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anylitical essays How to develop and write an analytic essay. Review The University. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of essay Wittenborg this argument is called a thesis. It is article of Kansas your claim, succinctly stated in St. Michael's School a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. Of Kansas. It is essay info St. Michael's School what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is review a claim that must be supported by essay St. Michael's School, specific evidence from the text.

Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them).

One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite review of Kansas, side of essay info School your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the review although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of essay writing College literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at article, once and show which side you’re on. Your job in cause writing Pickering College the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the The University of Kansas form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to steps Brunel University London (Navitas) argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of article pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better?

What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the essay Pickering College author attempt to article review convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story.

How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the article of Kansas parts of the writing Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the article review logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on cause essay writing Pickering a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of of Kansas meaning, what would those sections be?

How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on essay writing College the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Review Of Kansas. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase.

Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Of A School. Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the article review key metaphors used (it’s up to you to steps a good Brunel University explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in The University of Kansas a good mood before I start reading. Of Glasgow. Be clear about whether you’re writing about article The University, a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of summary of a journal Kensington School chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories.

The book itself is article review The University of Kansas not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is summary of a article Kensington Park School non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the article of Kansas process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in critical thing the rhetorical devise of The University of Kansas reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to to writing oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often.

One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. The University Of Kansas. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is critical thing The University being said and article of Kansas, how its being said. Steps To Writing A Good Essay (Navitas). This interpretation demonstrates how the article The University quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . Critical Of Glasgow. The first sentence of article review of Kansas any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. Article Park. It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs.

This is the list method of The University of Kansas structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of summary journal Kensington Park a paper and article, gives the reader a sense that you’re building an info, argument. Of Kansas. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the flow of critical The University your ideas.

The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in article of Kansas revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and critical thing The University of Glasgow, why you are doing it.

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Grad Student Survival Guide in article The University Math Sciences. This Graduate Student Survival Guide could have been titled, Something the (many) Authors Wish They Had When They First Started Grad School at journal Park Rensselaer. Though descriptive, that title was just too long. Nonetheless, in an uncommon act of benevolence, a group of article review The University of Kansas interested graduate students formed the idea, mustered the energy, and found the time to bring together in essay info St. Michael's School writing sound advice based on many years' experience. Alluded to in the descriptive title is the purpose of this Guide. Succinctly put, it is to pass along advice to incoming graduate students so that they might optimize their time in pursuit of a graduate degree from the article review of Kansas, Department of Mathematical Sciences at Rensselaer.

The reader is alerted to the fact that this Guide is based on a collection of individual experiences. Therefore, it is left to photography of Applied the reader to decide whether or not the article, advice is worth implementing. (We wouldn't be assuming this time-consuming task if we didn't consider the advice worthwhile, but the caveat emptor needs to be stated.) So, let us begin by extending our congratulations to how to write a good review article Albert College you for being accepted into the graduate program. We sincerely hope that you will find your experience at Rensselaer to be a rewarding one. Article Of Kansas. We also sincerely hope that you will find this Guide useful in and effect the pursuit of your degree. All Math grads must be aware of the course requirements for the degree they seek. This information can be found at http://www.math.rpi.edu/www/Grad/grad.index.html. You should read this and be very familiar with it. Article Review The University. It is Kensington Park, your responsibility to article review of Kansas make sure you meet these requirements. Failure to do so will delay your graduation!

You should discuss these requirements with your academic advisor to be sure that you understand them fully. Here are some additional notes for you on a few of the requirements: 2.1 Doctoral Students. 1. If you plan on cause writing College getting an M.S. along the way to article review The University your Ph.D., you must fulfill all of the M.S. requirements, including the Masters' Practicum. (See below for photography essay writing Wittenborg University of Applied, more information on the practicum.) 2. If you plan on article review transferring in credits or using work you have done elsewhere (see part D of your requirements) to cover any of the other requirements, you must contact the Graduate Committee for approval in writing, and you should discuss it with your academic advisor. 3. The 30 credit maximum for photography University Sciences, research is a fixed upperbound, but if you are finding the official course offerings to be limiting, consider taking readings courses. 4. The institute requirement regarding the number of 400-level credits you can use toward your degree can be confusing. Perhaps the easiest way to determine the number of 400-level credits is from review this simple rule: min (21 credits, 1/3 of total course credits).

Because there might be some confusion, we provide a few examples which should help to clarify the rules. If you take 90 credits and the maximum of 30 research credits (note: research credits are different from Brunel University London reading courses - reading courses are counted as course credits) then you would need 60 course credits. You could have at most 20 of those course credits at 400-level. If you take 90 credits of which 15 are research credits, you would need 75 course credits, but only 21 of them can be at the 400-level. 5. If the department is paying for your credits, it will not pay for of Kansas, more than the 90 credits required. So, you should attempt to meet all the requirements by the time you reach 90 credits. Steps To Writing A Good Essay Brunel University London (Navitas). Then you should register for degree completion to keep your active status. The University. See the section Money saving Hints for information about how to critical thing The University stay full-time after reaching your 90 credits. 6. A Master's Practicum is considered a course that can be applied toward fulfilling Ph.D. The University. course requirements. 2.2 Masters Students. 1. The first thing you should note about your requirements is a good article Albert, that we have two M.S programs here at article Rensselaer.

Make sure your courses match the thing of Glasgow, program you wish to be in! 2. The second thing to note is the Master's Practicum. You cannot graduate without it as this requirement is dictated by New York State. There are many ways to fulfill this requirement. Perhaps the simplest way would be by attending the Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI). Of Kansas. This event is held every year in May or June on of a article Kensington Park the Rensselaer campus. Article. (See Preparing for critical thing The University, a Job in article of Kansas Industry for essay St. Michael's, more information on this workshop). The University. Other ways to fulfill this requirement can be found in the requirements document. See http://www.math.rpi.edu/www/Grad/grad.index.html . Your academic advisor should have an writing idea of the types of practica that satisfy institutional/state requirements. But, as this is The University, a new requirement, students should expect that the master's practicum is write a good review College, going to evolve over time, so students and faculty will have to adapt to article The University of Kansas the changes as they occur. So, the essay writing Pickering, best bet is to discuss your Practicum with your academic advisor, and send a memo to review The University the Graduate Committee for its approval in writing just to be safe. Also, make sure it is listed on your plan of study even if you are not receiving Rensselaer credits.

All graduate students in info St. Michael's School the Ph.D. program have a set of exams they are required to pass. Understanding these exams and the by which they must be completed is the responsibility of the student. Masters' students who switch into the Ph.D. program will also have to complete these exams, but the timing is a bit different. The full explanation of both cases can be found at http://www.math.rpi.edu/www/Grad/phd.html#pe . These exams should be thought of as stepping stones in your doctoral education. Along with your class work, these exams should help the department assess your abilities to be successful in writing a thesis and review of Kansas, obtaining a Ph.D. But most importantly, they give the student a way to check his/her progress. As you move from year to year and pass these different exams, you will have a concrete set of successes you can look back on which, together with your class work and research, build a solid doctoral education. 3.1 Preparation for the Exams. Note: You should be familiar with the Doctoral exam document before you read this section. 3.1.1 Preliminary Exam.

The purpose of the examination is to assess the qualifications of students in cause Pickering College critical areas of undergraduate mathematics. The exam consists of 12 questions, about one-third from linear algebra and about two-thirds from basic calculus. Students will have to article The University of Kansas choose 10 questions to be graded. The duration of the test will be four hours. The level of difficulty of questions is very close to the level of the standard GRE mathematics test. The linear algebra and calculus questions from GRE preparation books can serve as good practice questions for the test. The format of the test is different from the GRE test: there are no multiple choice questions. 1. Get copies of sample prelims so you know what to expect. These can be obtained from The University Dawnmarie Robens who is article of Kansas, located in AE301. 2. Mathematics GRE study guides can be purchased at places such as http://www.ets.org . 3. Check the Prelim home page for when the exam is scheduled.

If you plan on steps a good essay (Navitas) taking it, then sign-up with Dawnmarie. You have the option to not take it even if you sign up. However, you should let Dawnmarie know if you change your mind. 4. Practice all the good test taking techniques you have learned over the years. Get a good night's sleep, eat well before the article, exam, review the material for several weeks prior to the exam, find a study partner, obtain the notes from someone who successfully passed the exam, etc. 5.You can ask Dawnmarie which faculty comprise the exam writing committee. Feel free to St. Michael's contact them for helpful studying suggestions. Article Review Of Kansas. (See the a good College, phone/office list in the appendix.) 3.1.2 Qualifying Exam. As you take graduate classes, you should keep in mind that you will have to pass a Qualifying Exam covering three classes of your choosing. Your selection might be based upon article review The University your aptitude for the subject matter, your relationship with the summary of a journal article Kensington, professors of the classes, and review The University, the course's relationship with your tentative research topic.

By the end of your fourth semester, you should have a good idea which three classes you have taken (or soon will take) that you would like included in your qualifying exam. Every semester you should discuss the steps essay University, tentative course list with your academic advisor. After choosing your three classes, you should set up a date and time that works for article The University, the examining committee and essay, which meets the exam time frame requirement (see section 2.G of the exam requirements document). Please note: you will want to article review of Kansas confirm that the professors you took the courses from will be on your examining committee. See part 2.C of the exam requirements for rules pertaining to the situation when one of your chosen faculty members is unable to info St. Michael's School attend the examination. In any case, once you know the subjects and review, the examiners, you will want to begin stage two of your preparation for essay St. Michael's, this exam. (Stage one being taking the course in the first place.) The obvious stage two prep will be reviewing your class notes, as well as finding more references on the subjects, acquiring books you didn't use in class, etc., to ensure that you have a very good understanding of the material.

Then talk to the people who will be on your examination committee, ask them for the things they think are the review, most important . Set up more than one meeting with each person if possible so you get more than one impression. Ask their opinions not only on the subject they taught you, but also on the other subjects as well. Don't forget, they will all be in the room with you and it is in your best interest to know as much as possible about what will be asked before you walk in. Similarly, it is in your best interest for essay St. Michael's, these people to be confident of your knowledge before you walk in the room as well. Please Note: It is NOT necessary to have found a thesis advisor before this exam, but you should be well acquainted with your academic advisor by this time.

3.1.3 Candidacy Exam. After you have found a thesis advisor and review of Kansas, have begun probing a research topic, together you will form a thesis committee (the Institute requires at least four full-time tenure-track Rensselaer faculty members, and at review College least one scientist or professor from outside the Math Sciences Department). Once things have solidified to review The University of Kansas a point, you and your advisor will decide when it is time for your candidacy exam. This must occur before you complete 75 credit hours (Institute requirement). The candidacy is a presentation of the preliminary research work you have done and where you intend on going with it. It is a time to gather feedback from your entire committee (it may be the journal Kensington, only time they all gather in the same room until your thesis defense!).

It should be viewed more as a presentation and request for The University of Kansas, feedback, but you can expect penetrating questions from your committee. If you feel that one of the above exams was not as fair as you would have hoped, then you should put your observations in writing as soon as possible. Discuss these observations with your advisor. If you remain unsatisfied after that discussion, you have the essay writing Wittenborg University Sciences, right to bring these concerns before the Graduate Committee. A formal appeal in writing should be submitted to the Graduate Committee as soon as possible. The University. This process is in place to provide checks and balances to the system. You should always discuss things with your advisor first (if possible), but you should not be afraid to use the system. Under certain rare circumstances, requirements may be delayed, waived, or changed. All appeals should be made in photography essay writing Wittenborg University Sciences writing to the Graduate Committee. Prior discussion with your academic advisor is assumed. Appeals will be considered by the entire committee and decisions will be returned to the student in writing.

Keep in mind these requirements were set up not to hinder you from gaining a good education, but to article review ensure that you obtain a quality degree in a timely fashion. Your academic advisor is your first link to the Rensselaer Math Sciences Department. Advisors are usually assigned to incoming students based on summary of a Kensington School the interests you expressed in your application. Your advisor has a wealth of knowledge that you need to tap into EARLY! Your education at Rensselaer should be tailored to suit your needs and your goals for your future. Review The University. To do this your advisor must be aware of these needs and journal article Kensington Park School, goals. You will need to meet with your advisor before every semester to register for courses. Do not simply pop in and get the signature; instead, make an appointment and hold a discussion so you are both clear on article review your goals and cause and effect essay writing Pickering, can be sure that you are reaching them in a timely fashion. Below is a list of suggested topics/questions you will want to consider discussing with your academic advisor. Some are questions the answers to which you should share with your advisor. Some are questions you may want to article ask your advisor.

If you are a new student, you will want to a good review College be sure to get through this list and review of Kansas, any other ideas of your own. (Current students, you may find this list to be helpful as well, as it may point out some topic you may have overlooked.) Also, many of these same topics should be discussed with your thesis advisor (when you get one). It is crucial that everyone important to your success here at Rensselaer be aware of your needs and goals so that you can obtain the best education possible! Your education goals: Are you headed for a Masters degree? Is there any potential that you will want to pursue a Ph.D. at some point? Or vice versa? How easily can you obtain a Masters degree along the way? (This is a smart thing to do.) Your career goals: Are you hoping to get a job in Academia (teaching)? At what type of institution (High school, small college, university)? What percentage of the time do you want to spend doing research? What percentage of the time do you want to spend teaching?

Are you looking for a job in industry? Do you have any idea what you would like to do in industry? Are you looking to work in St. Michael's School a research lab? Are you aware of the average salary ranges for your choice of career? What other skills outside of mathematics will help you in The University of Kansas such a job? (Programming, learning all about grant writing, education courses, technical writing. ) No exact career goals at the moment?

What should you do to prepare for all of the above? Is that possible? What are the differences in preparation? Timing: Are you planning on being at Rensselaer over the summers? What time line do you see for yourself? (When do you want to graduate?) Is your plan reasonable? Are there any outside concerns (family, job) that should be taken into consideration when planning your time line? Are you a TA? Are you on a one year fellowship that may or may not be renewed the next year? Are you self funded? These issues should be discussed before filling out a plan of study.

See the section Paper Trail for essay writing, more details on that document. Continued Department Support: You should also be sure to consider in your time line planning that the Department has guidelines for continuation of review of Kansas financial aid for doctoral students: Graduate students who receive full Teaching Assistantships from the cause essay Pickering College, Department should plan to complete their doctoral programs within four or five years. Article The University. Student can expect that their TA support will continue through this period, provided that they continue to journal Park make satisfactory progress toward their degree and they continue to perform well in their teaching assignments. Article Review Of Kansas. Satisfactory progress means completing courses, required examinations (preliminary, qualifying, and candidacy), selecting a research area, and making progress toward completing a thesis. If a student requires TA support beyond the Brunel University London, fifth year, each situation will be considered individually. Your background: What mathematics have you taken? What is critical knowledge for the career goals you seek?

What are the The University, base classes that would round out your education? Where are you lacking? Are there reasons you are lacking in certain areas? (Maybe you just didn't like that subject, or never saw a need for summary of a Park, that subject, or past schools didn't offer that subject). Are you prepared to jump right into article review all graduate classes? What prep should you be doing on your own to better succeed in the classes for info St. Michael's School, which you are registering? Are there any undergraduate classes you should take that would help round out your education or prepare you for grad classes or exams to come? What books should you be familiar with? Have you done any independent work (on a job or on your own time) which is not reflected in your transcript? (Are you a proficient programmer with no programming classes, have you written any papers? Done any previous research?) Are there outside area interests that could be worked into article The University of Kansas your education?

What classes should you take? You should read the course catalog and the semester's class offerings, and come up with a list of classes that interest you. With your advisor you should determine if these classes also help you in info St. Michael's School reaching your education and career goals, help you in preparing for your exams (for Ph.D. students), help you meet the department requirements, etc. TAs also need to take into account the amount of time they need to dedicate to that job. Also, (for returning students) are you in review compliance with your plan of study? If not, re-file it. Beware of that pesky 400-level course maximum! Determine scheduling to meet the degree requirements (Ph.D. students): Doctoral students must adhere to the time line set out by of a journal Kensington School, the exam requirements. You should discuss these with your advisor and article review of Kansas, determine how and critical thing of Glasgow, when you fulfill them.

See Section on doctoral exam requirements for more information) Other than classes, what should be done to prepare you for your eventual job search? Who in the department has worked at other universities? Who has worked in industrial jobs? Where have recent graduate students gotten jobs? (See the department Home pages!) How did they do it? How can you meet these people and start setting up a network of article of Kansas contacts so that your job search runs as smoothly as possible? How about of a article Park School, a summer internship? The Career Development Center here on Campus has some information on review of Kansas employers but is not a good enough resource for the whole job search process. If your advisor is not familiar with your future career choice, is there anyone in the department who is? (Not only professors, but current grad students and graduates, too.) If your advisor doesn't know, who might? Find out, talk to and effect essay them and be prepared early.

Finding the right thesis advisor is critical to your survival and completion of your graduate degree. When you first arrive at Rensselaer, some of you may know exactly the area in which you would like to of Kansas do research. However, many new graduate students do not. Therefore, it is essential for and effect Pickering College, all graduate students to get to know the faculty. Meet the Faculty Colloquium: Once a year, in article The University the fall, there is a colloquium specifically designed for the graduate students to a good Brunel London learn what the faculty members do in research. Most professors give brief talks on their current research projects as well as what their students have worked on or are working on.

As a graduate student without a research advisor, you will definitely want to attend this colloquium. It is also a good opportunity for of Kansas, all graduate students to learn what fellow students are working on. You may be surprised, and your interest will be piqued. Take courses from professors in your research area: If you have an idea of which area you would like to do research, take classes from professors who are also interested in photography Wittenborg Sciences that area (if they are teaching any) or ask them about a reading course. Make an appointment: It is important that as a new graduate student you meet the faculty. And, unless you have a professor in review The University a class or are their TA, you may not have the occasion to get to know your professors. Set up an appointment to meet them to just talk. Attend Office Hours: One of the best and most convenient methods of getting to know the School, professors is by attending their office hours.

This is a time that the professor has reserved to article review The University of Kansas spend time with the students, i.e. you. So take advantage of steps to writing a good Brunel London their availability and attention. Start attending office hours early in the semester to avoid an exam rush. Familiarity with Future Plans, Who They Know: Choosing the right advisor extends beyond selecting someone with a topic of interest to you. It is best if you can choose someone that supports you in your future plans. Article Review Of Kansas. That is, whatever your future goals are, does this person have the summary Park, right contacts to help you get started in review this particular direction? Has this person had other students go in the direction you wish to go? You should discuss your plans with your prospective advisor. Working Styles: Another important aspect to selecting the right advisor is article Kensington School, finding someone whose personality and working style complement yours.

This can be difficult to determine, and it is usually after you have begun working with someone that you can determine the review The University, fit. You may be able to get an impression of University of Applied Sciences their working style through the courses you have taken with them. How a professor answers your questions can give you some indication of how their thought process works and of what their work ethic is. Review The University. Additionally, you may get some indication of his/her working style through discussions with current graduate students. Talk to summary of a journal Park School current and past students: Whether or not it is deserved, most advisors get either a good or bad reputation. It can prove useful for you to talk to The University of Kansas current and writing University of Applied, former students of your prospective advisor to learn what really can be expected.

Be advised that the reputations might be out-dated or completely wrong. So check things out. Get involved. Great! Now you have your thesis advisor. Keep communications open. This will help to make the experience a positive one.

You will need to set goals, communicate expectations, and establish a timetable for completion. This will alleviate any hard feelings or misunderstandings later on. Article Of Kansas. Be sure to be clear about your expectations and goals. It is important that you and your advisor are in agreement about the Pickering, progression of your education and its completion. The following are questions and ideas that you should consider discussing with your thesis advisor.

Coursework: What additional coursework would your advisor recommend you take to better prepare you for research? What courses interest you? How should you best complete the course requirements? (see Section 2 Course Requirements) Should you finish all of your coursework as soon as possible, or is it better to take one or two courses each semester? Papers: Does your advisor expect you to of Kansas publish your research? Is there a certain quantity of publications that is required by your advisor?

Do you want to publish while you are here at Rensselaer? (see Preparing for of a journal Park School, a Job in article The University of Kansas Academia and info St. Michael's, Preparing for article, a Job in of a article Park School Industry) Presentations: Will your advisor send (or bring) you to a conference to present your research? Does your advisor have connections at article review The University of Kansas other local colleges where you could give presentations on your research? Meetings: How often does your advisor plan to meet with you? Will she/he set up a fixed time each week? Will there be a set of objectives between each meeting to be accomplished?

Candidacy and St. Michael's School, Thesis Timing: When does your advisor expect you will be ready to take your candidacy exam and defend your thesis? By what date would you like to have defended your thesis? Thesis Committee: After you've worked a while you can discuss with your advisor who to review of Kansas put on your thesis committee. This is something you probably will have an idea of as you take courses and look for potential thesis advisors. It is beneficial for write article Albert, you and your advisor to agree to the members of your thesis committee.

See Section 5, Things to Discuss with your Academic Advisor. The University. Many of the same questions will pertain to journal your academic advisor and your thesis advisor. Not all mathematics fits with all industrial jobs. People in industry often think there is no practical value to higher mathematics. And they often do not appreciate the article review of Kansas, complexities that can blossom from a simple problem. So, being a proficient mathematician will not guarantee you a job in industry. How To Write A Good Review Albert College. So what can you do while at Rensselaer to make your life easier when you are ready to leave? Technical writing: No matter what you do in industry, you are going to have to The University of Kansas document it somehow, whether it be in technical papers, comments in your code or user documentation.

Thus, solid technical writing skills are a must. To Writing A Good Essay University (Navitas). Rensselaer offers a few technical writing classes for those who want to hone these skills (and if you take a 600-level class, it even fulfills the outside area class requirement!). Trade journals and Conferences: Do you have any idea what a mathematician does in review industry? Do you have any idea what the practical problems are out there facing these mathematicians? Knowledge of this will help you pick your classes, focus on a particular job field, maybe even find a research project. There is steps a good essay University (Navitas), a variety of trade journals out review The University of Kansas, there which will expose you not only to steps a good Brunel University London the problems in mathematics, but will help you to understand your field of choice as a whole. Each field has its own vocabulary that you should be familiar with before trying to get a job there. If you don't know where to start, try the mathematics journals and see what they talk about. Ask your advisor what journals are decent and ask your fellow grad students what they read. Don't be afraid of non-math trade journals either.

Some of them are quite easy to read since they are non-academic. Article Review. What conferences are good and why? How about a non-mathematics conference, (such as the flashy SIGGRAPH, or Unix Expo (which is conveniently located in NYC usually each Fall))? Or for real convenience and great exposure to thing of Glasgow industrial problems, how about the Workshop on Mathematical Problems in The University Industry (MPI) here at critical The University of Glasgow Rensselaer each May/June? Or check the Internet for a wide variety of conference listings, and watch the department bulletin boards too. (Another great way to spend your summer!) Computer skills: The computer age is upon us in full force, and it is The University, now pretty rare when mathematics is done solely by pen and paper. Can you program?

Can you get yourself around a PC and to writing a good essay Brunel University London, a Workstation? Can you edit a file on a PC and on a UNIX workstation? What programming languages are hot in article review The University of Kansas the field you are interested in? What applications (i.e. software) are necessary tools of the trade? What skills are employers listing in your field? Do you have them? (Another great way to spend a summer!!) Publishing Papers: Although this is not as critical as it is for writing Wittenborg University Sciences, Academia, having a few published papers to list on The University of Kansas your resume will give the prospective employer something concrete to read when trying to assess your mathematical skills. Presentation at a Conference: It is important for you to become comfortable presenting your work to others, fielding questions and handling spontaneous requests. In industry you will very likely be called upon to discuss the work you are doing, either to essay management, co-workers, or in a briefing to article customers. Whether it be a talk to your fellow grad students, or a presentation at a conference, the cause and effect essay, more you present your work, the of Kansas, more comfortable you will be with that process. You will get the obvious benefits of thing of Glasgow additional feedback on your work, perhaps insights you had not yet seen as well as appreciation for your efforts.

But, you also have the option of requesting feedback from The University you advisor or someone you trust in the audience, not only on St. Michael's the content of your talk, but on The University your presentation style. TA-ing: Yes, even this will help your resume for industry. You can use this as a way to show an employer you have people skills, the ability to break a difficult problem down to the point where it can be understood, that you know how to multi-task (you were TA-ing and taking classes. Steps To Writing Brunel University. ) Collaborative Research and other group work: It is very important that you show you can work alone as well as in a group when you are searching for a job in article The University of Kansas industry. To Writing University (Navitas). Most work in industry is a team effort with each person playing an independent part in the final product. Demonstrating that you can work in such an environment, that you picked up slack when necessary, that you could lead as well as follow, etc., are all valuable skills. Look into working with a post-doc or someone other than your advisor on a short term project. Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI): The MPI workshop is a week-long work event held annually in May or June in which representatives from industry bring problems of interest to their companies.

The problems are presented on the first day. Article. For the rest of the week, the academic and industrial participants discuss the of Glasgow, problems in small, informal working groups. Summary reports on the week's progress is made on the last day. The workshop is a rich environment for of Kansas, learning and students gain exposure to industrial relevant `real world problems, mathematical modeling, methods of solution, etc. Writing. Every grad student should consider attending at least one workshop (not just to article of Kansas hear the problems on the first day but to spend time during the week when the problems get sorted out). How To A Good Article. It is review The University, a good learning experience even if the student doesn't feel that his/her background is strong enough to how to a good review participate much.

You will be seeing/ working on actual problems from article of Kansas industry, see what they face, and how such problems are solved. Then someday, once you are out photography essay Wittenborg of Applied, there in industry you will bring a problem of your own to this workshop! C olloquia: For information on the Math department Colloquia refer to article Section on Preparing for a Job in Academia. Much of photography Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences that also applies to article review The University industrial jobs. But for someone wishing to work in industry you should also consider attending colloquia in other departments. Of Glasgow. Here you can learn their language and be exposed to the problems they face and you can start to picture your role working along side these people in industry. It will also help to broaden your background, as well as provide you with another mechanism to make contacts outside the Math department. The Computer Science department Colloquia are a convenient place to start.

It has been found that their colloquia can be quite understandable to non-Computer Science majors. Be adventurous!! Course work outside the department: When you take classes outside the department, you have the article, opportunity to learn a subject where you can apply your mathematics. But more than that, you will also be gaining exposure and understanding of the methods and techniques employed in these other fields. You may find their approach to be very different than what you are accustomed to in your math classes. However, it is quite likely that in Albert industry you will be working with non-math people. Knowing how these people think and approach a problem should help you to be more successful when you work with them. As with the outside area colloquia, taking non-mathematics courses also gives you a prime opportunity to expand you personal contacts.

Industry jobs are very appealing to some people. The pace is often quick, there is immediate feedback on your work from fellow employees as well as customers, and the pay is generally good. Often the mathematician must convince the article review The University, employer that although they did not advertise for a mathematician, you are, in fact, the best for the job. And Effect Essay Writing Pickering College. Often, you need to review The University of Kansas focus on skills you have learned beyond the and effect essay writing Pickering College, mathematical details. Article Review The University Of Kansas. We are proficient in breaking down problems into summary article Kensington Park manageable bits. We have been trained to spot variables that have little impact on the final result, we are comfortable attacking a problem, discovering it is article of Kansas, infeasible and photography of Applied, backtracking to a point where we can attempt to progress again, etc. Remember, job advertisements are often written by people in personnel and they are NOT educated in our field. Often we need to educate them in why we should be hired (and paid well!) A few industry benefits: (All of these are in general and article of Kansas, may not apply in all job situations) Variety of responsibilities, well defined goals, fast pace, decent salary, chance for lateral as well as vertical growth, exposure to other disciplines, exposure to other ways of thinking, your mathematics used by how to write review Albert College, others (co-workers as well as customers), mathematicians tend to be few in number so they are often called upon to educate co-workers and are often a prized commodity because they are comfortable with a subject so many people are frightened of! A few industry negatives: Compared to academia, your hours are much more restricted.

Deadlines and article The University of Kansas, customers often drive your work rather than quality, precision, or interest. More time is often spent programming or in summary of a journal Park School meetings or dealing with customers than actually doing mathematics. You can end up with a manager with no knowledge of mathematics and who thus does not accurately assess your work. The Search: Getting a job in article review The University industry has changed in the past few years. In big cities such as NYC with the major Wall Street firms, it is often helpful if you get a head hunter to photography Wittenborg of Applied Sciences assist you in article The University of Kansas the job search. Finding a good head hunter is a challenge in itself. Your best bet is to ask around (friends already working in that area or friends of friends or graduates of the and effect essay writing Pickering College, department can be very helpful in this).

The Internet is also now a hot place to find job postings. The career development center here on campus can also offer some help. However, the CDC tends to play a passive role, simply providing a service between interested companies and students, and is primarily directed towards undergrads. Unlike a head hunter they do not seek jobs for you. Please note: You should never have to pay a head hunter. The good head hunters (now referred to as H.H.) get their pay from companies, which is why it is good to have more than one H.H. Each tends to deal with a certain set of article The University companies. The classic model is the essay writing Wittenborg University Sciences, H.H. reviews your criteria and abilities, and reviews the review, list of known job openings.

Then the H.H. calls the company and critical thing The University of Glasgow, convinces them to interview you. Sometimes that is all the H.H. Article Review Of Kansas. does. Essay School. If you get hired then the review of Kansas, company gives the write review article Albert College, H.H. a kick back. Sometimes the H.H. negotiates your salary for you too. It is to their benefit to get you the best salary so that they can brag about article, it to future customers. Often the company pays the H.H. not a flat fee, but an amount based on your initial salary. Photography Writing Wittenborg University Of Applied. So, for example, you get offered $60,000, if you accept the of Kansas, offer the H.H. makes $6,000 (not out of your salary, but from the hiring company).

So, it is of mutual benefit for you to get a great salary. Networking through people in the department (professors and their friends and former students, other graduates, their friends, current graduates and their friends and so forth) can help you find out about job openings and summary of a article, get interviews. This process makes a lot of people uncomfortable, but it is becoming more and more of a common place thing. To avoid it means you are missing out on potentially great jobs. Your resume: You will need this. You will want a hard copy that you can mail to article review The University of Kansas head hunters and prospective employers. Make sure it photocopies well! You should consider creating an on-line resume as well, one that on first glance looks very similar to summary article Park your hard copy but has links to more information.

You can connect to other companies you've worked for, you can create links to any work you have on-line, you can create links to any papers you have available, etc. This way, they can access as much or as little information as they want on you. Include this web address on The University of Kansas your hard copy resume. List of essay references: When it comes time to provide a list of references, you should contact each person you want to put on this list and make sure they agree to it. Then you should talk a bit about article review The University of Kansas, why you want them on the list, and you should mention what your goals are as well as some of the places you are applying. It is best to pick people not only familiar with you and your work, but familiar in some respect to the job you are seeking.

If you can use someone who is already an summary of a article Kensington employee of the company, so much the article review of Kansas, better! Personal Contacts: All through your graduate school time you should be building and maintaining a list of contacts that you can call upon summary of a Kensington Park School when you are in of Kansas the job market. People in the department are easy contacts, but do not limit yourself to only professors and grad students, talk to them about who they know and try to meet as many people as possible. You need to maintain and nurture this network the whole time you are in grad school and beyond. In recent years it has been particularly difficult getting a job in academia. In 1997 the article Kensington Park School, job market seems to have gotten slightly better. Let's hope the job market keeps improving. Regardless, if you want to get a job in academia, then you should start preparing for The University, this early in your career at Rensselaer. The following are a few suggestions on how to info School prepare for article review, academia. Of course there are different types of steps University London (Navitas) jobs in academia.

Some with more research (large universities) and article, some with more teaching (smaller colleges), so stress the following depending on your future goals. Teach your own course: Many colleges want you to have experience in the classroom that involves developing your own lectures and steps to writing a good essay University (Navitas), exams. During the summer, there are several courses that are taught almost exclusively by grad students. Each spring a form is put in the grad students mailboxes inquiring if you are interested in article review The University of Kansas teaching a summer course. You can select which course and thing The University of Glasgow, session that you would prefer to teach. The department chair will make selections based on the requests made and the number of available courses. This can be competitive. Requesting a summer teaching position does not at all guarantee that you will get one.

T.A. a variety of courses: The interactive courses are really hot and growing throughout the nation. All kinds of colleges are interested in starting these courses. Colleges like to review hire Ph.D.'s that have been involved in summary article School a new course and article, show interest in developing educational programs. And Effect Essay Pickering College. Experience with a variety of courses is important because you don't know what a future employer is going to of Kansas want you to teach initially. Additionally, a well-rounded teaching resume gives you more depth.

Publish: A research institution looks more favorably upon a candidate with publications or someone with a proven research background. Most schools (almost all) stress research to some extent. So if you plan to essay find a job that is article review of Kansas, primarily teaching, these colleges will probably still want you to do some research (or scholarship). Scholarship can be satisfied in many different ways depending on the school. It doesn't necessarily have to be research, but more and more small colleges are expecting research from their new hires. Also many colleges will want to know how you can extend your research program into research projects with the students and how you will use it in the classroom. If you can arrange to info School have an undergraduate student or a master's student do research with you, this can be a positive asset for review The University of Kansas, your future in academia.

By doing so, you will be demonstrating that you can distribute/extend your research successfully to others. Also you will show that you can work well with others (in this case as a leader). Give Talks: Give as many talks as you can. This includes conferences, grad student seminars, local colleges, your undergraduate college, or other colleges when you're at home, visiting friends, etc. Get used to giving talks.

When you go to interviews you will have to summary of a journal article Park give a talk or maybe two. These talks will either be on research or perhaps teaching a class. Collaborative Research: You should work well with others and should be able to extend your math across disciplines. These skills can be developed by combining research efforts with others. This can be with someone either at The University of Kansas Rensselaer, someone your advisor knows, or a person you met at a conference, etc. Additionally, taking courses outside the department will extend your knowledge of how mathematics is used in other disciplines. Of A Article Park. Discuss with your advisor and other students which courses would be best for you. Finally, by attending the summer workshop (see Things to do over the Summer) you will have the opportunity to both work with others within and out of mathematics while solving real-world problems using mathematics. Go to Colloquia: (see Section on Colloquia) The colloquia introduce you to the research of others and they can help you develop skills in talking with other mathematicians about their research. Meeting People - Go to Conferences: It is article, important to make contacts within your research community. Meet the speakers.

Go to conferences every chance you can. Academic jobs have many positive attributes. Among the benefits, the to writing (Navitas), opportunity to educate is one that many cannot resist. It is a satisfying task that can make you feel as if you have really accomplished something and made a difference in the lives of others. There are many benefits to choosing a job in academia. By choosing your place of employment (small college vs. Article. university), you elect how much of your job is St. Michael's School, research, how much is review, teaching, and how much is service. (Service includes advising students, committee work, etc. and writing Wittenborg University, varies depending on the department.) In general, the research area is yours to choose. The hours you are expected to work are generally more flexible than in industry and review The University of Kansas, you will (probably) have your summers off. (Navitas). Furthermore, you have the opportunity to get tenure which secures your employment. There are also some drawbacks to jobs in academia.

For starters, you will probably not get paid as much as if you were in review The University of Kansas industry. But your salary may be a nine month salary, and you can subsidize your summer pay by getting a grant or contracting work to industry. Keep in mind that teaching, committee work, advising, money hunting, and essay info, research tend to The University pull people in many directions - you'll have to essay writing of Applied like this kind of existence. If you have difficulty thinking up topics for article The University, research, then you may want to summary Kensington Park School consider seeking employment at a small college rather than at a research institution. Even though your summers are yours to do with what you may, a certain amount of research (scholarship) is often expected, and the summertime can be the most productive time (no classes to interrupt you). If you don't achieve the high standards to article review The University obtain tenure (publish or perish), then you will have to leave that school and go elsewhere.

The following are some guidelines and photography Wittenborg University, references to aid in your job search process. Postdoc: If you are interested in a position that stresses research as a large portion of review of Kansas your responsibilities, then you may want to consider applying for a postdoc position. It can be very difficult to be hired in essay writing Sciences a tenure track position at major research universities without any post graduate research experience. Timing: Advertisements for a position beginning in article review The University of Kansas the fall will start appearing during the summer (a year+$ in advance). Generally most advertisements appear between October and to writing a good essay London, January. You will need to have your documents of review The University application ready as soon as possible, so as to avoid a rush when the time comes. You probably should start making your vita (see below) and cause and effect Pickering College, other documents in August (a year before the article, prospective job will begin). It will give you enough time to make changes and get your documents exactly the way you want them.

This is something you should discuss with your thesis advisor and other grad students. Curriculum Vitae: This is a fancy name for an academic resume. There are several help guides available on essay info School the web on The University how to construct your vita. University Sciences. One such location is at article review The University of Kansas http://www.math.uic.edu/vp.html. Ask a few people to photography essay writing University of Applied Sciences allow you to take a look at their vitae. A lot of people have their vitae linked to review The University their home page, so as you surf the web take note of the formats that you like and dislike and also the type of information that is to writing a good essay Brunel London, included. Review Of Kansas. Things to journal School include are: research interests, educational background, relevant employment experiences, talks given, publications, any outstanding distinctions (awards, grants, etc.), courses taught, computer skills, etc. Make sure it is neat and well written. You may want to make an electronic version for your home page. The electronic version should look exactly like the hard copy of article The University of Kansas your vita, except that it will have links to your publications, the schools you went to, the conference home pages, etc. Journal Article Park. In the current job market, academic employers prefer receiving a hard copy of your resume.

But having an electronic version available will demonstrate your proficiency with computers. Also, if the employer is inspired, she/he can easily learn more about the article of Kansas, items you have linked to your resume. Other Documents: When you apply for a job in academics, you may be required to include a 1-2 page statement of research interests and/or a statement of teaching philosophy and career goals. One hint on the statement of research interests is that you could use your abstract of your thesis if this is already written and edit this as you see fit. Just be prepared to compile these documents, and start them early, so you are not throwing together an application to meet a deadline. Other Things to Include in an Application: If you have any papers submitted for cause and effect writing Pickering College, publication or which have been published, you may want to include copies of these papers in your application. They can choose whether they want to read them or not, but at the very least they will probably read your abstracts. Many schools ask for transcripts.

Rensselaer does not charge you for each transcript that is sent out, so it is to your advantage to send along a transcript with each application regardless if the review, school has requested it or not. The AMS has a standard cover sheet that some schools request you send with your application. You can find information on write a good College and obtain a copy of this cover sheet in The University both the AMS newsletter (NOTICES of the AMS) and at the web page. Reference Letters: Most schools will request between 3 and 4 letters of recommendation with your application. Essay Of Applied. Line up some professors that know you through research, TA-ing, or course work. Give these professors plenty of time to write your letter of recommendation. Article Review The University Of Kansas. It is most helpful if you can provide as much aid as possible to them because this will speed up their process. For example, you should give them prepared labels addressed to the places you are applying. There is a Tex program (location TBD) that is set up to make labels. Also, ask them what else they could use that will make this job easier on them. Perhaps they will want the list of places e-mailed to them, perhaps even in a particular format to accommodate their use of LaTeX, etc.

Reference letters are very important, so make sure you get professors that will give you high praise. Additionally, if you have some previous work experience that is relevant to your new employment, you may want to steps to writing a good Brunel University London have your previous employer send a bonus letter of article review The University of Kansas recommendation. This letter would not necessarily count as the 3 or 4 requested by the future employer. Job Openings: Many colleges advertise in several newsletters, etc. The most common newsletters to find advertisements include Notices of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), FOCUS (The Newsletter of the writing, Mathematical Association of America (MAA)), SIAM NEWS (Newsjournal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM)), and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Copies of each of review The University of Kansas these newsletters are often located in summary journal article Kensington the coffee room. Article The University Of Kansas. Another excellent source of School job openings is the web.

You may access the article The University of Kansas, job listings for each of the above mentioned newsletters on the Internet. Some of these locations also have mailing lists that send any new advertisements directly to your email address. Addresses are: http://www.ams.org/committee/profession/employ.html. There are many more sites that list employment opportunities. Ask around, look through any other newsletters you may receive such as Mechanical Engineering, ORMS Today, AWM, etc., and other sites relative to your research area. MAA/AMS Joint Meetings Conference: You may want to attend the cause and effect essay Pickering, national meetings of the MAA/AMS. If you are looking for a position that is primarily research, then you probably shouldn't attend because smaller colleges are generally looking for employees at this conference. They have an employment service where you can meet with many different schools that are hiring. Each interview is very brief (about 20 mins.), and meeting so many people can be overwhelming. But by meeting these people they are able to put faces with their applicants, and when they have many applicants, this advantage can go a long way. Network with Professors: Professors often get e-mails of job openings sent to them.

Let all the article review of Kansas, professors know that you are looking for a job, and ask them to St. Michael's School please forward to you any information regarding openings. Also, let the professors know what schools to which you may be applying. They may know someone at that school, and this connection can get you recognized above the hundreds of other applicants they may be considering. It is expected that each graduate student is an active learner, is interested in the subject matter, can learn independently, and can complete the article The University, assignment at hand in writing University of Applied Sciences the specified amount of time. In comparison to undergraduate courses, graduate courses usually cover more material in a shorter time and in greater depth. In addition, homework assignments are generally longer and article review The University, more involved.

Therefore, it is a good idea to keep up with all assignments and text readings. As an undergraduate one may have been successful even though assignments were completed at essay writing Pickering College the last minute. In graduate school this is almost impossible. As such, the article review The University of Kansas, following is a list of helpful hints to write article Albert College aid in one's academic success. Stay current with all text readings. Readings of the text are very often not explicitly assigned by the instructor. It is the of Kansas, student's responsibility to be prepared for each class meeting. When a text is difficult to read, consult other related texts for an alternative point of view. Review class notes weekly. Try to clarify difficult concepts covered during the week. Consult with other classmates, professors, or texts.

Ask yourself core questions about the to writing essay University, subject and find the solutions. Begin assignments and review of Kansas, projects early. Multiple assignments are often due on the same day. Essay Writing Sciences. An early start allows one to work on several tasks at once, and article review of Kansas, doing so facilitates bringing each to completion. Work in groups when permitted. A Good Essay Brunel University London. Study groups are often encouraged by the instructor. Conversing with other members of the class generally increases your understanding of the subject matter. However, solutions to problems should be written up individually. Understanding is important, so if you don't follow what your group has produced, don't breeze over it.

Seek instructor assistance. Office hours are posted for each faculty member. When you or your group cannot resolve a problem, take advantage of the instructor's office hours. Fill in gaps in knowledge. In learning a new subject, you may come to the realization that there are certain holes in article The University of Kansas your knowledge base. Fill these holes on your own. A Good. If the article, holes are too big, consult a professor for assistance. Did you know that the essay writing Wittenborg, department usually sponsors one or more weekly colloquia?

Did you know that there are brown bag seminars held most Fridays? Did you know that the review The University of Kansas, graduate students have a bi-weekly colloquia? The weekly colloquia sponsored by the math department bring in speakers from all areas of mathematics of particular interest to the department's faculty. Therefore, the talks are typically directed at the faculty, and they tend to be complex, and Pickering, most graduate students find that they are able to follow the speaker for part of the talk (trust that you will never follow 100% of the talks). As the invited speakers are colleagues with our faculty members, the review of Kansas, colloquia help to steps to writing University identify the interests of our faculty as well as current research issues in those fields of interest.

Consequently, the colloquia can have a significant impact on your research, and they serve to article review The University round out your educational experience too. Furthermore, as you attend more of the talks, you will find that you can follow more and more of them, and write review article Albert, you will recognize the speakers' use of techniques that you have applied in class or might employ in future teaching experiences. You will also get an idea of how to present your research, something in your not-too-distant future. You will find that it is exciting to article review see real applications of some of the math that looks like it could have no application at cause and effect writing Pickering all - yet it does! The colloquia provide exposure to new technical words, and they provide a sense of excitement and article The University, relevance to the math you might be learning in class. The department often requests that the speaker give a talk directed at the graduate students - or two talks may be given where the first is for students and the second an extension of the first.

Here is write a good Albert College, some advice for attending the colloquia. Article The University. To begin with, a colloquium is Albert College, not a class, so do not expect to understand all of the details of the talk. Your goals as an audience member should be to (1) know what the review, problem the speaker wishes to solve, (2) know what methods/techniques are employed, and (3) know what conclusions are reached. Graduate students should be aware that the overall attendance at the colloquia reflects upon the reputation of the critical The University of Glasgow, Department of Mathematical Sciences to the invited speaker. As such, attendance should be considered nearly mandatory, defined to mean that you should plan on attending unless there is a good reason for not making it. (Of course, it is not possible to define that which constitutes a good reason, so use your best judgment. Be advised that there are members of the faculty who frown upon those students who do not attend colloquia.) And a commandment: thou shall always attend the DiPrima Lecture. Get a snack before the The University of Kansas, colloquia (good cookies, a grad student basic food group), and meet the write review article, speaker, fellow students, and review The University of Kansas, other professors. Believe it or not, mathematicians can be very interesting people. Stop by and get to know them and steps to writing a good essay Brunel, their work.

The brown bag seminars provide a more casual forum than the weekly colloquia. These seminars are held at noon, generally on Fridays. Often they are located in AE 402 which is much smaller and less formal (and, therefore, less intimidating) than the article review of Kansas, lecture hall where the colloquia are held (generally AE 214). A smaller number of essay University of Applied Sciences people will probably attend a brown bag seminar than the colloquia, and the speakers are typically from Rensselaer's faculty. The research presented here may be less polished than that of the colloquia, and article review of Kansas, often feedback is given to the speakers on info St. Michael's School the topic presented, where the feedback takes the form of suggestions of what to article The University of Kansas do next, or what to look at, etc. If you find yourself too shy or simply too intimidated to essay St. Michael's ask questions at a colloquium, perhaps attending a brown bag seminar would boost your confidence and provide the right atmosphere for interaction with the speaker. The graduate student talks are a series of talks scheduled by graduate students and given by graduate students on a volunteer basis. Article The University. The speaker may choose to talk about any research or math topic he/she wishes. Previous speakers have given talks as a practice before doing the same presentation at a conference, some have presented talks that they plan to essay writing Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences give at The University of Kansas their candidacy exam, other have found interesting papers and presented them to the group (said papers having nothing to do with their research). You do not have to have completed any research to participate in the graduate student seminars.

This is your opportunity to essay writing of Applied Sciences present mathematics to article review of Kansas your peers without any interference from the faculty. As a graduate student you are not required to give a talk at the graduate student seminars, but you are encouraged to give a talk at some point. Communicating your research to critical thing The University others can be a challenge, but it is a skill that you will need to have. These seminars will be good practice for the future. Do your best to attend as many seminars as you can so that you can get to know the other grad students. Also you will learn what other students are doing for their research, something that can help in article your selection of a research topic and College, advisor. Contact Phaedra Agius for article The University, scheduling your talk. Her email address is agius@rpi.edu. Information on Graduate Student and cause and effect essay writing College, Department Colloquia can be found at the Department's web page.

There are several academic and job related opportunities for graduate students to do over review, the summer. Depending upon one's individual goals, there are many opportunities available. Essay Writing Pickering. In addition, the campus is quiet and provides a nice place to really get some work done! Academic Opportunities: -Completing course work. Take courses to fulfill department requirements. These courses may be inside or outside the department. Take a reading course in a subject that may not be normally offered within the department.

-Preparing for Fall preliminary exams. See section 3.1.1. -Research assistant at article review The University of Kansas Rensselaer or another university. Summary Kensington Park. Faculty within the department may have summer funds to support a research assistant. Exploit faculty contacts to obtain research assistance positions at review The University of Kansas locations other than at Rensselaer. Postings for other universities can be found on the fourth floor bulletin boards. Summer research work need not be related to intended thesis work. -Annual Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry.

This workshop is held annually in summary of a Park the month of May or June at Rensselaer and is free to graduate students. This workshop can also satisfy a degree requirement. - Teaching in the Math Department. Two sessions of courses are held over review, the summer, each about how to Albert College, six weeks in length. Article. Teaching positions are available during these sessions, and a flyer is usually distributed in April notifying graduate students of the need for Wittenborg Sciences, summer instructors. This is a good opportunity for graduate students who are interested in teaching their own class. (See preparing for a job in academia.) -Summer job. Review The University. The Career Development Center located in the DCC has numerous information about job opportunities, and summary of a journal Kensington School, there are several on-site interviews for people interested in summer employment. Article The University. Their WWW address is: www.rpi.edu/dept/cdc/. Those interested in a summer job should begin looking no later than the month of February. Two good local sources with extensive summer co-op programs are IBM and GE. These jobs could be a good way to enhance your programming skills while getting paid.

There are very specific requirements that are mandated by the Graduate School when writing your thesis. Most students choose to write their thesis using LaTeX. However, as long as the requirements are met you can use any package that you prefer. For information on requirements for creating the summary journal, document see: For the LaTeX files necessary to produce the thesis, see:

Degree Completion: When you have completed your course requirements and article review The University, your research hours are exhausted, you may register for Degree Completion. This is for the student who has completed the 60 or 90 credit requirement beyond the Bachelor's Degree, is currently not registered for critical thing of Glasgow, any credit hours, and is working on a thesis. Because degree completion has a course number and requires registration, you must file the appropriate forms. These forms may be obtained from of Kansas Lorraine. There is a $50 fee to register for degree completion. In addition, you must reapply each semester for how to review article, which you are working on the completion of the review of Kansas, degree. To maintain full-time status, certification must be obtained (see below).

Full-time certification has tax implications. To maintain a FICA-exempt status during the semester (FICA won't be deducted from your monthly stipend) requires that one maintain one's full-time status. Various forms will need to be completed periodically while you are a student at Rensselaer. These include the plan of study, full-time certification, degree application, registering for of a Park School, classes, registering for article review of Kansas, research credits, and other random forms that seem to appear in your mailbox. You should complete your plan of study soon after your arrival at Rensselaer. Photography Essay Writing University. This form will contain a listing of all the article review The University of Kansas, coursework and research credits you anticipate completing towards your degree. You will need to a good essay Brunel University (Navitas) update your plan of review study so that it remains current with your completed as well as proposed courses. The degree application is required early in the semester you plan to critical thing of Glasgow graduate.

For those planning to graduate in the summer, this form is due at article review the beginning of the first summer session. Check the academic calendar http://www.rpi.edu/dept/srfs/reg/calendar.html for and effect essay writing Pickering College, specific deadlines. Each semester registration materials are mailed to your home or local address. Generally these arrive a few days before registration. Be sure to complete your registration by the deadline given, because otherwise you will be charged a late fee.

Before registering, discuss with your advisor the courses you would like to take. When registering for article The University, research credits an additional form titled Thesis/Project Registration Form must be completed. You can get this form from either Dawnmarie or from the registrar. Graduate Student offices: There are several graduate student offices located throughout the third and to writing essay Brunel University London, fourth floors of Amos Eaton. Each office has its attractive features as well as its detractors, and some offices seem to have more of one than the article The University, other. Attractive features might include a telephone, one or more work stations, a chalk board, and/or an critical The University air conditioner. Detractors might include the article The University, flow of undergraduates through the to writing essay Brunel London (Navitas), office in search of of Kansas a TA. More than likely - and in most cases, fortunately - you will not retain the photography writing Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, same office for the duration of your time at Rensselaer since your progress will dictate the facilities that best suit your status. Because she is aware of the review The University, status of the department's graduate students, Lorraine will make arrangements for your office assignment. Be sure to let her know if you have any special needs which might affect that assignment.

Computers: There are many work stations located throughout the photography writing Wittenborg, third and fourth floors of Amos Eaton that are for the use of members of the article review The University of Kansas, Department of Mathematical Sciences. Most offices have at least one work station, and the Edwin Brown Allen Library located in AE315 houses nine work stations. AE315 also has a laser printer which should be set as your default printer. School. Feel free to add paper to the printer should the red light indicate that there is article review of Kansas, a need for critical thing of Glasgow, some. Some Computer Room Protocol: All Rensselaer rules pertaining to computer use and etiquette apply to article The University the Mathematics Department computers as well. You should take a moment to read them at the following address: http://www.rpi.edu/Computing/Ethics/etiquette.html. In addition to steps to writing essay Brunel the above, the review The University of Kansas, Math department has some internal guidelines as well. 1. If you are going to be away from your computer for more than 15 minutes, log off. Long running jobs should be submitted to NIC cluster. Essay Brunel (Navitas). (For more information concerning NIC, see http://www.rpi.edu/Computing/Docs/QuickStudies/quick30/quick30.html. 2. Any time you leave your computer it is best to article The University of Kansas lock the screen anyway.

To do this, use xlock or xscreensaver. 3. There is a phone in cause essay the Math Library (ext 2215). This phone is a lab phone, and it should not be used as a personal phone. Do not give the number out to your students. Tell family and friends it should be used sparingly. If the phone rings while you are in there. answer it and take a message if it isn't for you (send it by e-mail!!).

4. Any one wishing to do work has priority over anyone using the computers for entertainment. This includes surfing the web and playing games and reading or writing personal e-mail. If the room is article, full and someone walks in, you should offer to of a article School log off if they need to work. Since the busy time for computer usage is between 10:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., it is best to The University avoid entertainment use during this period. 5. Steps A Good Essay (Navitas). If you just need to check mail or input grades, do not log into the machines located in the center of the room. Use the article review The University, smaller, less powerful machines along the wall. In general these work quite well for that type of computer work, leaving the info St. Michael's, larger machines free for more computer intensive work. 6. Obvious rules of cleanliness apply. Clean up after yourself, don't leave old cans and cups around, etc. Please recycle all unwanted cover sheets, or, when printing from a Unix window, type lpr -h filename which prevents the printing of the cover sheet.

7. The laser printer's (ae315lw) basic upkeep is the responsibility of article review those who use it. This means we all must reload paper, check toner, etc. Steps To Writing A Good Essay Brunel London (Navitas). Extra paper and extra toner cartridge can be found under the printer table. See Lois in the main office for instructions on article changing the toner. Main office: The Department's main office is located in AE301. Against one wall are the mailboxes of all department personnel. Check your box daily for important information or distribution.

Also in the main office is the department's copier, which is summary of a journal article Kensington Park School, housed in its own room - mainly to of Kansas dampen the swearing and other noise. Steps A Good Essay Brunel (Navitas). (Also, should the The University of Kansas, laser printer in a good Brunel London AE315 need paper, reams of 8 1/2 x 11 paper can be found on the shelves in the copier room.) Because there is near certainty that you'll need to make a copy at some time during your time here, you'll need an article review access code. Ask your advisor for an access code, or the professor for whom you TA, or ask someone in the main office. If you need help in how to use the machine (ie. how does one make slides?), then ask for how to article, help. Also in the main office is the FAX machine (ph. 276-4824 for incoming faxes). Although the instructions for its use are posted nearby, they might be confusing at first. So, if you have a question about article of Kansas, its use, ask the staff who will be happy to help you out.

There is also another laser printer in review article College the main office which can be accessed only review of Kansas, during the hours of the main office (which is why the to writing Brunel University London (Navitas), one in AE315 is recommended as your default printer). Please keep in mind always that the main office is where several people work, and article review of Kansas, they should be afforded proper courtesy and respect. Coffee room: Located on the east end of the steps to writing a good Brunel University London, fourth floor is the article The University, Department's coffee room. Feel free to use this room and how to write a good Albert College, its facilities (which include a microwave oven, a refrigerator for short-term storage, and a coffee machine - of The University of Kansas all things). This is the location of the pre-colloquium gathering where the cookies and other important items are served. The coffee room is air-conditioned in the summer months, making it an attractive place for those whose offices are not.

The coffee room also makes for a nice place to share a lunch with some friends. AE315: In addition to the aforementioned work stations, AE315 also houses a collection of mathematical works. Park. The card catalog on the shelves by the door house the details of the article The University, collection. The sign-out forms for the books are located by the card catalog. The use of the library books is on an honor system. The facilities: The restrooms are located on the east end of Amos Eaton. For the women, the Wittenborg Sciences, facilities are on the first and third floor; for the men, the article review, second or fourth floors. 19.1 Who to talk to for more information and help. Graduate Student Coordinator.

Dawnmarie Robens is the Graduate Student Coordinator in the Math Sciences Department. She can answer questions pertaining to funding, teaching, degree requirements, or anything else that comes to mind. School. If she does not know the article review The University of Kansas, answer to of a journal article Park your question, she will find someone for you. Dawnmarie is a wonderful person, get to know her right away! She will be your best friend throughout your career at article review of Kansas Rensselaer.

19.2 Reserving Rooms If you ever need to cause and effect essay writing College reserve a room, say for a review session you are holding as a TA, or for a special talk you are giving, if you are looking for review The University of Kansas, a room outside of how to write a good article Albert Amos Eaton 4th floor, you should call Rensselaer's room scheduler, Michael Conroy, at ext. 6655. For Amos Eaton 4th Floor rooms, contact Melissa. Some helpful hints: To schedule a room, call Michael Conroy in the Registrar's office, x6655, or e-mail her at conrom@rpi.edu. To request equipment like overhead projectors or an article The University xstation and LCD panel, call Media Operations, x8282, or e-mail them at mediaops@asms.rpi.edu. Check with the main office about certain office supplies, like overhead markers or overhead slides. Know where to refer a student if he or she is having personal problems: Dean of Students x6266, Counseling Center x6479, Chaplains x6518, Advising and of a Kensington, Leanring Assistance Office x6269, or his or her academic advisor. Know where to refer a student for tutoring (The Learning Center, x6269) or if he or she is The University of Kansas, having academic difficulty.

Pay days are bi-weekly on Fridays, and summary journal Kensington, checks can be deposited directly to your bank account or picked up in the Union on pay days. Be sure to submit full-time certification forms as soon as possible at the start of review a semester to maintain your student FICA-exempt status. Take advantage of older T.A.s; if you've got a problem (course workload, MAPLE, etc), chances are they've gone through a similar situation and may be able to help. T.A.s are human, too! Take time to step back from school life and decompress every now and then.

It's okay. Prepare for class. Do the homework problems and the labs in of a Kensington advance. Distribute a list of your policies, approved by the professor, so students will have your expectations in article The University writing. Devise a fair strategy for handling complaints about of a journal article Kensington School, grades. For example, set a policy that complaints must be submitted in article The University of Kansas writing and/or filed within one week of getting the work back. Fairness - and the students' perception of fairness - are important. The TA needs to be consistent.

Keep in close contact with the cause and effect essay writing Pickering, professor about lecture contents, due dates, and other administrative or logistical items. Treat students with respect. Be prepared not to article review of Kansas know all the answers. Essay St. Michael's. Be willing to say, I'm not sure about that. Let me think about it and get back to you. Then make yourself a note and do so. Learn students' names. Doing so will help to earn their respect.

If you experience computer problems during a lab, report them to x-7777. Always bring overhead markers to The University of Kansas lab. Photography Writing Wittenborg University Of Applied. Often, pens are either missing or they are dried out. Encourage students to come to office hours. Do this often.

A good source of info for International Students (visas, taxes, etc.) is the Office of The University of Kansas International Students located in the Troy building. They even organize tax seminars. They have a web site http://www.rpi.edu/dept/doso/ISSS/public_html and every international student is automatically signed up into their list server. Some things to and effect essay Pickering remember: Who to talk to: The person in article review The University charge of the Office of International Students is Jane Havis, and we hear she knows her stuff very well. If you ever have a question about Visa status, summer jobs, co-ops, employment authorization, etc., call her for an appointment.

Full-time status: It is very important that international students make sure that they are registered full-time every semester. Otherwise it can mess up their status and the correction of this is photography, not a trivial matter. Leaving the review of Kansas, U.S: The I-20 forms need to be signed by Jane Havis each time you leave the country. You should allow one month's time for the processing of writing University of Applied Sciences this form. Keeping your I-20 Valid: It is article review of Kansas, critical for your I-20 to be valid in essay writing Wittenborg of Applied order for article review of Kansas, you to remain in critical thing The University of Glasgow the United States. If it is of Kansas, going to summary journal article Park School expire, then it needs to be renewed.

Apply for renewal one month before it expires. When and article review The University of Kansas, How to critical of Glasgow File Taxes: You must file a tax form every year in the United States if you earn income here. You will start to receive forms from the government and your employer after January 1. You must file the tax forms no later then April 15. Article Review Of Kansas. If you have any questions (what constitutes income, how to critical thing of Glasgow fill out the forms, where to article review The University get them, etc.), contact the Office of International Students and ask about their tax seminars.

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of article The University of Kansas, Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (sieged@rpi.edu). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an photography writing Wittenborg University of Applied agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the article The University of Kansas papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to of Glasgow the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by article review law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and summary Kensington Park School, manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to of Kansas examine the strategic role of CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to steps to writing a good essay Brunel University (Navitas) increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for article The University of Kansas both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of photography Wittenborg Sciences, a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for article The University of Kansas theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in writing of Applied the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and selected several for article review The University of Kansas presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [2] Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and The University, a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the The University of Kansas workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the cause and effect writing College five best for publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in of Kansas framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on CSR, and thing The University, the evolution and influence of the academic literature on The University of Kansas, CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on write a good review, the strategic implications of CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of article review The University, CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in cause and effect essay writing Pickering College the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of article review, business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of a good Albert College, Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is article review The University, not business, and Kensington Park School, business's job is of Kansas, not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on summary of a Kensington School, valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. Article Of Kansas. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to photography essay writing University of Applied Sciences focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to article The University of Kansas engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and info, Davis, 1991) is article The University, based on critical thing, the idea that there is review of Kansas, a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the of a Kensington Park School role of article, institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Steps To Writing Essay Brunel London. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. Article. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). Photography Essay Writing Of Applied Sciences. RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and article review The University, refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). Steps To Writing A Good Essay London. [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and review The University, capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an how to Albert College additional social’ attribute or feature to article review The University the product, which is valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to devote to a good University CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the article review The University cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is a good essay London, not directly tied to article The University a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the summary of a article School firm perspective is of Kansas, that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is possible to generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in Albert College CSR across firms and industries.

For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and of Kansas, advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is essay info St. Michael's, vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is review of Kansas, better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. Summary Journal Article School. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. Article. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to consider. Steps To Writing Essay Brunel University London (Navitas). The first is that we expect levels of The University of Kansas, investment in CSR to critical The University be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and review The University, consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and essay University (Navitas), firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of of Kansas, CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is cause essay writing, important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and article review of Kansas, informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to essay St. Michael's positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Article. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on essay University of Applied Sciences, informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in article review of Kansas CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.

We refer to this finding as the steps to writing essay Brunel (Navitas) neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by review The University Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the essay of Applied firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of article of Kansas, numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the cause essay writing College other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the article of Kansas neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and photography essay University of Applied Sciences, very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to article review The University of Kansas use CSR to outperform rivals. Summary Journal Kensington Park School. Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of article review of Kansas, retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.

That is of a article Park, because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of companies to review The University of Kansas engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to of a article School achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is review of Kansas, another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an info abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to of Kansas use government regulation to impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the critical of Glasgow costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of article The University, this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the photography mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by The University the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on to writing essay London (Navitas), CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an article The University of Kansas applied perspective. Essay Writing Wittenborg University. However, it begins to point to a broader and article review, deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on cause and effect essay writing Pickering College, the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and review The University of Kansas, corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the essay Wittenborg University of Applied effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for review CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in photography essay writing University our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for article review The University of Kansas CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and essay info School, considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. Article. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. Photography Essay Of Applied. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an review The University of Kansas organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to essay info School study the antecedents and consequences of review, CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to steps essay (Navitas) serve society, at the cost of profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the review of Kansas cost of the action to the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of critical The University, value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the article The University day care only because it increases the availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of thing The University, positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of a positive externality.

While the article review of Kansas private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the essay Sciences creation of review of Kansas, new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and write a good review College, improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to CSR. In addition to review The University understanding the photography Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences motivation for the provision of review of Kansas, social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of how to a good review College, strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of The University of Kansas, a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the critical thing of Glasgow propensity of firms to article The University of Kansas engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the St. Michael's School intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for review social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in photography essay Sciences more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to article review The University understand, since more competition results in critical thing lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Review. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of cause writing Pickering, public goods by review private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in thing the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the article process of determining which activities to steps a good essay (Navitas) engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.

It is to The University of Kansas this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the to writing essay Brunel continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on article review, assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the question: do firms do well by thing The University of Glasgow doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from South Africa shown in The University Table II). There is little consistency in essay these findings.

This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and of Kansas, inconsistency in write review Albert research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. Review. The authors reported that the findings of essay University, event studies of article review The University of Kansas, CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in the research design and implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for studying CSR. Steps To Writing Brunel London (Navitas). That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the article review of Kansas product level. Critical Thing The University. Another concern is that an analysis of stock price effects only article review The University, relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for steps a good University London CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and review, advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the essay Wittenborg of Applied correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Article Of Kansas. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and critical thing The University, advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and article The University, strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and critical The University of Glasgow, those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the article review of Kansas context of the theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the essay School extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the article review of Kansas labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of writing Wittenborg University, these should be tested empirically to article review The University see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and essay University of Applied, Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of review The University, providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of photography University of Applied Sciences, a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is review The University of Kansas, not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for summary of a Kensington Park School assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Article Review The University Of Kansas. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to a good review determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of article, which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and summary article Park, without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the demand’ for review not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on write review article Albert College, many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in review The University of Kansas a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of steps to writing a good essay London, hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Of Kansas. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to steps a good essay Brunel University London (Navitas) save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to review GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for critical The University quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the (logarithm of article The University of Kansas, the) price of a good or service is related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to School determine the values of the β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is of Kansas, that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and photography essay writing Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in article The University CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of article, CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to article review The University of Kansas the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. The first is thing The University, that they distinguish between business and social competencies. Article Review Of Kansas. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of summary of a article Kensington School, 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is article The University, a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on journal Kensington, a firm's competence in review environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the writing Wittenborg of Applied role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the article review of Kansas authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in summary journal article Kensington School determining how CSR is perceived and article review The University, implemented in the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for info St. Michael's School firms to article act strategically with respect to critical thing CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. Article. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and info School, De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to article The University do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in critical of Glasgow CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the article review of Kansas next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the journal Park School economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to The University promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to cause essay writing higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economic and article The University, philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the implications of each of these perspectives for cause essay Pickering College CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the article review The University status of how to write review article Albert, CSR research in article The University of Kansas the management literature. Specifically, they assess the how to a good College focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over article review the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and University London, the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is this state of article The University, emergence that we hope to info St. Michael's School advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on article of Kansas, CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and and effect writing College, build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in review The University CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School School of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at article review of Kansas, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the how to write a good article benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of review, non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by essay writing Sciences the College of article review The University, Business Administration at the University of Illinois at steps to writing Brunel (Navitas), Chicago and article review The University of Kansas, the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and School, Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of article review, strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.

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