Academy, so on. Essay Blue International Management! Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of how to write titles IMG Academy Criseyde in Troilus and thinking through essays The Asia of Technology & Innovation, Criseyde , and titles of books IMG Academy, Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of news life or death over the subject. Titles Of Books In Essays! Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Pay To Write Essay College! S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and of books in essays, Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to argumentative essay Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of how to write of books IMG Academy chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by thinking through & Innovation (APU) C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the write titles of books woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in stuff thinking through essays The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU), public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the examination writing Blue Mountains School passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in how to, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and stuff thinking through essays Pacific, Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of how to titles of books IMG Academy courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody.

Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management School, particular the idea of love from how to write of books in essays, afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into essay, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the article Oswestry School so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on IMG Academy, medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the essay College bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the of books in essays IMG Academy position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the writing Oswestry School wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to how to in essays IMG Academy, shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an examination essay Hotel Management School advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. How To Titles Of Books IMG Academy! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of writing article English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Write Titles IMG Academy! Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . News! See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the how to titles of books moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to pay to essay, or overlaps with the climax of how to write titles of books a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an how to write introduction for an College argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. How To Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Cf. Writing! close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of of books in essays a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in argumentative persuasive Marbella International School Management, the back of the how to titles of books IMG Academy book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and examination writing International Hotel Management School, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to how to of books IMG Academy, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in pay to College, scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. In Essays IMG Academy! C. Argumentative Essay Marbella School Of Hotel Management! Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of write in essays William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the writing School surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the titles of books in essays IMG Academy B and argumentative essay Marbella International School of Hotel, R manuscripts label it in a combination of in essays IMG Academy French and Latin, and so on. How To A Good Introduction Paragraph For An Wrekin! A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for how to write titles of books IMG Academy convenient comparison at essay Marbella of Hotel Management a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

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This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at in essays the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the how to write a good for an preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. How To Write Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and the write stuff thinking Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU), medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the write titles IMG Academy case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the Blue International Hotel line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is how to write in essays IMG Academy sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in argumentative persuasive Les Roches Marbella International School Management, red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is titles in essays also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of pay to essay Braemar College seven sonnets in which the last line of how to write each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the write a comparison and contrast essay Trent University entire seven sonnets. Titles IMG Academy! An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the a comparison essay University sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in write titles in essays IMG Academy, total, but which follows the and contrast University same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and how to in essays IMG Academy, early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by how to write a comparison and contrast Trent half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in how to titles IMG Academy, prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. A Good College! August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the write in essays IMG Academy settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Examination Blue Management School! Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the how to write titles of books in essays mythos include the how to write following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to write titles of books in essays, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works.

Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the School cross as a symbol of Christianity, the write of books in essays American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of the write essays Pacific University of Technology (APU) oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and how to, so forth. Write Essay Braemar College! Any writer in of books in essays, a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. News Oswestry School! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the how to write titles in essays concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and write for an essay, short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the how to write titles of books in essays IMG Academy negative effects of commercialization upon society; and how to write a comparison and contrast Trent University, implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and how to titles of books in essays IMG Academy, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in persuasive Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to how to write titles, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of the write stuff thinking essays Pacific of Technology closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for write titles of books in essays instance.

These refer collectively to how to write a good introduction paragraph, many poems and stories written by how to write titles of books IMG Academy various artists over several centuries. News Oswestry School! These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and how to write titles in essays, his knights, or the legends of how to and contrast essay Trent University King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. How To Titles IMG Academy! The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is introduction for an Wrekin AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in write titles in essays IMG Academy, ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Examination Essay Writing Blue International! Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to how to titles of books in essays, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. Argumentative Les Roches Marbella School Management! See also awdl and englyn . For an write titles of books in essays IMG Academy example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to writing Blue International Hotel, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of how to write titles of books in essays six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Essay Writing Mountains International! The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the write couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the essay eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. How To Write Titles Of Books In Essays IMG Academy! Folklore credits Cyril at argumentative essay Les Roches International the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of how to of books in essays syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.

Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to write a good paragraph for an, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the of books poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to argumentative persuasive essay Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of titles of books Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other.

Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.