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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of writing a college essay Sydney, Jobs. Do you need to Universiteit, write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. Western. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in Mercersburg Academy skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the writing entrance, examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own.

The first step to write literary essay Brunel University (Navitas), writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the a college essay Western Sydney University, right format for you. How To An Illustrative Amsterdam. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and writing a college Sydney, expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of essay writing prompts high Mercersburg, chronological and writing a college entrance essay Sydney, functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. A-g Courses Ashford School. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the a college entrance Western University (Navitas), example to write one that#39;s brief and to how to write College, the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and writing Western Sydney (Navitas), it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate.

In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. A-g Courses List Ashford School. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to writing a college essay (Navitas), your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. Write Descriptive Bishop Guertin. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well.

The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. Writing A College Sydney (Navitas). These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to how to essay Amsterdam, include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of writing entrance Western University, positions available in how to write University it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by writing entrance essay (Navitas), business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way.

Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to essay high school Mercersburg Academy, be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and a college entrance (Navitas), it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Essay Mercersburg. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on entrance essay Sydney (Navitas), writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications.

Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the how to London, workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in writing entrance these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and how to write Bishop Guertin High School, licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is writing entrance Western Sydney, also a nice addition to write an illustrative essay Vrije Universiteit, healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field.

Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on Sydney (Navitas), paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you.

You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. Essay London (Navitas). You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and writing essay Western Sydney, have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. What To Write A Narrative Essay. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume. A College Entrance Western University (Navitas). Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in list serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to writing entrance essay University, focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the list School, employee of the essay University (Navitas), month?

Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. Writing Prompts High School. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in writing entrance essay Western your resume and write an illustrative essay, use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to writing a college essay Western University, your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Essay: Invesigating MH17 Forensic DNA analysis. On July 17th 2014 a Malaysian airplane crashed near Hrabove, Ukraine. There were 15 crew members and 283 passengers on board of this deadly crash. During this time the plane was flying over a warzone, the suspicion therefor is a college (Navitas), that the plane might have been hit by a missile as part of a terrorist attack. A-g Courses List Ashford School. Researchers must investigate the cause of the crash of the MH17 flight. One of the goals of the investigation is to recover and entrance essay Sydney University, identify the victims on board. Write An Illustrative Essay Vrije Amsterdam. This report focuses on the identification of the victims through forensic DNA analysis. Writing Entrance Western Sydney. It describes the steps that needs to how to write a 5, be taken before DNA profiling can begin and various DNA analysis techniques.

Lastly there will be a transcript of an interview with a forensic DNA expert. For the identification of humans in mass disasters, DNA analysis is a gold standard especially when a victim cannot be identified using their physical characteristics (e.g. birthmarks, tattoos, medical implants, clothing and jewelry), forensic anthropology, fingerprints, odontology and radiology. Forensic DNA typing is a college essay Western (Navitas), used for identification if/when sufficient DNA data can be collected from any biological sample and body parts. DNA can sometimes be recovered even when victim`s remains are fragmented and DNA is degraded. How To Write Paragraph College. DNA analysis is also often used for the re-association of severely fragmented remains with the writing a college entrance essay Western victims, because this is the what a narrative essay about Rossall only technique that allows it. DNA analysis is a technique that requires more time, effort, and specialized, skilled personnel [1]. In order to make a positive identification, reference samples from possible victims are collected so the DNA samples can be compared to essay Western Sydney, each other. Reference samples can be collected from several different sources.

It can be collected from personal belongings that were frequently used by Ashford School, the victim (e.g. toothbrush, hairbrush, razor, unwashed undergarments). Writing Western. Banked samples can also be used. Think of banked sperm or archival biopsy tissue that is stored in a medical facility. Other biological samples that can be used is blood stain cards, blood stored for elective surgery, pathology samples, and extracted adult or baby teeth. Another source for a reference sample is Ashford, via biological relatives of the victim that are collected using buccal swaps [1]. The reference samples can be categorized by the DNA quality of the DNA that is available on a college entrance Western Sydney the samples and they are good sources of DNA, fair source of DNA and poor sources of DNA (see table 1). [2]. Table 1: Categorization of reference samples in good, fair and poor sources of DNA[2] Good sources of literary essay London (Navitas) DNA Fair sources of writing entrance essay Sydney DNA Poor sources of DNA. Tooth brushes Lipstick Jewelry. Razors Deodorant sticks Wrist watches. Hair brushes Pillow cases Outer clothing.

Bone marrow samples Used cups/glasses Towels. Blood cards from PKU screening Used underwear Shoes. National bio banks Fingernail clippinds Hair bands. Criminal databases Cigarette buds Baby hair. Serum samples Pipe Dentures. Sperm bank samples Mouth piece/guard Hair rollers. Dried umbilical cords Helmets/caps/hats Trimmers. Pathology speciman Earplugs. Inner clothing items (bra, socks, t-shirts)

Pen with teeth marks. There is several preferred combination of family reference samples. A-g Courses School. The preferred combinations are; both parents; one parent, spouse, children; children and spouse; one parent and sibling; two or more siblings; known identical twin. From all the combinations possible for a college University the kinship analysis, the probability for their effectiveness has been calculated. The three lowest combinations are one full sibling (92.1%), sibling and aunt (94.4%) and write a 5 essay Ellesmere, sibling and two aunts/uncles from entrance University (Navitas), same side of the family (97.8%). The three highest combinations are three grandparents (96.7%), four grandparents (99,99%) and lastly three grandparents and siblings (99,994%). The full list is shown in table 2. [3]

Table 2: Probability of identity using various combinations of family references [2] Family references Probability of identity (%) One full sibling 92.1. Sibling and aunt (or uncle) 94.4. Sibling and two aunts (or uncles) from same side of the family 97.8. Sibling, aunt, uncle from different sides of the family 99.8. Sibling and half sibling 98. Sibling and two half siblings (same mother) 99.4. Two siblings 99.91. Sibling and parent 99.996. Father and a-g courses list Ashford School, one maternal half sibling 99.95.

Father and two maternal half siblings 99.996. Father and maternal aunt 99.993. Three grandparent 96.7. Four grandparents 99.99. Three grandparents and sibling 99.994. Previously identified fragmented remains that were already identified using DNA can also be used to make identification [1]. There are several limitation as to the retrieval of remain and reference samples. One of these limitations can be environmentally harsh condition at incident sites. This can severely limit the entrance essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) quantity of what to write about Rossall usable DNA from human remains. Also passengers that travel via airplanes, take their personal belongings with them in the luggage. This means that these personal items may also be destroyed during the writing entrance essay Western Sydney (Navitas) plane cash and cannot be used to make a reference sample.

In some cases using DNA from a close relative can also be difficult. Reasons being that sometimes families travel together and are also victims in the crash. Sometimes certain relatives also choose or are unable to give a DNA sample. It is also important to establish that personal items collected was only used by the victim in order to avoid getting a mixed profile or giving a wrong identification. [1]. Parameters of DNA identification. The importance of DNA in the identification process is dependent on write College the degree in which the human remain is fragmented or degraded. A College Western Sydney. Sometimes multiple methods are used in order to identify a victim. This doesn’t always include DNA. In an write a 5 Ellesmere College, airplane crash only about 25% of victims are identified by only using DNA analysis as a method of identification. The parameters are set by writing a college Sydney (Navitas), policy makers and it is the job of the laboratory director to determine the nature and extent of the laboratory`s response. How To Essays School. [1].

Defining goal of identification process. Depending on the scope of the identification process, a decision can be made on entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas) if every human fragment is going to how to write literary essay University London, be identified. In an airplane crash for writing entrance essay Sydney (Navitas) instance, there can be 50 victims and each remains can be fragmented in writing high Mercersburg Academy multiple pieces. If the goal or policy is to identify each victim, one would be done sooner with the identification process. Writing Entrance Essay Sydney. This because DNA analysis would be stopped when all 50 victims have been identified. Some human fragments will therefore never be analyzed and returned to the families.

Whenever the goal or policy is the attempted identification of all fragments, obviously this will result in a greater work for the laboratory. The scope of the investigation is determined by how large and devastating a mass disaster incident is to writing Mercersburg, a community, a country or to the world [1]. Minimum fragment size. Depending on the goal or policy of the identification process a minimum fragment size for DNA testing needs to be established. If all fragment pieces would be collected and writing a college entrance University, then tested, many of them would not give out how to write a 5 paragraph, a positive result. This would also cause the writing a college entrance Western (Navitas) identification process to take longer and would also make it very costly. Even though the families are able to receive more human remains of their loved one, but they very well are going to be unprepared on the condition of the fragment and the time it might take to essay Brunel University (Navitas), be able to identify them. Knowing all that, decisions will be made regarding the minimum fragment size, the statistical threshold that must be met.

The minimum fragment, which is usually one to ten cm long should be based on three criteria. The first criteria is maximizing the Western Sydney University (Navitas) probability that all victims are identified. The second criteria is the recognizing the emotional needs of the victims’ families and friends and the third criteria is he providing forensically relevant information. The defining of the fragment size is important, because this will affect the how to a 5 essay Ellesmere identification effort. It will determine how fragment sizes needs to a college entrance Sydney University, be collected at the crash site, how they will be processed and the likelihood of getting a useable DNA profile [1]. A preliminary decision concerning the how to write paragraph essay College DNA technology that should be used is Western (Navitas), made by the laboratory. If the recovery effort is essays School, long, the DNA of the fragments will start to degrade and can affect your choice of DNA method for analysis. The decision to entrance essay Sydney (Navitas), use another DNA method that are not the standard choices can be implemented, depending of the environmental conditions at the crash site and Ashford School, the resulting DNA degradation.

It can also depend on the scope and the duration of the DNA effort that has been set [1]. STR (Short Tandem Repeat) analysis has been proven to be a powerful method for DNA identification in mass fatality incidents. There are three known airplane crashes where the victims were identified only by using STR analysis. Remains from after WTC attacks, demonstrated that STR`s work on degraded tissue and bone fragments if DNA extraction is a college entrance essay Western Sydney University (Navitas), optimized. Although additional methods may be needed if a sample is severely compromised to generate a statistical threshold. To Write A Narrative About Rossall School. Other methods that can be used are mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA) and SNP (Single nucleotide Polymorphism) [1]. Length of Western recovery effort. The length of the recovery effort it dependent on the location site and the mass fatality of the crash and determines the DNA identification of the victims. When remains are collected from an airplane crash on land, it will usually take up to two weeks for it all to paragraph essay Ellesmere, be collected. In a mass fatality identification process will begin as the samples are collected and delivered to writing a college essay Western (Navitas), the laboratory.

It is more effective and efficient to wait for all the samples to be collected, but with the pressure from the public and families for a rapid confirmation this is not possible. The collecting of the reference samples also plays a part on the length of the identification process. After a mass fatality personal belongings and biological samples are sent in batches. How To Descriptive Essays Bishop Guertin High School. So the number of a college essay (Navitas) batches and the frequency of which they are sent to the laboratory is dependent on how to write an illustrative Universiteit efficiency and duration of the reference collection process [1]. After considering all of the above, the writing a college essay (Navitas) laboratory`s must determine its analytical processes. Several key variables has to how to write Brunel London (Navitas), be assessed in order to determine this. These variables are the number of victims, number of recoverable fragments, percentage of samples to be reworked, numbers of a college entrance Western Sydney University personal items per victim, percentage of personal items to be reworked, personal items quality control samples and number of kinship analysis.

In order to predict the write essay Vrije labor and material resources required for DNA analysis, a DNA analysis workload worksheet can be used (see appendix 1) [1]. In a mass fatality event DNA identification response demands forensic casework skills and high throughput genotyping or databasing from the public and/or private sector. In case of STR genotyping, there is a difference in analysis for medical or research purposes. This means that laboratories that can perform high quality clinical or research purposes, can be considered only after careful consideration. DNA collection from human remains and personal items all require chain of custody protocols that clinical or research laboratories are not typically using. A College Entrance Sydney. DNA extraction needs to be performed by using forensic casework extraction protocols. Kinship samples on the other hand are more assessable to standardized high-throughput processes used by forensic databasing laboratories and non-forensic genotyping laboratories. How To Write A 5 Essay College. In most cases forensic databasing laboratories have the experience with outsourcing work to private laboratories then forensic casework laboratories. In case that work is writing essay Western, outsourced to other laboratories, it is important to what a narrative about School, ensure that all laboratories involved use the same molecular ladders as size standards for allelic interpretation.

They also all have to use the same DNA analysis protocols that permits standardized evaluation of victims profiles. The way of writing a college essay Western Sydney University work in laboratories between forensic and non-forensic laboratories can vary. It is the duty of the essay writing prompts high school Mercersburg laboratory director to fully define certain terms like ‘acceptable positive and negative controls’ and ‘standard reaction volume’ [1]. Next to DNA analysis the laboratory might also be responsible for sample accessioning and tracking, making identifications and resolving metadata problems, quality control, interacting with families and media and long-terms sample storage. Failure to address these activities will results in source shortfalls. The laboratory director must also consider the impact of the mass fatality incident response on the laboratory`s primary mission. Backlog and turnaround times will most likely increase for the regular casework. That’s why plans to manage both a mass fatality and writing Sydney, regular casework should always be developed in case of an emergency. The duration of recovery effort also has an effect on the capacity of the laboratory. A rapid recovery effort that usually takes from one to three months creates a spike in the casework, but because that is a short casework they are able to recover quickly. Essay Prompts. A longer recovery effort is possible without affecting regular casework, however the identification process will still drain the personal and resources.

Good planning is critical in entrance Western University (Navitas) order to migrate the disruption [1]. Sample tracking is an important factor in ensuring quality and how to Bishop, accuracy throughout the process of DNA identification. So this means that chain of custody and origin are very important when handling samples. They are critical aspect to the identification management process and to writing a college entrance Sydney University (Navitas), the collection of reference samples for comparison. If samples are not properly coded and tracked this can have a consequence on the identification process.

Even ‘simple’ problems like the inadvertent reference-sample switching by families of the victims, misspellings in names or unlinked names nicknames to last names. Also inconsistent case numbering during sample collection on the crash site. All those mentioned above can greatly influence the efficiency and accuracy of identification process [1]. Public forensic institutes usually have a chain of custody in place already and a 5 paragraph essay College, will use this system with only slight changes if the need arises in a mass fatality incident. A College Entrance Essay Western (Navitas). When documentation is write Vrije Universiteit, started on a reference sample brought in by a family member of a victim, it might not be unusual to get a mixed DNA profile as a result. Entrance Essay Western. So this is also an important note to make when getting a result on your samples. List Ashford. But before these decision are made is how they are going to threat the mass fatality incident. They can be dealt with as a humanitarian effort, civil incident or criminal requirements. By establishing what type of treatment you are dealing with, you can decide what your chain-of custody requirements will be.

The implications of treat incidents are shown in figure 1 [1]. Figure 1: An overview of the possible treat incident and entrance essay Western Sydney University, their implications [1] Laboratories will already have an how to essay, information management system in place. In a mass fatality they can keep using the system they already have in place in order to maintain a high efficiency for their sample tracking. If chosen to writing Sydney University, modify the system the director of the laboratory should consider tracking the mass fatality samples separate from their regular casework samples.

The coding of the samples should begin with another number sequence that is regularly used in the designated laboratory. The laboratory should also consider having a team whose sole purpose is to enter the collected data and check if all samples are correctly coded. Another task that the to write a narrative essay about laboratory director has to establish is the sample naming that differentiates the personal items, kinship samples and the disaster samples from each other. The laboratory will also need to document the number and a college Western Sydney University (Navitas), the type of analysis performed on every sample that is tested. In table 1 there is an overview of the documentation that are generally noted on test samples [1]. Table 3: Coding that should be present on test samples [1] Victim samples Personal effects samples Kinship samples. Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Victim identification number Victim identification number. Extraction attempt number Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Relationship to victim. Type of an illustrative Universiteit analysis Extraction attempt number.

Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. Entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas). Type of analysis. Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. *These are usually noted in a multi-laboratory response. The recovery and preservation of samples are very important steps for the identification of human remains, especially when they are highly fragmented. Literary Essay Brunel University. It is very important for samples to be collected as soon as possible. But depending on the crash site and the environment it sometimes take much longer.

Proper preservation is also important so that DNA can stay intact and in that way get a successful DNA profile [2]. Depending on the state of preservation that is available, different tissue types should be collected. When sample collection cannot be done immediately and takes several weeks after the incident and/or the crash site was in challenging environmental conditions, bone and teeth proved to be the most reliable sources for a successful DNA profile. In case of a bone sample, the cortical bone from weight bearing long bones of the legs should be the first choice for DNA extraction. With degraded remains it is however still recommended to also take a swab in addition with the bone sample. The type of sample that should be collected is dependent on the state or condition that the body is in. Figure 1 shows an overview of the post-mortem sample condition that is dependent on the condition of the body [2]. Because it is writing essay Sydney University (Navitas), a possibility that commingling of DNA can be happen, this can often lead to false DNA-based associations. This is especially true for fragmented remains.

Blood from different fragmented remains that contaminate each other or animal activity, can often be the source of the comingling of DNA. This means that analyst always has to be on the lookout for cross contamination. When collecting samples in the field, workers should never assume that fragments go together or belong to the same victim based on paragraph essay Ellesmere their appearance. It is also advisable to have an anthropologist or a trained forensic pathologist on field in order to make sure that animal remains are not collected along with human tissue. The amount of samples that is going to writing essay (Navitas), be collected during a mass fatality may very well be too much for one laboratory to store. So in list Ashford that case the laboratory that is going to be handling the analysis can ask other trustworthy laboratories to store a collection of their samples. To keep decomposition to a minimum, samples need to be stored in low temperatures of around -20oC. Writing Essay University. Dried stains also needs to be stored in freezing temperatures, but if this is not possible room temperature in a low humidity temperature will also work. Skeletal remains that are going to a 5 essay, be stored also needs to be at entrance Sydney (Navitas) room temperature.

Reference samples are precious and can be limited, so the proper storage for reference samples are also very important [2]. In order to School, be able to perform a successful DNA analysis, the laboratory needs to have sufficient additional processing are. Because of the mass fatality the a college entrance laboratory is how to write descriptive essays Guertin High, going to be dealing with a lot of samples and writing essay Western Sydney University (Navitas), might need to consider using a robotics system. This can minimize human error and contamination. Essay High Mercersburg. In case of mass disasters contamination and mixtures of samples is unavoidable. For this reason the DNA typing used to make be able to make profiles needs to a college entrance University, be well established. The most used DNA typing methods which are STR and mtDNA are the most used for identification purposes. But depending on the state of the samples, other typing methods can also be used [3]. Before DNA analysis can be performed, the DNA needs to be extracted from the reference and victims samples first. It is customary to perform DNA extraction on how to descriptive essays Bishop High School the unknown evidentiary samples before the known or reference samples.

With samples from a mass disaster it may not be possible to writing entrance essay Western University, still extract samples in essay writing prompts high school Mercersburg Academy that order. A College Essay Sydney. But DNA extraction from what Rossall, victim’s samples and reference samples should be separated by writing entrance Western Sydney (Navitas), time and/or space. DNA typing relies on the success of DNA extraction that yields enough quantity, quality and purity. Because of this naturally the most desired extraction methods are the ones that minimizes DNA loss and the ones that overcome, removes or dilutes enzymatic inhibitors [3]. The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) Current techniques that include organic solvents and write literary essay London (Navitas), ion exchange resins are time consuming, use more than one centrifugation step, uses toxic organic solutions and/or do not remove PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) inhibitors well enough. A system that was used for the extraction of WTC samples proved to be the writing a college entrance essay (Navitas) best. The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) uses a magnetic resin that the about Rossall DNA can bind to. Western Sydney (Navitas). It also has a denaturing agent that disrupts many types of cells/tissue.

The DNA will then be purified by eluding it from the resin. DNA typing can then be performed without needing further preparation. Literary (Navitas). See figure 3 for a schematic overview of the extraction. The system minimizes the loss of DNA and the efficiency of DNA extraction also increases [3]. As is writing a college entrance University (Navitas), mentioned above organic extraction is also an extraction method that is write descriptive Bishop Guertin High School, widely used in the forensic community for DNA typing. As the name indicates, organic extraction uses organic chemicals in order to extract DNA. A College Essay Western. This occurs in how to write University London four steps. In the first step EDTA is added to the lysis buffer. EDTA is added to prevent the degrading of DNA. Tris which is also present in the buffer makes sure the outer cell membrane become permeable. In the second step the proteins are denaturized and entrance essay Sydney, hydrolyzed.

The lysing of the cell is how to an illustrative essay Vrije, carried out by using detergents Proteinase K and dithiothreitol (DTT) which are present in the lysis buffer. They insure that proteins and cell debris are separated into organic phase and the DNA remaining in the aqueous phase. They make sure that the cell membrane lyse, separate histones and denature histone proteins and destroy protein structures [5]. In the third step the proteins and cell debris are removed by a college entrance University, adding phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol to the mixture. The phenol present wont mix with water and the proteins and debris will have an affinity with the organic phase. Write Guertin High School. After centrifuging the mixture will have visible layers.

DNA will be present in the upper layer called the writing a college essay Sydney University aqueous phase. After transferring this phase to a new tube, in the fourth step DNA can be purified by using alcohol precipitation [5]. Figure 4 shows a schematic overview of the organic DNA extraction. Another popular extraction method in the forensic community is Chelex. Chelex comes in different purities with a purity of Guertin High School 100 being preferred in a forensic capacity. The resin has a styrene divinylbenzene copolymers with paired polyvalent metal ions. Because of this polyvent metal ions can bind to the resin. In an aqueous alkaline condition the Western Sydney (Navitas) chelex has increased affinity for heavy metal.

When the mixture is also boiled, this disrupts cell membranes, cell proteins and it denaturizes DNA. After centrifuging the resin and cellular debris is separated. The advantages of Chelex is that its time saving, doesn’t cost much and it minimizes contamination potential. Contamination potential is minimized, because unlike organic extraction it has less steps. Other advantages are that it uses no hazardous chemicals and Rossall, removes some PCR inhibitors. Some disadvantages includes potential degradation for long term storage, the resin remain which can inhibit PCR and writing a college entrance Western, won`t work with all samples [5].

A schematic overview of the an illustrative essay Amsterdam chelex extraction is shown in figure 5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) After extraction is completed the DNA goes through PCR. PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific DNA fragment is being replicated over and over again. The process works by the heating and cooling the DNA extracted samples in a precise thermal cycle pattern for University (Navitas) ?? 30 cycles [6]. The PCR has three steps that forms one cycle [1]. In each cycle it starts with denaturing the DNA template by heat. In the second step the temperature is cooled so that primers can anneal (bind) to the DNA. In the High School last step the essay University temperature is raised again at the optimal temperature for how to essay Brunel (Navitas) DNA polymerase so it can activate. Entrance Sydney University. The DNA polymerase extends the template strands (see figure 6) [6].

When the cycles are repeated multiple times, you will get an exponential accumulation of your desired DNA fragment when present. Even with a small amount of how to University isolated DNA, the PCR can generate a large amount of DNA [1]. The primer, which is mentioned above, is the writing Sydney (Navitas) most important PCR component. The primer is a short DNA sequence that positions itself before the DNA fragment that needs to be copied. This means that the primer serves to identify the DNA fragment that needs to how to write essay University London, be copied. It is added in high concentration in entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas) relative to the DNA template in order to drive the PCR reaction. How To Bishop Guertin High. Other components that are added is naturally your template DNA that is Western Sydney (Navitas), going to be copied. Also added to the mix is a four nucleotide building blocks called dNTP`s and DNA polymerase that helps put the building blocks in the correct order on the template DNA.

The DNA polymerase used is Taq polymerase, which comes from a bacterium called Thermus aquaticus that inhibits hot springs. When setting up multiple samples that use the same primers, a master mix is made. From the prompts school Mercersburg Academy master mix an a college entrance essay Western (Navitas), equal amount of volume is pipetted in the PCR tube. By making this master mix you are insured homogeneity between samples and the pipetting of small volumes can be avoided [6]. In this version of the PCR more than one DNA fragment will be copied simultaneously. This is how to Ellesmere College, achieved by adding more than one primer to the mixture. In order for it to work properly, the entrance Western University primer pairs added should have similar annealing temperatures. Essays Guertin School. With the adding of a college entrance University extra primer pairs the complexity of primer interactions increases. Excessive regions of complementarity has to be avoided in order to prevent primer-dimer formation. Primer-dimers are when added primers bind to how to, each other instead of the template DNA. The possibility of primer-dimer formation increases with every new primer pair that are added [6].

After DNA extraction, DNA quantification is essential for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based analysis. A College Entrance Essay Sydney University (Navitas). This is important because a low concentration is preferable when working with multi-plex PCR. Generally an amount of 0,5 to 2,0 of DNA is optimal when using STR kits. When a higher amount of essays Guertin High School DNA is used, this makes the interpretation of results harder and more time consuming. With a low amount of DNA, this can result in loss of alleles. This makes it harder to properly compare profiles with each other [7]. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) Like it was indicated above, quantification test is performed to determine amount of DNA that can amplified. A test that can indicate the a college Western quality and quantity of extracted DNA or PCR products, is write paragraph essay Ellesmere, beneficial for determining steps that need to be taking for the analysis of the DNA.

The most common approach to perform a qPCR is to use a flourogenic 5? nuclease assay, better known as TaqMan or with the use of an intercalating dye, like the SYBR green, that is specific for double stranded DNA molecules. The TaqMan monitors changes of a college University a fluorescence while the SYBR green detects formation of PCR product [7]. Probes for the TaqMan has two fluorescent dyes that emit at different wavelengths. How To Descriptive Guertin. The probe hybridizes specifically in DNA target region between two PCR primers. The probe has a slightly higher annealing temperature the primers. This way hybridization of the probes can begin when extension of primers begin.

At the 5? end of the probe, a reporter (R) dye is attached, while at the 3? end a quencher (Q) dye is synthesized See figure 7. Writing A College Essay Western Sydney. While the an illustrative Vrije probes are still attached together, fluorescence won’t occur, because of the suppression due to energy transfer of the two. Entrance Sydney. When polymerization starts during the PCR run, any TaqMan probe attached to essay University, target sequence will be displaced. Because Taq polymerase has a 5? exonucleae activity. This means that it will chew at essay the TaqMan probe attached. When the list Ashford dyes are released from the probe, they will begin to fluorescence. This means that, the more fluorescence that is signaled, the writing a college Western (Navitas) more target sequence is present as complementary to the probe [7]. Real-time PCR analysis. The PCR process is defined in three phases. The exponential phase, linear amplification and plateau region.

These regions can be made visible in a plot of fluorescence versus the PCR cycle they are on (see figure 8). How To Write Literary Essay Brunel University (Navitas). There is entrance essay Western Sydney University, a high degree of how to a 5 paragraph essay precision of the making of new PCR products during exponential amplification. At 100% efficiency, there should be a doubling of PCR products with every PCR cycle. In a plot of cycle numbers versus log scale DNA concentration, will have a result of a linear relationship during the exponential phase of the polymerase chain reaction (see figure 8). The next phase is the linear phase. Writing A College Entrance Essay Western Sydney. In this phase concentration of components falls and amplification efficiency slows down. How To High School. This happens in an arithmetic increase. The final phase is the plateau region. This is where the production of the writing a college University PCR products slowly stops. Multiple components that are being used for the amplification have reached the end.

The signal that is being emitted slows down, causing the plateau to a-g courses list School, level out. The exponential phase of the real-time PCR analysis is the optimal place for measuring. This is the writing a college Western University phase where the PCR product and the input DNA amount are most likely to be consistent. What To Write Essay. The instruments use for real-time PCR uses a cycle threshold (CT) its calculations. This value stands for the terms of cycles when the level of fluorescence passes a threshold that is set by the software of the real-time PCR instrument. The less cycles that is used to get to this threshold, the higher the writing a college Western University input DNA molecules that was present in PCR reaction. This is why there is a plot of log DNA and CT for every sample in a linear relationship with a negative slope. A rise in fluorescence can be traced to initial DNA template amount, when it is compared to samples that has known concentration. In figure 8, there are five samples (a, b, c, d, e) that were used in order to develop a standard curve. A 5 Paragraph Essay. If the samples used have a good consistency and precision, a sample that has an unknown concentration can be calculated from the standard curve [7]. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis.

STR analysis is the Sydney University first method of analysis that is used [1]. How To An Illustrative Essay Vrije Amsterdam. 99,9% of the DNA in humans are the same. In the 0,1% region of DNA short tandem repeats are present as the region that exhibits a large variation between individual [7]. STR`s are short DNA sequence that keep repeating. For example in the DNA sequence ATTCGCATCATCATCATCATCATCATCGCCA, the sequence ATC is repeated 7 times. Short tandem repeats are present at the same position on chromosomes in the human genome, but the repeat unit varies per individual. With the help of PCR reaction a STR analysis can be performed.

Primers that can be labeled binds to the DNA at a specific STR loci and multiplied. Entrance Essay Sydney University. Because of the label that is how to write essays Guertin High School, attached at the primer, the amplified products can be detected at the end of the PCR reaction. By analyzing more than multiple STR`s at once, a DNA profile that is unique enough to essay Western Sydney University, identify an individual can be made [7]. Sometimes a DNA sample is too degraded to how to write literary London (Navitas), get a DNA profile using the standard STR markers. In order to still be able to use this degraded DNA to get a profile, primers were repositioned. By repositioning the primers closer to the repeat region that needs to be amplified, the amplified product that is resulted is much smaller.

As a result it makes genetic characterization of the sample for more STR`s, other that is used traditionally. This makes STR miniplex invaluable for degraded samples [1]. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis. By using the SNP`s genetic markers, the PCR amplified product can be much smaller than is possible in essay Western University (Navitas) a STR miniplex [1]. How To An Illustrative Vrije. SNP is a single nucleotide mutation that occurs in entrance essay Western Sydney (Navitas) the DNA sequence and is also the most common polymorphism in the human genome. These mutations can be a result from DNA replication or chemical damage. A polymorphism is a variation/mutation in the DNA sequence that has a frequency of more than 1% in the population. SNP occurs once every 1000 base pairs and tends to remain stable in the population [8]. For example in a known DNA sequence of CCTAA, a mutation of the second C to a T occurs (see figure 9). The amplified PCR product that can result from how to paragraph essay, using SNP markers can be reduced by writing a college entrance essay Sydney University, up to 60-80 bp.

This makes severely degraded DNA samples that could not be typed using STR`s still typable. Rossall. Using a method that was validated during the WTC identification effort, typing on samples that were much compromised was still able to be identified. The method uses a florescent detection system. A College Essay Western University. By labeling the possible alleles with a fluorescent dye, the signal of the dyes could be compared [1]. Mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mitochondria is an organelle that resides outside the cell nucleus.

They contain their own chromosomal DNA. How To Essay Brunel (Navitas). mtDNA are smaller, circular in Western shape and are inherited maternally. How To An Illustrative Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. They consist of approximately 16,569 base and have a high copy number in entrance Western University a cell. Because mtDNA is passed down maternally, it is a good method to perform when reference samples are taking from maternal relatives. Using mtDNA can be an advantage when dealing with very small or degraded extracted DNA. Because of the high copies number of a-g courses Ashford School mtDNA that is writing essay Western Sydney University, available, an identification can still be possible using mtDNA markers, instead of STR markers that are found in nuclear DNA [1]. There are several differences in the characteristic of the mtDNA and a-g courses Ashford School, the nuclear DNA. The first being the size of the genome. Nuclear DNA has about 3,2 billion bp and is 99.75% of total DNA. While mtDNA has 16,569bp and 0,25% content DNA per cell. While mutation rata for nuclear DNA is writing a college essay Sydney (Navitas), low, mtDNA has a 5-10 times higher mutation rate. The sequence of the essay Vrije Universiteit mitochondrial DNA is a functional one and also highly conserved, it’s because of this that there isn’t a very big variation between individuals.

But there is non-coding D-loop (1000bp long), also known as control loop, that has two hypervariable regions called HV1 and HV2 (see figure 8). The variations observed in this part of the essay Sydney (Navitas) DNA tend to be Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The length of the mtDNA doesn’t change with the presence of the SNPs and that’s why this are the write Bishop Guertin High School regions that are used for University forensic analysis. Due to the lack of DNA reparation, mtDNA has a large mutation. This causes the variations between individuals. The variation is not a lot, with HV1 and HV2 having only a 1-3% difference between individuals who are not related [10]. When analysis is performed, mitochondrial DNA is what essay Rossall School, extracted and then with the help of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the HV1 and HV2 regions are amplified. A College Essay Sydney (Navitas). Next step is to determine the sequence of the amplified product by using DNA sequencing.

After this samples can be compared to each other to get a possible identification [10]. The Y-chromosome is Ashford School, small and a college Western University, found in only male individuals. This chromosome is a 5 Ellesmere College, altered through infrequent happening of a mutation. The combination of alleles between father and son is theoretically the same, if mutation does not occur [9]. The advantages of Y-chromosome analysis are that in a college entrance Sydney University a mixture profile with female DNA for example in a sexual assault case, male specific amplification can take place to separate the two. Mixtures in fingernail scraping and saliva on skin can also be analyzed. Another advantage is that it facilitates tracing family lineages in Rossall the paternal transmission. Limitations that arises are that it’s hard to distinguish between male family members when Y-STR typing is performed. Duplications and deletions that are present in the DNA sequence, can make analysis more complicated. The Y-chromosome analysis is performed with the analysis of the STRs or SNPs. Y-STRs changes more rapidly and a college essay Western Sydney (Navitas), thus has more variables.

This makes it useful for forensic applications [10]. Last step in write essay Vrije analysis of DNA is the separation and detection of the amplified DNA. In order to entrance essay Western University (Navitas), separate and detect them a capillary electrophoresis is used. A basic capillary electrophoresis apparatus is consists of a narrow glass capillary, two buffer vials, two electrodes connected to high voltage power supply, laser excitation source, fluorescent detector, autosampler for samples and a computer that controls the sample injection and detection. The capillaries are made out of glass, have an internal diameter of 50 ??m and is 50 cm long. The capillary which is a glass tube is filled with a polymer that serves as a gel in which molecules can migrate. Samples are injected in the capillary when high voltage is applied, which helps to separate the DNA fragments. Fluorescent dye labels that are present in the DNA mixture are analyzed when they pass by a detector that uses a laser beam. The results are then analyzed and stored on a computer [10]. A schematic of the capillary electrophoresis is shown in figure 9. DNA separation occurs when DNA fragments separate through the capillary when voltage is applied.

Smaller fragments go through the capillary faster than the how to Vrije bigger fragments. The time is converted to base pair size with the entrance essay (Navitas) help of internal size standards. Several components can affect the DNA separation. How To Write Ellesmere College. The polymer used, the capillary, the buffer and the voltage used [10]. The two primary polymer are POP-4 and Sydney, POP-6. The POP stands for performance optimized polymer and is made out of a linear, uncross-linked dimethyl polyacrylamide. The 4 and 6 in the POP, stands for the 4% and 6% concentration of this component. The POP-4 is used for the analysis of STR typing and POP-6 for DNA sequencing. Recently a Pop-7 has been introduced that can be used for both the write literary Brunel London (Navitas) STR typing and entrance Western (Navitas), DNA sequencing [10]. The buffer is used to stabilize and solubilize the DNA. It also provide a charge for the electrophoresis current.

Buffer concentration is an important aspect, because when it’s too high this can result in overheating of the capillary and a loss of write Vrije Amsterdam resolution. In order to avoid any problems with the running of the electrophoresis, the buffer should be replaced regularly with a fresh sample [10]. The capillary is central for the separation during the electrophoresis. The capillary is made of writing a college entrance Western glass or fused silica. The inner walls also have a hydroxyl groups that are negatively charged. Positive ions from the buffer, creates a double layer.

The movement of ions creates an electroosmotic flow, that can be reduced or eliminated when a coating is added to descriptive Bishop, the inside layer of the writing entrance Western University (Navitas) capillary (see figure 10). Uncoated walls create problems for reproducible DNA separation. Suggested is to how to write essay Ellesmere, change the capillary after 100-150 runs or whenever a decline of writing entrance Western Sydney University resolution is a 5 essay, noted [10]. Sanger method for DNA sequencing is a process where the use of essay polymerase incorporation is involved. The polymerase incorporation uses dideoxyribonucleatide triphosphates (ddNTPs) as chain terminators that is in turn followed by a separation step that is capable of single nucleotide resolution. Because there is no hydroxyl group at the end of the 3? ‘end of the nucleotide with a ddNTP the write a 5 essay College growing chain cannot continue growing. In the mix there are both dNTPs and ddNTPS present, this way some DNA portions are still able to continue growing. Therefor at the end of the writing a college entrance essay Sydney (Navitas) reaction there will be a series of strands that only differs one molecule from write essay Vrije Amsterdam, each other.

See figure 11 for a schematic overview of the DNA sequence. Each DNA strand uses one forwards or reverse primer in writing Sydney University (Navitas) a separate reaction. Attached to the ddNTPs are fluorescent dyes. ddTTP (thymine) has a red dye attached to it, ddCTP (cytosine) a blue label, ddATP (adenine) a green dye and essay Mercersburg, lastly, ddGTP (guanine) a yellow dye. After the reaction is over, the sample goes through capillary electrophoresis, which separates the strands. In the results of the electrophoresis, the sequence of the DNA strand is shown [7]. DNA Databases and CODIS. A DNA database is a database which stores DNA data and essay Western Sydney (Navitas), is used for analysis. There are different types of DNA databases.

The National DNA databases are maintained by the government for storing DNA profiles of its population. These DNA profiles are based on PCR and STR analysis. DNA databases serve as valuable tools in a narrative about Rossall School aiding investigations. CODIS (COmbined DNA Index System) is a DNA database that consists of 13 STR loci’s. These are CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51 and D21S11. Writing Essay Western University (Navitas). Also the Amelogenin is used for gender determination [6] [10] [11]. To make the job easier and avoid confusion with buffers it is better to use a complete STR kit. How To A 5 Paragraph. These kits come with their own buffer and control DNA. There are a lot of distributors of writing a college Sydney (Navitas) complete STR kits. It all depends on the research what kind of kit there is how to write essay College, needed. Multiplex STR kits allows the amplification of the 13 CODIS loci [6].

The most widely known and used kits are from Promega. Essay Western University (Navitas). The product components normally consists of a buffer, primer pair mix (again, it depends on the research what kind of how to write Guertin primer that will be used), control DNA. These are for the PCR product. After the PCR, the kits come with an Allelic Ladder mix and an internal standard to be used for the gel. Chemicals that sometimes should be supplied that do not come with the kit are Nuclease-free water and taq DNA polymerase. The kits come with their own protocol and should be used in essay University that specific order [6]. Here is an Mercersburg, example of the PowerPlex 16 HS System, which allows co-amplification of the 13 CODIS loci and Amelogenin for writing essay Western Sydney gender determination. All loci are amplified in a single tube and analyzed in a single injection and is also compatible with ABI. This system consist of Powerplex HS 5X Master Mix, Powerplex 16 HS 10X Primer Pair Mix, 2800M Control DNA and water (Amplification Grade) in the Pre-amplification components box. Write A 5 Paragraph Ellesmere. In the Western Post-amplification components box there is a PowerPlex 16 HS Allelic Ladder Mix and Internal Lane Standard.

How the mixes for the PCR amplification should be made is literary essay, displayed below in figure 10 [6] [12]. Statistical interpretation of DNA profile. When it comes to getting a match with a DNA profile, it’s important to determine if the DNA profile are from the writing entrance essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) same individual or if maybe there is another individual with the same profile. It’s practically impossible to get a DNA from every individual. What About Rossall School. In order to still determine a match probability, Allele frequencies from different ethnic groups, from validated databases are collected [13]. More than one data point will need to be collected in order to get a reliable estimation of allele frequency.

There has to be a minimum where the a college entrance Western Sydney University assurance is there that an allele has been sufficiently sampled for use in statistical test. An allele has to be observed for a minimum of essay writing prompts high Mercersburg five times in writing a college essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) order to be qualified for use in a statistical calculations. The frequency for the minimum allele is determined using the formula 5/ (2N). N stands for how to a 5 the number of individuals and 2N for writing entrance essay chromosomes counted before they pair [13]. In order to calculate the frequency of a DNA profile, the frequency of every allele analyzed are multiplied. An Illustrative Vrije. The frequency of the allele can differ dependent on the population database.

The database that is used needs to be sufficiently large and representative of the population of the individual whose DNA is being examined [13]. In figure 12, DNA profile frequencies are given for the U.S. Caucasian. Take for writing a college entrance essay example allele 11 of to write a narrative essay Rossall D13S317 shown in figure 12. Samples of 604 alleles were taken where it was observed 205 times. This translates to an allele frequency of 0,33940. In other words, there is a 34% chance that a random individual will have the same allele. The same goes for Sydney University (Navitas) allele 14 of D13S317. This allele was observed 19 times in a population of 604. Frequency is therefore q=0,04801. So an individual with the alleles 11 and 14 for the D13S317, can be calculated using the formula 2pq (p standing for the first allele and q standing for the second allele).

Putting the essay University frequency calculated in the formula creates 2 x 0,33940 x 0,0481= 0,0326. This frequency indicates that ??3% of the U.S. Caucasian population. Sydney University. The frequency of all the genotypes will then be multiplied to get the frequency of the DNA profile. In case of the DNA profile in figure 12, this comes to a combined frequency of 8,37 x 1014. So 1 in 837 trillion [13]. In order to ensure that DNA testing is being performed correctly there are standards that the laboratories has to adhere to. These standards has to assurance the quality of the how to write essay work.

Every laboratory should have a quality assurance program in place. Organization and management. First thing is to have a management staff that the writing authority and means to carry out the descriptive essays Bishop duty that is assigned to writing Western Sydney University, them and keep the quality assurance in write essay the laboratory. There should also be a technical leader that is in charge of the technical operations. If the a college essay Western CODIS is in use at the laboratory, there should be a casework CODIS administrator who is accountable for CODIS on site.

The laboratory should also have two full time employees who are qualified DNA analysts. Write Brunel London (Navitas). The responsibility, authority and interrelation of every personal operational at the laboratory has to be specified and writing entrance essay Western Sydney University, documented. Lastly a contingency plan has to be in planned and approved in the case that a technical leader position is vacated [14]. The employees of the laboratory has to have the proper education and experience. The job description of the personnel needs to have a written job description that can be expended with documentation of the responsibilities, duties and skills. The laboratory needs to be in possession of the training program for qualifying all analyst. Ashford School. Included are all the DNA analytical procedures that will be performed by the personnel. Also all the practical exercises needs to writing entrance essay Western University, include the examination of a range of samples that are routinely analyzed at how to write essay Brunel University (Navitas) the laboratory. The training program needs to teach and asses the skills and ability to perform a successful DNA analysis. The trainee needs to give an individual demonstration of capability, which shall be documented by the laboratory. When a new analyst is hired the technical leader is tasked with accessing the new hire`s previous training and be responsible for the proper documentation.

If modification of the training program is made, then this also has to be documented. All the analyst has to successfully complete the competencies test that covers the DNA techniques before working on a college Western Sydney University (Navitas) actual casework. A documented program needs to be in place so that the a-g courses School technical qualifications are being kept. This can be done by attending seminars, course, professional meetings or any other documented classes that are relevant. This all needs to add to a minimum of eight hours annually. If training is given by the laboratory itself, all relevant information about the training and the presenter needs to be documented. A College University (Navitas). When training is done externally, certificates, program agenda or travel documentation can serve as the proper documentation of attendance. To Write Rossall. Multimedia and writing essay Sydney University (Navitas), internet based programs needs to be approved by the technical leader.

Attendance needs to be formally documented and when the program is finished the technical leader reviews and approves it. The laboratory also needs to have an approved program that is used for annual review of scientific literature. This way the analyst ongoing reading of scientific literature is documented. The laboratory needs to have access to collections of information’s containing DNA analysis [14]. The technical leader also has certain qualification that needs to be tended to. The minimum education requirements are a Master`s degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science.

In addition they also need to have a successfully completed 12 semester or equivalent credit hours in the subject’s biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and statistics or population genetics. In the write Bishop High School 12 semester completed, there needs to be at a college entrance University least one graduate level course for the period of 3 semesters. The technical leader of also needs to how to write descriptive essays High School, have a minimum of three years of experience in a college essay Western Sydney a forensic DNA laboratory, in which the list laboratory participated in the identification and evaluation of biological evidence in a criminal matter capacity. The duties of the technical leader includes overseeing the technical operation of the laboratory and being able to make decision of writing Western (Navitas) initiating, suspending od resuming DNA analytical operations. Other responsibilities include the evaluating and documenting of the validation of methods used and an illustrative Vrije Universiteit, proposing new or modified analytical procedures.

Also reviewing academic documents, training records and approve qualifications of new analyst before they are allowed to perform analysis on a college University (Navitas) casework independently. The technical leader has to approve specifications for outsourcing agreements and review internal and external DNA audit that might needs to school Mercersburg, be corrected and writing a college entrance essay University (Navitas), documented. How To Paragraph College. Lastly the a college entrance Western Sydney technical leader is responsible for annually reviewing and documenting of laboratory procedures and reviewing and approving of training, quality assurance and proficiency testing. The technical leader needs to be a full time employee and needs to be accessible for essay prompts high school Mercersburg Academy consultation onsite, via the writing entrance Sydney University telephone or electronically [14]. As an how to an illustrative essay Vrije Amsterdam, employee of the laboratory, the analyst needs to have a minimum education of a bachelor`s degree or advanced degree in a college entrance essay Western University biology, chemistry or forensic science related area, The analyst is expected to have completed the course work successfully with subject areas of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, statistics and population genetics. The analyst needs to have at least six months of experience in forensic human DNA laboratory experience. What To Write A Narrative Essay About Rossall School. The experience of the analyst needs to be documented and if needed, experience augmented by writing essay Western, additional training of how to essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam DNA identification handlings of the a college essay laboratory. Before participating in casework, the analyst needs to complete analysis of write essay Ellesmere College a range of samples that the laboratory regularly encounters and complete a competency test [14]. Laboratories needs to be designed in a manner where the integrity of analyses and a college entrance Western Sydney University, evidence is ensured. Entry to the laboratory needs to be controlled in order to prevent unauthorized personnel.

When keys or combinations are handed out, these needs to be documented and how to a 5 paragraph Ellesmere College, limited to personnel that is designated by laboratory management [14]. Before PCR is performed, the writing Western Sydney University DNA extraction and PCR set up, needs to be performed in either separate times or separate space. The amplified DNA, needs to be developed, processed and maintained on a room(s) that is separate from where the evidence examination, DNA extraction or PCR setup areas are performed. A robotic workstation can be used, only if the analytical process has been validated. In that case DNA extraction, PCR setup and amplification can be performed in a single room. Lastly procedures for the cleaning and write a 5 paragraph essay, decontaminating of the facilities and its equipment needs be in place and writing a college essay (Navitas), followed [14]. In order to ensure the integrity of the physical evidence, the laboratory needs to have a documented evidence control system.

Evidence needs to be marked with a unique tag on package of the evidence. A definition of the evidence and work product needs to be clearly defined. How To Write Literary Essay Brunel (Navitas). When a tag is writing essay Western University, not used, a system for distinguish samples when they are being processed needs to be devised and put in place. Chain of custody needs to a-g courses list School, be documented and maintained, either on a hard copy or in an electronic format. A signature or something equivalent in a college entrance essay University (Navitas) case of an electronic format needs to be present for all who received and essay Rossall, transferred the evidence, with corresponding date. Documented procedures needs to be in place in writing a college entrance essay Western order to write essay Brunel University (Navitas), minimize loss, contamination and writing essay Sydney University (Navitas), deleterious change of how to an illustrative essay Universiteit Amsterdam evidence.

A proper placement for evidence storage and work product that is still in progress needs to a college entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas), be in place, which is controlled and secure [14]. Analytical procedure that are to be had and followed, needs to write a 5 College, be approved by the technical leader. The procedures needs to be reviewed annually. Every analytical method needs to have their own standard operating procedure that needs to specify items like the reagents, sample preparation, extraction methods, equipment and controls. A written procedure for the documentation of commercial and formulated in-house reagents needs to be in place. Label commercial reagents with the essay (Navitas) name of the reagent and expiration date. Formulated in-house reagents are to how to Brunel University, be labeled with the name of reagent, either the date of preparation or expiration date and the analyst who formulated the reagent. Critical reagents in test kit or systems for quantitative PCR and genetic typing needs to be identified and evaluated before they are used on evidence samples. Thermostable DNA polymerase, primer sets and a college entrance Sydney, allelic ladders, also needs to be identified and evaluated [14].

Before DNA amplification, evidence samples needs to be quantified. Only when a validated method system is used that have shown to give reproducibly and reliably yield a successful DNA amplification, quantification is not needed. When quantifying, quantification standards are to be used. School. The positive and negative control needs to be amplified at the same time as the entrance essay Sydney University case samples at the same loci with the same set of how to write essays Guertin School primers as the case samples. Writing Western University (Navitas). Blank reagent controls that are being used for extraction, are to be extracted simultaneously, amplified by write essays High, using the entrance essay Western same primers, instrument and conditions as the case samples and typed by using the same instrument and injection conditions. The DNA procedures used by the laboratory are to be checked annually or when a major change is made in the method [14]. Procedure for the taking and maintaining casework notes needs to how to write an illustrative Vrije Universiteit, be in place. These needs need to support conclusion taken in the reports. The laboratory needs to maintain and retain, in hard or electronic form, all notes and documentation from writing a college entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas), analyst regarding their analysis. The casework reports needs to have the case identifier, a description of the evidence that was examined, description of the method used, the amplification system, results and/or conclusion, an interpretive statement, date that report is issued, the disposition of the evidence and how to write an illustrative Universiteit Amsterdam, lastly a signature and title [14]. Twice a year, with the first one occurring in Western University (Navitas) the first six months and the second in the last 6 months f a year, a proficiency testing needs to be undergone by the analyst, technical reviewers, technicians and personnel appointed by a-g courses list Ashford School, the technical leader.

Workers who regularly use manual and automated methods, will need to go through a proficiency testing at least once a year. New workers needs to go through proficiency testing in the first six months. The proficiency testing needs to be defined, documented and use the correct dates. The exact items from the proficiency testing that needs to be recorded are the test set identifier, the analyst/participant, date of analysis and its completion, copies of data and notes that supports the conclusions taken, the proficiency test results, discrepancies and if needed the corrective actions that were taken [14]. 1. Entrance Essay Western Sydney (Navitas). Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/214781.pdf. 2. M.prinz, A. A-g Courses List. Carracacedo; DNA Commission of the writing essay Western University International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI); Forensic Science International: Genetics; Pages 3-12; 2007. 3. B. Budowle, F.R. Bieber, A.J.

Eisenberg; Forensic aspects of essay prompts high Mercersburg mass disasters: Strategic considerations for Western Sydney University (Navitas) DNA-based human identification; Legal Medicine; page 230-243;2005. 4. Mo Bi Tec molecular biotechnology. 5. NFSTC Science serving justice. 6. Forensic DNA typing STR: Page 62-64, 84-86,92,93. 7. Butler John M.; Advanced topic in forensic DNA typing: methodology; 2012; Elsevier, Maryland USA, page 371, 372, 141-150,417,418. 8. Sequencing, forensic analysis and genetic analysis http://www.atdbio.com/content/20/Sequencing-forensic-analysis-and-genetic-analysis#Short-tandem-repeats.

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Meet Robert Bullard, the father of environmental justice. Robert Bullard says he was “drafted” into environmental justice while working as an environmental sociologist in Houston in writing entrance essay (Navitas) the late 1970s. His work there on paragraph Ellesmere College, the siting of garbage dumps in Sydney University (Navitas) black neighborhoods identified systematic patterns of injustice. The book that Bullard eventually wrote about that work, 1990’s Dumping in Dixie , is widely regarded as the first to fully articulate the how to write essay Brunel University London concept of environmental justice. Since then, Bullard, who is as much activist as academic, has been one of the writing entrance essay Western leading voices of environmental-justice advocacy. He was one of the planners of the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit in 1991, at which the organizing principles of modern environmental justice were formulated. Bullard later helped the Clinton administration write the watershed executive order that required all federal agencies to consider environmental justice in their programs. Under the Bush administration, progress made during the 1990s is under attack, with even the U.S.

EPA working to dismantle that provision. As he has for 25 years, Bullard stands at the forefront of efforts to maintain environmental-justice gains, and to how to a 5 paragraph essay make mainstream environmentalists aware of the issues at stake. Currently on sabbatical from his position as director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at entrance Clark Atlanta University, Bullard has just published his 12th book. The Quest for a 5 Ellesmere, Environmental Justice: Human Rights and the Politics of writing Western (Navitas) Pollution brings together more than 20 contributors for a survey of the movement’s past and future. Grist caught up with Bullard as he took a break from working on a Ford Foundation-funded study of how government actions have endangered the health and welfare of African Americans over the past seven decades. Most recently, this work has turned Bullard’s attention to the area devastated by write University (Navitas) Hurricane Katrina, which he describes as the latest urban environmental sacrifice zone. How did you first become involved in environmental justice?

I was a young sociology professor just two years out of graduate school. My wife asked me to entrance Western University (Navitas) collect data for a lawsuit she had filed. How To Literary Essay? A company had decided to put a landfill in the middle of a predominantly black, middle-class, suburban neighborhood — a neighborhood where 85 percent of the people owned their homes. Of course, the writing Sydney state gave them a permit, but the people said “no.” I saw that 100 percent of all the city-owned landfills in Houston were in black neighborhoods, though blacks made up only 25 percent of the population. Three out of four of the privately owned landfills were located in a-g courses list predominantly black neighborhoods, and six out of eight of the city-owned incinerators. Entrance Western Sydney? In a city that does not have zoning, it meant that these were decisions made by individuals in an illustrative essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam government. That’s how I got dragged into this. And you got hooked. I got hooked.

I started connecting the dots in terms of housing, residential patterns, patterns of land use, where highways go, where transportation routes go, and how economic-development decisions are made. It was very clear that people who were making decisions — county commissioners or industrial boards or city councils — were not the same people who were “hosting” these facilities in their communities. Without a doubt, it was a form of apartheid where whites were making decisions and black people and brown people and people of color, including Native Americans on reservations, had no seat at the table. Just before Hurricane Katrina, you were getting ready to look at natural disasters as part of a study of writing a college essay Sydney University how government actions endanger the health of African Americans in how to an illustrative essay Amsterdam the South. How does Katrina fit the historical pattern? Katrina was not isolated. It was not an aberration, and it was not incompetence on the part of FEMA and Michael Brown and Western University (Navitas) the Bush administration.

This has been going on how to write descriptive Bishop Guertin School, for a long time under Republicans and Democrats, and the central theme that drives all of this is race and class. You’ve done a lot of work with schools. Why is that of particular concern? Poor children in writing a college entrance Western Sydney University urban areas are poisoned in their homes. And when they go to school, they get another dose.

And when they go outside and play, they get another dose. Write Literary Brunel University London (Navitas)? It’s a slow-motion disaster: the most vulnerable population in our society is writing a college Western, children, and the most vulnerable children are children of color. If we protect the most vulnerable in our society — these children — we protect everybody. Can you give a sense of the a-g courses School scale of the problem surrounding these schools? Moton Elementary School, in New Orleans, is built on top of a landfill, causing lots of problems with the water in the school. The playgrounds in Norco, La., in Cancer Alley, are across from a huge Shell refinery.

You stay there 15 minutes and University (Navitas) you can’t breathe. How To Write Essay Ellesmere? And in South Camden, N.J., there are schools and playgrounds on the waterfront where you have all this industry, all this nasty stuff. Almost two-thirds of the children in that neighborhood have asthma. In West Harlem, the Sydney (Navitas) North River Water Treatment Plant covers eight blocks near a school. On the south side of list Ashford School Chicago, it’s the same kind of a college entrance Sydney (Navitas) thing. From coast to coast, you see this happening. It’s not just the landfill, it’s not just the incinerator, it’s not just the prompts Mercersburg garbage dump, it’s not just the a college entrance essay University (Navitas) crisscrossing freeway and how to paragraph essay highway, and the bus barns that dump all that stuff in these neighborhoods — it’s all that combined.

Even if each particular facility is in compliance, there are no regulations that take into account this saturation. It may be legal, but it is Western Sydney University, immoral. Just like slavery was legal, but slavery has always been immoral. Let’s look at a specific case in writing high school which you’re an Western expert witness: In Dickson County, Tenn., a county that is just over 4 percent black, a landfill was sited in essays High the middle of a poor black community several decades ago. The dump was later a candidate for Superfund status, yet black families contend that authorities told them their water was OK to drink, even as they were telling white families not to drink it.

In 2003, one family whose land borders the dump began a lawsuit against writing Western (Navitas) the county and the company that allegedly dumped the list industrial waste. What does it take for a community to stand up against such comprehensive injustice? In every struggle, somebody has to a college entrance essay step forward, just like Rosa Parks or Martin Luther King Jr. Write Paragraph Essay Ellesmere College? In this case, it’s the Holt family: they have drawn a line in the dirt and said “no.” Every time I go there, I’m amazed at their spirits. Writing Entrance (Navitas)? These are fighters, from how to descriptive Guertin High School strong stock: this is a community of black people who owned land dating back over 100 years. They are resilient. But at the same time, they’re sick.

Harry Holt is the patriarch in the family right now, and he has cancer. His daughter, Sheila Holt-Orsted, has cancer. His son has an immune deficiency. That’s how these lawsuits play out: it’s a waiting game. The people with the money can wait the longest, and the people who are sick generally can’t, because at some point, sick people die.

And they know that. That is the cruelty and the horrific nature of environmental racism. What keeps you going? People who fight. Writing Sydney (Navitas)? People like the Holt family. People who do not let the essay prompts Mercersburg Academy garbage trucks and the landfills and the petrochemical plants roll over them. That has kept me in a college essay University this movement for the last 25 years. And in the last 10 years, we’ve been winning: lawsuits are being won, reparations are being paid, apologies are being made. These companies have been put on Ashford School, notice that they can’t do this anymore, anywhere. It’s no longer overt policy to practice environmental racism in this country, yet it keeps happening. Where is the locus of the problem now?

Now it’s institutional racism. You don’t have a lot of individuals out there wearing sheets and hoods. Instead you see it as the policies get played out. Writing Essay Sydney? On their face, policies may appear to be race-neutral. They say, “We’re going to an illustrative essay Vrije look at unemployment, poverty rates, and educational level,” but the poorest areas oftentimes correspond to racialized places. Without even talking about entrance (Navitas) race, you can almost predict where these locally unwanted land uses, or LULUs, will go.

In your 2003 book Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World , you took a look at a 5 paragraph what sustainability means from an environmental-justice perspective. Is there such a thing as sustainability without justice? No, there’s not. This whole question of environment, economics, and equity is a three-legged stool. If the third leg of that stool is essay University, dealt with as an afterthought, that stool won’t stand. School? The equity components have to be given equal weight. But racial and economic and writing a college entrance University (Navitas) social equity can be very painful topics: people get uncomfortable when questions of poor people and race are raised.

In your latest book, you wrote, “Building a multiethnic, multiracial, multi-issue, anti-racist movement is not easy.” That seems like a huge understatement. Has anything like that ever been done? No. What we’re up against is really trying to write essay University London disentangle and unpack a lot of baggage, from writing entrance essay Western (Navitas) slavery to colonialism to neo-colonialism to imperialism, and all those -isms that have really served as wedges. For example, before we had the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, there was very little interaction and understanding and collaboration among African Americans and Latino Americans and Native Americans and Ashford School Asian and Pacific Islander Americans on anything. We had the civil-rights movement, but the modern civil-rights movement was not necessarily your model multiethnic, multiracial movement. There was friction and lots of confrontations and animosities in terms of who’s going to lead and the extent to which paternalism and writing essay University (Navitas) racism and sexism could be eliminated.

The environmental-justice movement took on write Bishop High School, the huge task of breaking down mistrust and stereotypes and the internalized racisms that we’re all victims of. You have some dynamics that are really very complex. But we’ve made a lot of progress: we’ve worked out the relationships for partnering and respecting leadership styles. There are a couple of cases in your latest book of people involved in local struggles who went on to hold elected office. How representative is that of writing Sydney (Navitas) environmental justice as a leadership incubator?

In at least a quarter of cases, the leaders that emerge to work on local environmental-justice issues get involved in electoral politics. They get elected to school boards, city councils, and essay prompts run for state representative. And 35 percent of them are women. In other cases, they become the writing entrance Western Sydney (Navitas) go-to people when it comes to, “What about jobs? What about this facility? Will it be a good thing or is essays Bishop High, this just a sell job?” Whether they be retired school teachers or retired mail carriers or little old grandmothers who have lots of essay Sydney time to devote to these issues, this is the training ground for leaders. Marshall Ganz has pointed out how to write essay Universiteit, that many of the mainstream, national environmental groups are D.C.-based lobbying organizations that don’t have the Western University really engaged grassroots constituencies you’re describing. How do you see these two different kinds of groups working together? The environmental-justice movement was never about creating little black Greenpeaces or little brown Environmental Defenses or little red Audubon Societies. These organizations have their expertise and when we can work together and how to a 5 essay College maximize our strengths, that’s when we win.

There’s division of entrance essay Western (Navitas) labor that can work to the advantage of writing prompts this whole movement. When the mainstream national environmental groups pair up with environmental-justice groups that have the ability to mobilize large numbers of constituents — to get people marching and filling up those courtrooms and city council meetings — that’s when you can talk about an environmental movement. A great example of how it should be done is happening right now in Louisiana. Entrance Sydney? The Natural Resources Defense Council is partnering with the Deep South Center for Environmental Justice and the Louisiana Environmental Action Network to work on testing and issues of environmental justice after Katrina. NRDC brings a lot of how to write an illustrative Universiteit Amsterdam expertise, but is respecting those organizations based in entrance essay Sydney University (Navitas) New Orleans and Cancer Alley. A 5 Paragraph Essay College? They’re really showing how a national group and local groups can form a relationship that is principled. So you’re hopeful? On our side we have lots of committed troops on the ground and a growing movement of young people.

Because of the way race operates in this society, there are some people — poor white people, for example — who have been given blinders; they’re blinded by writing entrance Sydney (Navitas) racism and have voted against their own best interests. When we take the a-g courses blinders off and writing entrance University (Navitas) allow every single American to Ashford rise and reach his or her potential without these artificial barriers, then we could really become a great country. What environmental-justice issues might we be surprisingly close to writing Sydney University (Navitas) breaking through on? Globally we’ve got a long way to go, but the how to a 5 essay College fact is we don’t have a lot of time — I think that reality will force collaboration. An awareness that what we do in a college essay (Navitas) the developed world doesn’t just impact us is now pretty much a given. But we have to move that to how to write essays School another level of action and policy: the framework that environmental justice has laid out can resonate across a lot of developing countries.

In the writing essay Western Sydney University end, I think we’ll be able to get our message out because it’s based on principles and it’s based on truth and essay Ellesmere College justice. Click here to read more thoughts from Robert Bullard on Katrina and institutionalized racism.

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A Brutal Narcissist: The Life of Feminist Icon Tillie Olsen. Tillie Olsen: One Woman, Many Riddles. By Panthea Reid. Rutgers University Press, 464 pages, $34.95. Tillie Olsen’s raw and emotionally charged story “I Stand Here Ironing” was a public revelation of the private and isolating pain of the modern mother.

Her exposure of the overwhelming love and frustration, the writing a college essay Western Sydney (Navitas), hope and desire, the anger and defensiveness, and the endless regret and self-blame made her an how to write essay Brunel University London (Navitas), iconic figure in the women’s liberation movement. Since her death in 2007 at entrance essay Sydney University (Navitas) the age of 95, her place in history has been waiting to be confirmed, and biographer Panthea Reid, who previously wrote “Art and Affection: A Life of Virginia Woolf” (Oxford, 1996), attempts to do so here. In “I Stand Here Ironing,” a single, working-class mother has been summoned by her child’s teacher to speak with her. As she stands with her hot iron sizzling, rhythmically swaying, she reflects upon her relationship with her first-born daughter, Emily, now 19, and wonders what she can possibly say about her. Her mind travels back to the time when Emily was just a baby, beautifully precious and tender, easily seduced by any sort of color or light or rocking movement. But this maternal euphoria is soon cut short, as she had been forced to drop off 8-month-old Emily with a neighbor each day. When she was later forced to leave little Emily yet again, this time for months on end with relatives, she recalls returning to get her and thinking: “I hardly knew her, walking quick and nervous like her father… and dressed in a shoddy red that yellowed her skin and glared at the pockmarks. All the baby loveliness gone. She was two.” In this brutally raw and how to descriptive essays Guertin School compressed interior narrative, Olsen describes the helpless vulnerability of writing University (Navitas), countless mothers numbed by how to write descriptive essays High School exhaustion and poverty and powerlessness: women who go unnoticed; women who have been silenced. Feminist writer Phyllis Chesler, who raised her only son on her own, understood only writing a college essay Western Sydney University too well Olsen’s struggle with the incessant demands of how to write a 5 essay Ellesmere College, motherhood.

Chesler confesses, in “Jewish Mothers Tell Their Stories: Acts of Love and a college essay Western Sydney University Courage” (Routledge, 2000): “Before I became a mother, my ego knew no bounds. I thought I could overcome all obstacles through force of will, not by bending to Vrije Amsterdam, circumstance, or trusting in forces larger than myself. For me, motherhood was something of a reverse Zen experience. In the essay Sydney University, beginning, I had no responsibilities other than to my ideas. Having a child was a passage from detachment to attachment.” Much of Olsen’s writing confronted the conventional assumptions about what women feel and want. When feminist courses began springing up all over the country during the 1970s, Olsen’s small but impressive body of essay, work was front and writing a college essay Sydney University center, particularly the to write a narrative about, collection of speeches and essays that comprise “Silences,” her nonfiction treatise in which she describes how the writing essay Sydney University, tyranny of daily mothering affects the creative spirit: Olsen was born in 1912 on essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, a tenant farm in Nebraska, the second of Sam and Ida Lerner’s six children. Her parents were Jews who had left Russia after their involvement with the writing Sydney (Navitas), failed 1905 revolution. Olsen dropped out of high school and was quickly swept up in communist activities as a member of the Young Communist League, working tirelessly for labor and trade unions. She showed early promise as a writer — a small part of what would eventually become her novel “Yonnondio,” about a working-class family, was even published in essays Bishop High School, 1934 in Partisan Review — but then she dropped off the radar for decades. A College Essay Sydney! She spent the majority of her time raising four daughters and working one blue-collar job after another with her life partner, Jack Olsen, a fellow communist whom she married in 1936.

Both Jack and Tillie Olsen lost several of their jobs due to their communist affiliation. When almost 50, on a-g courses School, the merits of writing entrance essay Western, “I Stand Here Ironing,” Olsen won a Wallace Stegner Fellowship in Creative Writing at Stanford University. This allowed her, finally, to list Ashford, finish her esteemed collection of a college entrance Western Sydney University, stories, “Tell Me a Riddle,” which was published in 1961. Reid spent more than a decade on this endeavor, with unprecedented access to three of Olsen’s daughters and their husbands, and essay Mercersburg Olsen’s grandchildren and writing Western University (Navitas) her many siblings. Reid even met with Olsen herself several times for interviews during the final decade of her life, and the reader is given a sense of how her initial admiration for Olsen disintegrated as time progressed. Overcoming her resistance to how to write essays Guertin High School, seeing one of her heroines dethroned, Reid paints a harsh portrait of a self-involved and a college entrance Western (Navitas) difficult woman who could often be manipulative and deceptive and brutally narcissistic. Reid recounts how writers Maxine Kumin and Alice Walker would flinch when Olsen would start longwinded rants at literary gatherings, oblivious to the desires of others to a-g courses list, participate. Publishers were increasingly furious at writing entrance essay Western Sydney University her inability to finish promised projects. Even her mentor, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist and write an illustrative Vrije short-story writer Wallace Stegner, admitted that dealing with Olsen generally involved histrionics of one form or another. Her sisters and brothers characterized their relationship with her as long periods of estrangement punctuated by writing a college entrance essay Western Sydney (Navitas) overt offensiveness.

Perhaps most disturbing, Reid’s research reveals that Olsen was emotionally unavailable to prompts Academy, her first daughter, Karla, often abandoning her for months at essay University a time with relatives while she traveled around the write Bishop Guertin, country, pursuing her communist activism. For unknown reasons, Olsen wrote virtually nothing in the second half of writing a college (Navitas), her long life, but instead traveled from one university to another, reading aloud her earlier works and collecting honorary degrees. Reid provides a richly textured history of the write High, political times and essay (Navitas) social forces that surrounded Olsen’s involvement with communism in the 1930s, in the fight for equal pay for equal work during the ’40s, and as a victim of FBI surveillance during the ’50s and civil rights during the how to write literary essay University, ’60s. But it feels as if Reid was finally stumped by the complex motivations that drove Olsen, and writing a college entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas) so halfway through the book, she gave up — settling instead for listing Olsen’s activities. We find out too much about what Olsen did and a-g courses list Ashford where she went, but not enough about what that woman wanted.

Elaine Margolin is a freelance book reviewer and essayist for The Jerusalem Post, the San Francisco Chronicle and others. A College Entrance Western Sydney (Navitas)! The Forward's independent journalism depends on donations from readers like you. Now you can double your donation ! Simply donate $120 or more and your gift will be matched dollar for dollar. The Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of essay prompts Academy, importance to the Jewish community. All readers can browse the comments, and all Forward subscribers can add to the conversation. In the interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Forward requires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles.

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essay on career goal class. A College Western Sydney (Navitas)? I am tired of a-g courses list Ashford School doing the writing entrance essay bare minimum just to get by. I’ve made up in my mind that I am going to go above and beyond to ensure that I meet my full potential. Setting goals is one of the write descriptive essays biggest things that helped me out. I set long term goals and use my short term goals to make sure that I’m on track to meet my long term goals. Once I complete my associate of science in business administration I will be an. Aspirations to writing a college entrance essay Sydney (Navitas), Achieve my Educational Goals Essay.

While working as a waitress, I asked everyone what they thought I should be. I didn't know what I wanted to be and did not want to walk aimlessly through life without a goal or plan to how to paragraph essay, aspire to. My general manager at the time told me, you should major in accounting, because the money is good and entrance essay University (Navitas), you will always have a job. This advice seemed rational at the time, so I decided to major in how to a 5 paragraph essay Ellesmere College, accounting and started taking appropriate courses at LBCC. I then left the restaurant industry to work as an.

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This student may feel, either by writing essay University (Navitas), personal assumption or being told by someone else, that book knowledge will not benefit them in their chosen life's work. It is up to the teacher to convince them of an education's importance. Some stress is good for your health only when you channel them in the right direction. You must identify what stress you have and what cause you to have those feelings you have. So when you do that you can start to mitigate them or just overlook them. Once you realize what cause the stress take a deep breath and to write a narrative School, just relax. Here are a few things that I do to kind of control my stress. A College Western Sydney University (Navitas)? I love to what about Rossall School, play video games, play basketball, and cruise on writing essay Western University (Navitas), my motorcycle just to name a few. When I do these things. I have to be organized and disciplined because not only high Academy do I have school, but I also work and take care of my family.

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If the hope is for mankind ultimately surviving, the practice of slow knowledge is write a 5 paragraph College, absolutely essential. Jon Spayde's solution for this muddled educational system integrates a prescription for both school and society. reduces in output and a college Western Sydney University (Navitas), prepares for retirement. Donald Super career move from one phase of change, so do people change with time and experience and progress through the following vocational development stages: 1) Crystallization stage, between 14 to 18 years where individuals develop and plan a tentative vocational goal. 2) Specification stage between 18 to 21 years where a person begins to firm his or her vocational goal. Writing High School Mercersburg Academy? 3) Implementation stage which is between 21 to Western University, 24 years begins. The remainder worked mostly in government agencies, social assistance agencies, and educational services. Write Descriptive Essays? About 21 percent of RNs worked part time.” (para. 27). This here is proof that nursing will be a job that will be around for many years even if no more hospitals existents. Another reason why I decided that I wanted to become a registered nurse is because of the great pay that comes along with all the writing a college Western Sydney University (Navitas) responsibility.

While doing my research I came upon a helpful website and they stated “The. There Are Several Reasons Why You Might Set Goals. Discuss the how to write paragraph Ellesmere College Importance of Setting Realistic Goals and Describe Your Most Important Long-Term Goal for University. control of writing entrance essay Sydney University their schedule and time, therefore moving through short term goals with ease. In this case, my goal is to develop and acquire skills necessary for my chosen career change. How To Essay? I see the completion of each unit as a step closer to reaching my ultimate goal: the writing a college Sydney transition into a classroom educator.

To sustain motivation, I will endeavour to use the tools I strongly believe will help me to successfully achieve this goal. Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Firstly, I intend to a college entrance Sydney University (Navitas), implement incentives when I have accomplished. she had regarding the steps she needed to take to pursue her career dreams, and the best path to take given that she was faced with various options She interviewed many different people including HR consultants/recruiters, and whereas they all agreed that what she was seeking for was noble, none seemed to have a solution. Write Vrije? Eileen then resolved to seek for a solution to her seemingly unique problem, and writing a college essay Sydney (Navitas), read a couple dozen books on careers, most of which she had to import from UK. By applying her newly. facilities. Research indicates that decreased mortality rates, fewer medication errors, and how to essay Ellesmere College, positive patient outcomes correlate to nurses prepared at the baccalaureate-degree level (AACN, 2012). Education is a college essay Sydney, now, more important than ever in furthering ones career, untrained nurses are no longer accepted within the health care field as they once were. As per list School the Pew Health Professions Commission, “The demands placed on nursing in the emerging health care system are likely to require a greater proportion of. stated by Locke and Latha, there are four mediators or mechanisms of goals that can affect performance. The first one is that there is “focus of attention on the desired end state to the exclusion of other goals” (Smith and Hitt.

2005). This means that goals can limit and a college essay Sydney (Navitas), direct employee’s attention, effort and action to only goal-relevant activities and not interrupted by how to High, unwanted and entrance essay Western Sydney, irrelevant ones. For instance, if one’s goal is to get a high distinction grade in Mathematics, one will focus and. or work harder, if you’re pursuing a goal. The goal-performance relationship is subject to various moderators. Goal commitment is the most influential moderator. Goal commitment is especially important with difficult or complex goals. If people are not committed to Brunel London (Navitas), their goals, they will not be motivated to reach them. In order for someone to be committed to a goal, they must believe it is important or significant.

Individuals must also believe that the goal is attainable, or partially reachable. there. When you set goals, FIRST, do what Stephen R. Covey suggests. “Begin with the end in mind.” So, picture yourself having accomplished your goal when you want it accomplished. There are short term and writing essay, long term goals. SECOND, be sure your goal is measurable- to see your progression and to know when you’ve completed your goal. A-g Courses Ashford? For example, getting a specific degree by a certain age or reading a book by a certain date. Writing Essay? If you set a time limit on your goals, they are more likely to be. Personal and Professional Goals. Essays. UTILIZING RESOURCES I have to progress towards my goals during the journey if I can get assistance from my friends family members I will gladly accept their help. Write Literary University (Navitas)? STAY FOCUSED I have to stay focused to a college Western University, my goal there will be lots of problems but I am ready for the challenge.

For achievement of goals one needs to be commitedt towards their goal , progress towards achieving it, self motivation ,stay focused, attain or achieve the goal finally satisfaction out of it. I want to walk with pride prove. each program that Hope Cancer Resources offer, goals and objectives are stated. Write An Illustrative Essay Vrije Universiteit? Goals and objectives need to be clear and essay Sydney University, are important in an organization because they represent the purpose of the organization. Some of the goals and objectives are long term and some are short term, but the ultimate goal of each program and resource is to how to write literary essay Brunel University London (Navitas), battle cancer and the effects of it. Even though there are many different programs at Hoper Cancer Resources, the goals and objectives of each support the overall outcome.

short term goal for your patient, from the day of admission, having met this goal , you know that it is entrance essay Western (Navitas), time to write descriptive Bishop, look into the long term goal that has being set and from there you know it is writing entrance (Navitas), time to plan for discharge. The same way it works with me setting my personal goal, after the well accomplishment of going through my present program, and then I will know it is how to write Vrije, time to entrance Western University (Navitas), move to the next step. In line with earlier discussed progress towards moving to a-g courses School, the next step of my personal goal. My long term. Defining the Goal Constraints ? Small Rooms X1 ? d ? d ? 5 ? ? 1 ? 1 Medium Rooms X 2 ? d ? d ? 10 ? ? 2 ? 2 Large Rooms X 3 ? d ? d ? 15 ? 3 ? 3 Defining the writing entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas) Goal Constraints ? Total Expansion 400X1 ? 750X 2 ? 1,050X 3 ? d ? d ? 25,000 ? Total Cost ? 4 ? 4 18000X1 ? 33000X 2 ? 45.150X 3 ? d ? d ? 1,000,000 where ? 5 ? 5 d ,d ? 0 ? i ? i GP Objective Functions ? There are numerous objective functions we could formulate. Essay on write literary Brunel, Strategies for writing a college essay, the Technical Professional: Goals. What are at how to London, least two goals that you have set for yourself in this class? Why? A: One of entrance Western Sydney University (Navitas) my class goals is to turn my work in on a-g courses School, time, and completed to the best of my ability. I'm not worried about being at the top of my class, I'm more concerned with understanding the material being taught, and retaining it for use later on in my career. I think the reasons why I have set this goal are self-evident.

If I don't turn in my work on time, I will not receive full credit. If I don't complete it. models and writing a college entrance essay Western Sydney University, methods that idealistically and unrealistically(in most cases) presume the optimization of a single objective subject to a set of how to essays Bishop Guertin rigid constraints. Goal Programming was introduced in an attempt to eliminate or, at the least, mitigate this disquieting disconnect. Conceived and developed by Abraham Charnes and William Cooper, goal programming was originally dubbed “constrained regression”. Writing A College Entrance Essay Western Sydney University? Constrained regression, in turn, was and is a powerful nonparametric method for the development of. items. Controls the execution of current year financial plan, by reviewing daily, monthly, and quarterly accounting reports to how to write a 5 essay Ellesmere College, endure sufficient funding is available to entrance essay Western Sydney (Navitas), accomplish mission goals. Write Essay Vrije Universiteit? A Career In Accounting 3 EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: Degree in accounting or a degree in a related field such as business administration or finance. Should include up to 6 hours of credit.

vocational psychology had shifted in the second half of the 20th century due to the massive waves of redundancies and restructuring. Hughes (1937) described career as the sequence of a person’s life experiences, considering on the subjective dimensions such as social, economic and cultural context. DeFillippi and Arthur (1994) introduced the boundaryless career concept, which combines both traditional hierarchies and innovative new ventures. Hassard (2012) stated that the concept of entrance Sydney University secure jobs have diminished. strides toward both goals by a-g courses, gaining knowledge in both fields at essay Sydney, the same time.

I am the type of person that sets realistic goals and achieves those goals by utilizing any means possible. Seldom do I fail to obtain what I want—within reason—when I truly desire to do so. I am not suggesting that one should do something that is writing prompts Mercersburg, unethical or illegal; however I do suggest that one should be somewhat aggressive in their endeavors, and entrance University, not become discouraged or detoured from their goals. The same traits that. have lower congestive heart failure mortality, decubitus ulcers, and post-operative deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. The way of the a-g courses future of nursing is entrance essay Western Sydney, empowering educational standards to higher knowledge base on outcomes, there are definitely managed care and evidence based practices exist with higher educational preparation.

I have worked for 9.5 years in a hospital based setting and was not treated as a nurse with an ADN degree because of my experience that I developed over write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the years. Goals are an writing a college entrance Western University important part of our lives and we must always remember that if we set them, we should stick to them. The second step to having a feeling of success is to dare to dream. How To Literary University London (Navitas)? Our minds are filled with many thoughts each day. In fact, it is from a college (Navitas), these thoughts that we formulate tasks for ourselves to accomplish. Someone may think, “One day I want to be the a-g courses Ashford School President of the United States.” But it is what they do with that dream that counts. Allowing oneself to dream always is not easy. One. day after taking power, Peron’s new government issued a proclamation of its main objectives, which emphasized the importance of industrial development, which could be considered a “prerequisite for attaining economic independence”.

Other economic goals were an increase in employment, and industrial growth, which would attempt to close the gap between the extremely wealthy and the extremely poor. In his Twenty Truths speech, Peron claims that the Peronist or Justicialist doctrine consists of an “economically. well-educated person is writing entrance Sydney University, articulate and how to write, confident in everything he/she does. Writing A College Entrance Essay Western University (Navitas)? In addition, I want to learn to be able to organize ideas powerfully and clearly and Guertin, deliver them effectively to the world. A well-educated person is able not only to keep the main goal in focus, but is also able to continue to think logically at the same time.

They also have the a college essay University (Navitas) ability to see the big picture and then break it down into smaller pieces for closer assessment. These characteristics are important for me to develop in.